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LAN 402 BEGINNING GREEK II Class II – Aorist and Future Passive & Perfect.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "LAN 402 BEGINNING GREEK II Class II – Aorist and Future Passive & Perfect."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 LAN 402 BEGINNING GREEK II Class II – Aorist and Future Passive & Perfect

2 Aorist & Future Pass and Perfect 1.1 Aorist Passive Past passive and future passive in English  Past passive in English Was/were + past participle I was flunked by my Hebrew teacher  Future passive in English “Will be” + past participle I will be flunked by my Hebrew teacher

3 Aorist & Future Pass and Perfect First Aorist Passive  Translated with helping verb “was/were” Aorist = undefined aspect τότε ἐ πληρώθη τ ὸ ῥ ηθ ὲ ν δι ὰ Ἰ ερεμίου το ῦ προφήτου (Mt 2:17) Then was fulfilled what was spoken by the prophet Jeremiah ἐ + λυ + θη + ν Aug.+ aor. pass. stem+ tense form. (θη) + second act. end.  ἐ λύθην

4 Aorist & Future Pass and Perfect  Paradigm – 1 st Aor. pass. ind. 1 st aor pass tense generally same as present stem & root 1 st aor pass.TranslationImpf. Act. Sg. 1 ἐ λύθην I was loosed ἔ λυον Sg. 2 ἐ λύθης You were loosed ἔ λυες Sg. 3 ἐ λύθη s/he was loosed ἔ λυε Pl. 1 ἐ λύθημεν We were loosed ἐ λύομεν Pl. 2 ἐ λύθητε You were loosed ἐ λύετε Pl. 3 ἐ λύθησαν They were loosed ἔ λυον

5 Aorist & Future Pass and Perfect  Lexical entry = 6 th form  Stems ending in stop  Stops change when followed by theta as follows: πθ  φθ βλεπ + θη  ἐ βλέφθην βθ  φθ ἐ λημβ + θη  ἐ λήμφθην κθ  χθ διωκ + θη  ἐ διώχθην γθ  χθ αγ + θη  ἤ χθην τθ  σθ βαπτιδ + θη  ἐ βαπτίσθην θθ  σθ πειθ + θη  ἐ πείσθην

6 Aorist & Future Pass and Perfect nd Aor passive indicative Aug.+ aor. pass. stem+ tense form. (η) + second act. end. ἐ + γραφ + η + μεν  ἐ γράφημεν  NT has only 32 words in 2 nd aorist passive γράφω has the same stem in 2 nd aor and present ἔ γραφον/-ομην (impf), ἔ γραψα (aor. act), ἐ γράφην (aor. pass)

7 Aorist & Future Pass and Perfect 2 nd aor passTranslation1 st aor pass Sg. 1 ἐ γράφην I was written ἐ λύθην Sg. 2 ἐ γράφης You were written ἐ λύθης Sg. 3 ἐ γράφη s/he was written ἐ λύθη Pl. 1 ἐ γράφημε ν We were written ἐ λύθημεν Pl. 2 ἐ γράφητε You were written ἐ λύθητε Pl. 3 ἐ γράφησα ν They were written ἐ λύθησαν

8 Aorist & Future Pass and Perfect  In 2 nd aorist passive Stem same as in present OR Stem same as in aorist active OR Different from both  Memorize personal endings and tense formative!

9 Aorist & Future Pass and Perfect 1.2 Future Passive  1 st Future Passive:  Future passive is formed from aorist passive tense stem  No augment  Middle/passive endings Aor pass stem+ tense form ( θησ )+ conct. vowel+ prim m/p endings λυ + θησ + ο + μαι  λυθήσομαι

10 Aorist & Future Pass and Perfect 1 st fut passTranslationFut mid Sg. 1 λυθήσομαι I’ll be loosed πορεύσομαι Sg. 2 λυθήσ ῃ You’ll be loosed πορεύσ ῃ Sg. 3 λυθήσεται s/he’ll be loosed πορεύσεται Pl. 1 λυθησόμε θα We’ll be loosed πορευσόμε θα Pl. 2 λυθήσεσθ αι You will be loosed πορεύσεσθ ε Pl. 3 λυθήσοντ αι They will be loosed πορεύσοντ αι

11 Aorist & Future Pass and Perfect  2 nd Future Passive: Aor pass stem + tense form ( ησ ) + con vowel + prim. m/d endings ἀ ποσταλ + ησ + ο + μαι  ἀ ποσταλήσομαι 2 nd fur pasTranslationEndings Sg. 1 ἀ ποσταλήσομαι I’ll be sent μαι Sg. 2 ἀ ποσταλήσ ῃ You’ll be sent σαι Sg. 3 ἀ ποσταλήσεται s/he’ll be sent ται Pl. 1 ἀ ποσταλησόμεθα We’ll be sent μεθα Pl. 2 ἀ ποσταλήσεσθε You’ll be sent σθε Pl. 3 ἀ ποσταλήσονται They’ll be sent νται

12 Aorist & Future Pass and Perfect  Practice:  pp. 95 Parsing Warm-up

13 Aorist & Future Pass and Perfect 2.1 Perfect indicative  English – no exact counterpart  Pf. = something that happened in the past Accurate up to now [“I have written”]  Pr. pass. Action w/ current consequences [“It is written”]  Meaning of Greek Perfect  “action that was brought to completion and whose effects are felt in the present” E.g. “Jesus died” [aor.] “Jesus has died” [pf.] “It is written” [pf.] indicates present implication

14 Aorist & Future Pass and Perfect  Translation – use context to pick best translation E.g. “have/has” + past participle θυγάτηρ, ἡ πίστις σου σέσωκεν σε. ὕ παγε ε ἰ ς ε ἰ ρήνην (Mk 5:34) Daughter, your faith has saved you. Go in peace.  English present tense when context implies that current implication are being emphasized μετανο ῖ ετε. ἤ γγικεν γ ὰ ρ ἡ βασιλεία τ ῶ ν ο ὐ ραν ῶ ν (Mt 3:2) Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is near

15 Aorist & Future Pass and Perfect  Paradigm: Perfect Active Indicative Reduplication + pf act stem + tense form ( κα ) + prim act endings λ + ε + λυ + κα + μεν  λελύκαμεν Pf. ActTranslationAor. Act. Sg. 1 λέλυκα I have loosed ἔ λυσα Sg. 2 λέλυκας You have loosed ἔ λυσας Sg. 3 λέλυκε(ν) s/he has loosed ἔ λυσε(ν) Pl.1 λελύκαμεν We have loosed ἐ λύσαμεν Pl. 2 λέλυκατε You have loosed ἐ λύσατε Pl. 3 λελύκασι(ν) /λέλυκαν They have loosed ἔ λυσαν

16 Aorist & Future Pass and Perfect  Paradigm: Perfect middle/passive Indicative Reduplication + pf. Mid/pass stem + prim m/p endings λ + ε + λυ + μαι  λέλυμαι  NOTE: no tense formative or connecting vowel! Pf mid/pass.TranslationPr. Mid/pass Sg.1 λέλυμαι I’ve been loosed λύομαι Sg. 2 λέλυσαι You’ve been loosed λύ ῃ Sg. 3 λέλυται s/he has been loosed λύεται Pl. 1 λελύμεθα We’ve been loosed λυόμεθα Pl. 2 λέλυσθε You’ve been loosed λύεσθε Pl. 3 λέλυνται They’ve been loosed λύονται

17 Aorist & Future Pass and Perfect  Basic rules for reduplication: 1) Consonantal reduplication If verb begins w/ single consonant  consonant reduplicated and epsilon placed in between consonants λύω  λελυ-  λέλυκα φ, χ, θ  π, κ, τ φανερόω  φεφανερο-  πεφανέρωκα χαρίζομαι  χεχαριζ-  κεχάρισμαι θεραπεύω  θεθεραπευ-  τεθεράπευμαι

18 Aorist & Future Pass and Perfect 2) Vocalic reduplication  If verb begins with a vowel/diphthong, vowel is lengthened [cf. augment in aor/impf] ἀ γαπάω  ἠ γάπηκα α ἰ τέω  ᾔ τηκα ε ὑ ρίσκω  ε ὕ ρηκα [diphthong often does not reduplicate] (γινώσκω) – γνω  ἔ γνωκα [two consonants - vocalic] 3) Compound verb  Reduplicates the verbal part of the compound verb  ἐ κβάλλω  ἐ κβέβληκα

19 Aorist & Future Pass and Perfect  Second perfect  Identical to the first except tense formative is -α not -κα ἀ κούω  ἀ κήκοα γίνομαι  γέγονα λαμβάνω  ε ἴ ληφα γράφω  γέγραφα ἔ χρχομαι  ἐ λήλυθα No second perfect middle/passive

20 Present Middle and Passive Indicative 2.2 Function of the middle voice  Several shades of meaning – the basic ones are: (a) Direct Middle  The reflexive use – nearest to basic idea ὁ ἄ νθρωπος ἐ γείρεται The man raises himself up

21 Present Middle and Passive Indicative  The reciprocal use – a plural subject engages in an interchange of action ο ἱ ἄ νθρωποι διδάσκονται The men are teaching one another (b) Indirect Middle  Subject is acting with reference to itself OR on behalf of itself λαμβάνεται δ ῶ ρα She is taking for herself gifts

22 Present Middle and Passive Indicative (c) Intensive Middle  The stress is on the agent producing the action - use “self” διδάσκεται τ ὴ ν ἀ λήθειαν He himself is teaching the truth (Nobody else is teaching)

23 Present Middle and Passive Indicative (d) Deponent/Defective Middle Defective/deponent – appear in the middle but active in function ἔ ρχομαι ἐ κ τ ῆ ς ἐ κκλησίας I come from the church  Deponent – always looks like pass/mid. Always active in meaning  Recognition – check lexical form Always listed with mid/pass ending Parsing – ‘deponent’ or ‘middle’

24 Aorist & Future Pass and Perfect 2.3 Advanced information  Stems ending in stop – significant changes Other examples see p. 234 Labial πβφ Pers. End Sg. 1 -μαιγέγραμμαι Sg. 2 -σαιγέγραψαι Sg. 3 -ταιγέγραπται Pl. 1 -μεθαγεγράμμεθα Pl. 2 -σθεγέγραφθε Pl. 3 -νται ε ἰ σ ὶ γεγραμμένοι

25 Aorist & Future Pass and Perfect 2.4 Pluperfect  28 verbs in NT occurring 86 times total  Meaning: action completed with effects felt at the time of the completion but before the time of the speaker Perfect tense stem with preceding reduplication augments Augment not always present Tense formative ( κ ) or none Connecting vowels ει and secondary endings

26 Aorist & Future Pass and Perfect Active1 st pluperfect2 nd pluperfect Sg. 1 ( ἐ )λελύκειν ( ἐ )γεγράφειν Sg. 2 ( ἐ )λελύκεις( ἐ )γεγράφεις Sg. 3 ( ἐ )λελύκει(ν)( ἐ )γεγράφει(ν) Pl. 1 ( ἐ )λελύκειμεν( ἐ )γεγράφειμεν Pl. 2 ( ἐ )λελύκειτε( ἐ )γεγράφειτε Pl. 3 ( ἐ )λελύκεισαν( ἐ )γεγράφεισαν Middle passive1 st pluperfect Sg. 1 ( ἐ )λελύμην Sg. 2 ( ἐ )λέλυσο Sg. 3 ( ἐ )λέλυτο Pl. 1 ( ἐ )λελύμεθα Pl. 2 ( ἐ )λέλυσθε Pl. 3 ( ἐ )λέλυντο

27 Aorist & Future Pass and Perfect Practice and homework:  Pp. 99  Parsing & warm-up  Homework:  P. 97, no: 8-10  P


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