Η παρουσίαση φορτώνεται. Παρακαλείστε να περιμένετε

Η παρουσίαση φορτώνεται. Παρακαλείστε να περιμένετε

LAN 401 BEGINNING GREEK I Class X: Verbal Roots and Imperfect.

Παρόμοιες παρουσιάσεις


Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "LAN 401 BEGINNING GREEK I Class X: Verbal Roots and Imperfect."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 LAN 401 BEGINNING GREEK I Class X: Verbal Roots and Imperfect

2 Verbal Roots of the Future & Imperfect 1.1 Verbal Roots and Tense Stems  Root and Stem:  Root = its most basic form λύω < *λυ -- I loose βάλλω < *βαλ -- I throw  Stem = basic form of that verb in particular tense Present stem: βαλλ > βαλλω Future stem: βαλ > βαλ ῶ

3 Verbal Roots of the Future & Imperfect  Relationship of verbal root and present tense stem  Pattern 1 verbs - verbal root = present tense stem  Pattern 2-4 verbs – verbal root is modified when forming pr. tense stem “Root is the basic form of the verb. Stem is the basic form of a verb in a certain tense” Verbal Root Present Stem FutureAorist Stem

4 Verbal Roots of the Future & Imperfect  Pattern 1 – Root not modified: λύσω ποιήσω βλεπ + σω > βλέψω  Pattern 2 – Different forms [irregular]  * ὁ ρα > ὁ ράω - I see  * ὀ π > ὄ ψομαι - I will see  * ἐ ρχ > ἔ ρχομαι - I come  * ἐ λευθ > ἐ λεύσομαι - I will come  *λεγ > λέγω - I say  * ἐ ρ > ἐ ρ ῶ - I will say

5 Verbal Roots of the Future & Imperfect  Pattern 3 – Liquid Futures ( λ, μ, ν, ρ )  Mostly formed regularly except: Slightly different tense formative [- εσ ] Present and future stem slightly different  Future active indicative (liquids): Fut. Act. Stem + tense formative + con. vowel + personal endings μεν + εσ + ο + μεν > μενο ῦ μεν

6 Verbal Roots of the Future & Imperfect  Paradigm of Future Active indicative: Liquid verbTranslation Sg. 1 μεν ῶ I will remain Sg. 2 μενε ῖ ς you will remain Sg. 3 μενε ῖ He/she/it will remain Pl. 1 μενο ῦ μεν We will remain Pl. 2 μενε ῖ τε You will remain Pl. 3 μενο ῦ σι(ν) They will remain

7 Verbal Roots of the Future & Imperfect  Future middle indicative (liquid): Fut. Act. Stem + tense formative + con. Vowel + pas. pers. ending μεν + εσ + ο +μεθα > μενο ῦ μεθα Liquid verbTranslation Sg. 1 μενο ῦ μαι I will remain Sg. 2 μεν ῇ you will remain Sg. 3 μενε ῖ ται He/she/it will remain Pl. 1 μενούμεθα We will remain Pl. 2 μενε ῖ σθε You will remain Pl. 3 μενο ῦ νται They will remain

8 Verbal Roots of the Future & Imperfect  To distinguish between liquid and contract verbs:  Memorize lexical forms  Note final stem consonants  Pay attention to accents – liquid future has circumflex over contracted vowels (except pl. 1 in middle) No contraction on the present tense  Stem change

9 Verbal Roots of the Future & Imperfect  Stem change in liquids:  Present and future stems often different – just a bit  Addition of double consonant: ἀ ποστέλλω > ἀ ποστελ ῶ βάλλω > βαλ ῶ  Addition of iota: α ἴ ρω > ἀ ρ ῶἐ γείρω > ἐ γερ ῶ  Different roots: λέγω > ἐ ρω

10 Verbal Roots of the Future & Imperfect  Pattern 4 – Root Modified Regularly:  Memorize patterns or all tense forms? (a) Roots in a stop  -ιζω/αζω - verbs βαπτίζω -- *βαπτιδ + σω > βαπτίσω  -ασσω verbs ταράσσω -- *ταραχ + σω > ταράξω (I will trouble)

11 Verbal Roots of the Future & Imperfect (b) Double Consonants ἐ κβάλλω -- *εκβαλ > ἐ κβαλ ῶ (c) Letters added and ablaut  Iota added *αρ+ι > α ἴ ρω (pr.) *αρ > ἀ ρ ῶ (fut.)  (ι)σκ * ἀ ποθαν > ἀ ποθν ῃ σκω (pr.) * ἀ ποθαν > ἀ ποθανο ῦ μαι (fut.) *γνω + σκ > γινώσκω (pr.) *γνω > γν ῶ σομαι (fut.)

12 Verbal Roots of the Future & Imperfect  Practice & Exercises:  Workbook p. 75 Parsing Warm-up

13 Verbal Roots of the Future & Imperfect 2.1 Imperfect – English usage  Engl. - one simple past tense – but two aspects Completed Continuous I was studying [continuous] I studied [completed]

14 Verbal Roots of the Future & Imperfect 2.2 Imperfect – Greek usage  Gk. – two past tenses:  Imperfect Continuous action of the past  Aorist Undefined action of the past  Past time in Greek indicated by “augment” A prefix that is similar to “-ed” in English (cf. want-ed)  λύω -- ἔ λυον

15 Verbal Roots of the Future & Imperfect  Primary and secondary endings:  Primary tenses – do not use augment  Secondary tenses – do use the augment  Four sets of personal endings of the Greek verb Other tenses draw from these or their variation Four sets ofpersonal endings Primary active (pr. act.)Secondary active (impf. act.) Primary passive (pr. pas.)Secondary passive (impf. as.)

16 Verbal Roots of the Future & Imperfect 2.3 Imperfect Active Indicative  Augment + present tense stem + connecting vowel + secondary active personal ending ἐ + λυ + ο + ν > ἔ λυον Augment pr. stem con. vow. Act. personal ending

17 Verbal Roots of the Future & Imperfect Impf.act.ind.FormTranslation Sg. 1 ἔ λυον I was loosing Sg. 2 ἔ λυες You were loosing Sg. 3 ἔ λυε(ν) S/he/it was loosing Pl. 1 ἐ λύομεν We were loosing Pl. 2 ἐ λύετε You were loosing Pl. 3 ἔ λυον They were loosing

18 Verbal Roots of the Future & Imperfect 2.4 Imperfect Middle/Passive  Augment + present tense stem + connecting vowel + secondary passive personal ending ἐ + λυ + ο + μην > ἐ λυόμην Augment+pr. stem+ con. vow+pas. personal ending

19 Verbal Roots of the Future & Imperfect Impf.mid/pas.FormTranslation Sg. 1 ἐ λυόμην I was being loosed Sg. 2 ἐ λύου You were being loosed Sg. 3 ἐ λύετο S/he/it was being loosed Pl.1 ἐ λυόμεθα We were being loosed Pl. 2 ἐ λύεσθε You were being loosed Pl. 3 ἐ λύοντο They were being loosed

20 Verbal Roots of the Future & Imperfect 2.5 Characteristics of Imperfect Verbs Augment  Indicates past time  Ways to augment a verb: 1.) Verb begins with a consonant – epsilon [ ἐ -] λύω  ἔ λυον 2.) Verb begins with a single vowel – vowel lengthens ἀ γαπάω  ἠ γάπων Standard patterns of vowel contractions apply (see p. 186)

21 Verbal Roots of the Future & Imperfect 3.) Verb begins with a diphthong - variation  ε ὐ χαριστέω  η ὐ χαρίστουν [1 st letter of diphthong]  ε ὑ ρίσκω  ε ὕ ρισκον [ευ- verbs generally do not change ] Augment < Original ῃ < αιηυ < αυ ῃ < ει ηυ < ευ ῳ < οι

22 Verbal Roots of the Future & Imperfect Compound Verbs  Compound verb = preposition + verb Generally augment is placed b/w prep. and the verb  καταβάινω  κατέβαινον  περιπατέω  περιεπάτουν [exception with περί- ]  ἐ κβάλλω  ἐ ξέβαλλον [exception with ἐ κ- ]

23 Verbal Roots of the Future & Imperfect Contract verbs ἀ γαπάω ποιέωπληρόω Sg. 1 ἠ γάπων ἐ ποίουν ἐ πλήρουν Sg. 2 ἠ γάπας ἐ ποίεις ἐ πλήρους Sg. 3 ἠ γάπα ἐ ποίει ἐ πλήρου Pl. 1 ἠ γαπ ῶ μεν ἐ ποιο ῦ μεν ἐ πληρο ῦ μεν Pl. 2 ἠ γαπ ᾶ τε ἐ ποιε ῖ τε ἐ πληρο ῦ τε Pl. 3 ἠ γάπων ἐ ποίουν ἐ πλήρουν MiddlePassive Sg. 1 ἠ γαπώμην ἐ ποιο ῦ μην ἐ πληρούμην Sg. 2 ἠ γαπ ῶἐ ποιο ῦἐ πληρο ῦ Sg. 3 ἠ γαπ ᾶ το ἐ ποιε ῖ το ἐ πληρο ῦ το Pl. 1 ἠ γαπ ῶ μεθα ἐ ποιούμεθα ἐ πληρούμεθ α Pl. 2 ἠ γαπ ᾶ σθε ἐ ποιε ῖ σθε ἐ πληρο ῦ σθε Pl. 3 ἠ γαπ ῶ ντα ἐ ποιο ῦ ντο ἐ πλήρο ῦ ντο

24 Verbal Roots of the Future & Imperfect Imperfect of ἐ ιμί FormTranslation Sg.1 ἤ μην I was Sg. 2 ἦςἦς You were Sg. 3 ἦνἦν S/he/it was Pl. 1 ἦ μεν / ἤ μεθα We were Pl. 2 ἦ τε You were Pl. 3 ἦ σαν They were

25 Verbal Roots of the Future & Imperfect  Practice & Exercises:  Workbook p. 83 Parsing Warm-up  Homework:  p. 77, no: 8-10  P , no: 6, 8-10


Κατέβασμα ppt "LAN 401 BEGINNING GREEK I Class X: Verbal Roots and Imperfect."

Παρόμοιες παρουσιάσεις


Διαφημίσεις Google