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LAN 401 BEGINNING GREEK I Class IX: Present Middle/Passive Ind. and Future Active/Middle Ind.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "LAN 401 BEGINNING GREEK I Class IX: Present Middle/Passive Ind. and Future Active/Middle Ind."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 LAN 401 BEGINNING GREEK I Class IX: Present Middle/Passive Ind. and Future Active/Middle Ind.

2 Present Middle and Passive Indicative 1.1 Introduction to Voice  There are two voices in English  Active – subject performs the action Peter sees the messenger  Passive - subject is being acted upon The messenger is being seen by Peter

3 Present Middle and Passive Indicative 1.2 Voice in Greek  Greek has three voices  Active  Passive  Middle  Active - subject performs the action ὁ Πέτρος βλέπει τ ὸ ν ἄ γγελον [The] Peter sees the angel/messenger

4 Present Middle and Passive Indicative  Passive - subject is being acted upon by an agent ἄ γγελος βλέπεται ὑ π ὸ το ῦ Πετρο ῦ Angel is being seen by [the] Peter  Middle - subject participates in the action ὁ ἄ γγελος βλέπεται The angel sees himself

5 Present Middle and Passive Indicative  Greek passive and middle voice (pr. ind.)  Same form  Use context to determine translation  To form middle and passive forms: Present stem+ connecting vowel + Mid/Pass. ending λυ- ο- μαι = λύομαι I am loosing myself (Mid.)/ I am being loosed

6 Present Middle and Passive Indicative Pr. Mid. Sing.Pl. λύομαι I am loosing myself λύομεθα We are loosing ourselves λύ ῃ [λυ+ε+σαι > λυεαι > λυηι > λύ ῃ ] You are loosing yourself λύεσθε You are loosing yourselves λύεται He is loosing himself λύονται They are loosing themselves Infinitive λύεσθαι To be loosing oneself

7 Present Middle and Passive Indicative Pr. Pass. Sing.Pl. λύομαι I am being loosed λύομεθα We are being loosed λύ ῃ You are being loosed λύεσθε You are being loosed λύεται He is being loosed λύονται They are being loosed Infinitive λύεσθαι To be loosed

8 Present Middle and Passive Indicative 2.1 Function of the middle voice  Several shades of meaning – the basic ones are: (a) Direct Middle  The reflexive use – nearest to basic idea ὁ ἄ νθρωπος ἐ γείρεται The man raises himself up

9 Present Middle and Passive Indicative  The reciprocal use – a plural subject engages in an interchange of action ο ἱ ἄ νθτρωποι διδάσκονται The men are teaching one another (b) Indirect Middle  Subject is acting with reference to itself OR on behalf of itself λαμβάνεται δ ῶ ρα She is taking for herself gifts

10 Present Middle and Passive Indicative (c) Intensive Middle  The stress is on the agent producing the action - use “self” διδάσκεται τ ὴ ν ἀ λήθειαν He himself is teaching the truth (Nobody else is teaching)

11 Present Middle and Passive Indicative (d) Deponent/Defective Middle Defective/deponent – appear in the middle but active in function ἔ ρχομαι ἐ κ τ ῆ ς ἐ κκλησίας I come from the church  Deponent – always looks like pass/mid. Always active in meaning  Recognition – check lexical form Always listed with mid/pass ending Parsing – ‘deponent’ or ‘middle’

12 Present Middle and Passive Indicative 2.2 Function of the Passive Voice  Four distinct uses of passive in Greek (a) Direct Agent - most common usage in NT  Preposition ὑ πο with gen. case διδάσκεται ὑ π ὸ το ῦ ἀ γγέλου He is being taught by the angel

13 Present Middle and Passive Indicative (b) Intermediate agent  Preposition δία with genitive case πάντα δι’ α ὐ το ῦ ἐ γένετο All things through him were made John 1:3  Christ is the intermediary agent ; God is the original agent

14 Present Middle and Passive Indicative (c) Impersonal agent  Instrumental case with or without the preposition ἐ ν ο ἱ ἄ ντθρωποι σ ῳ ζονται ἐ ν τ ῶ λόγ ῳ το ῦ Μεσσίου The men are being saved by the word of the Messiah (d) No agent expressed ἐ γείρεται He is being raised up

15 Present Middle and Passive Indicative 2.3 Present Mid/pass. Contract forms - άω- έω- όω Sg. 1 ἀ γαπ ῶ μαιποιο ῦ μαιπληρο ῦ μαι Sg. 2 ἀ γαπ ᾷ ποι ῇ πληρο ῖ Sg. 3 ἀ γαπ ᾶ ταιποιε ῖ ταιπληρο ῦ ται Pl. 1 ἀ γαπώμεθα ποιούμεθαπληρούμεθ α Pl. 2 ἀ γαπ ᾶ σθεποιε ῖ σθεπληρο ῦ σθε Pl. 3 ἀ γαπ ῶ νταιποιο ῦ νταιπληρο ῦ νται

16 Present Middle and Passive Indicative 3.1 The Cases for Object of Verbs  Regular case for direct object is accusative  Some Greek verbs take objects in other genitive or dative dat. ἀ ποκρίνομαι το ῖ ς τέκνοις – I am answering the children dat. ἐ πιστεύσεν δ ὲ Αβρα ὰ μ τ ῶ θε ῶ - Abraham believed God inf. ἄ ρχομαι βλέπειν - I am beginning to see gen. ἀ κούω το ῦ λόγου – I am hearing the word

17 Present Middle and Passive Indicative  Practice:  p. 67  Warm-up  Parsing

18 Future Active/Middle Indicative Introduction – Future tense in English  To form a future tense in English:  “shall” or “will” to the present verb “shall” is rarely used today [for 1 st person]  I eat  I will eat

19 Future Active and Middle Indicative 4.1 Future Forms – Active and Middle Forming future tense  Future active and middle are built on present stem  Future passive is built on different stem!  Future tense – strongest time emphasis of Greek tenses Basic idea (Pattern 1) Active: λυ (present stem)- σ (tense formative) – ω (active ending) = λυ-σ-ω  λύσω (I will loose)

20 Future Active Indicative SingularPlural λύσω I will loose λύσομεν We will loose λύσεις You will loose λύσετε You will loose λύσει (s)he/it will loose λύσουσι(ν) They will loose Infinitive λύσειν To loose

21 Future Active/Middle Indicative 4.2 Contract Verbs and minor irregularities  The contract vowel lengthens before tense formative ἀ γαπα + σ + ω > ἀ γαπήσω ποιε +σ + ω > ποιήσω πληρο + σ + ω > πληρώσω

22 Future Active/Middle Indicative  Other exceptions follow a familiar pattern: βλεπ + σω > βλέψω Labial: πσ, βσ, φσ > ψ γραφ + σω > γράψω διωκ +σω > διώξω Velar: κσ, γσ, χσ > ξ αγ+σω > ἄ ξω βαπτιδ + σω > βαπτίσω Dental: τσ, δσ, θσ > σ πειθ +σω > πείσω

23 Future Active/Middle Indicative 5.1 Future Middle Indicative  Middle voice is different from active and passive in the future! (cf. present)  Future middle: future active stem but mid/pass. endings! Future Middle: λυ (present stem)- σ (tense formative)- ομαι (Middle ending) = λυ-σ-ομαι  λύσομαι (I will loose myself)

24 Future Middle Indicative SingularPlural λύσομαι I will loose myself λυσόμεθα We will loose ourselves λύσ ῃ you will loose yourself λύσεσθε You will loose yourselves λύσεται He/she/it will loose himself λύσονται They will loose themselves

25 Future active and Middle Indicative 5.2 Future Indicative of ε ἰ μί  ε ἰ μί has no middle or passive function in the future tense Singular Plural ἔ σομαι I will be ἐ σόμεθ α We will be ἔσῃἔσῃ You will be ἔ σεσθε You will be ἔ σται (s)he/it will be ἔ σονται They will be

26 Future active and Middle Indicative 5.3 Overview of Greek Tenses  Five tenses (and seven forms) of koine Greek  Lexicon listing – sg.1 in the 5-7 basic tenses/forms of the verb E.g. λύω [pr.], λύσω [fut.act.], ἔ λυσα [aor.act.], λέλυκα [pf.act.], λέλυμαι [pf.mid/pass.], ἐ λύθην [aor.pass.] GreekTense/voiceTranslation ἀ γαπάω PresentI love ἠ γάπων ImperfectI was loving ἀ γαπήσω Future activeI will love ἠ γάπησα Aorist activeI loved ἠ γάπηκα Perfect activeI have loved ἠ γάπημαι Perfect passiveI have been loved ἠ γαπήθην Aorist passiveI was loved

27 Future Active/Middle Indicative  Practice:  p. 71  Warm-up and parsing  Homework:  p. 69, no: 7-9  p. 73, no: 7-10


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