2 Principal Parts 1 2 3 4 5 6 Present Active (Deponent) Future Active (Deponent)Aorist Active (Deponent)Perfect ActivePerfect M/PAorist PassivePresent Active & M/P/D Imperfect Active & M/P/DFuture Active and M/DAoristActive and M/DPerfect and Pluperfect ActivePerfect and Pluperfect M/P& Future Passiveσῴζωγίνομαισώσωγενήσομαιἔσωσαἐγενόμηνσέσωκαγέγονασέσωσμαιγεγένημαιἐσώθηνἐγενήθην
3 Greek Perfect TenseThe Greek Perfect denotes an action completed in the past, but the focus is on its result or continued status into the present.What did you do yesterday? I was studying Greek. (IMPERFECT)Why do you look so tired? I have been studying Greek. << PERFECT
4 Greek Perfect Tense Mark 16.6 NRSV: “You are looking for Jesus of Nazareth, who was crucified. He has been raised; he is not here….NIV: You are looking for Jesus the Nazarene, who was crucified. He has risen! He is not here.NAS: you are looking for Jesus the Nazarene, who has been crucified. He has risen; He is not here…”GREEK: Ἰησοῦν ζητεῖτε τὸν Ναζαρηνὸν τὸν ἐσταυρωμένον· ἠγέρθη, οὐκ ἔστιν ὧδε·
12 Greek Verbs PERFECT MIDDLE/PASSIVE INDICATIVE λυ λύ SingularPlural1stλυλύ2nd3rdStart with the stem
13 Greek Verbs PERFECT MIDDLE/PASSIVE INDICATIVE λέλυ λελύ SingularPlural1stλέλυλελύ2nd3rdReduplicate the first letter
14 Greek Verbs PERFECT MIDDLE/PASSIVE INDICATIVE λέλυμαι λελύμεθα λέλυσαι SingularPlural1stλέλυμαιλελύμεθα2ndλέλυσαιλέλυσθε3rdλέλυταιλέλυνταιAdd the Primary Mid/Pass Endings directly to the STEM
15 Be aware of contractions with the Stem and endings Greek VerbsPERFECT MIDDLE/PASSIVE INDICATIVESingularPlural1stπεπεισμαιπεπεισμεθα2nd3rdγεγραπταιBe aware of contractions with the Stem and endings
16 Greek Pluperfect Tense The Greek Pluperfect denotes an action completed prior to some point in the past, with the focus on its result or continued status up to that point.(It’s like a ‘past’ tense of the Perfect.)I had studied Greek when I was a child.
29 PERFECT ACTIVE INFINITIVE λελυκέναι – to have loosened PRESENT INFINITIVEλύειν - λύεσθαι – to be loosening / to keep on being loosened1st AORIST INFINITIVEλῦσαι – λύσασθαι – to loosen / to be loosened2nd AORIST INFINITIVEλαβεῖν – λαβέσθαι – to take / to be takenAORIST PASSIVE INFINITIVEλυθῆναι – to be loosenedβληθῆναι – to be thrownPERFECT ACTIVE INFINITIVEλελυκέναι – to have loosenedPERFECT MIDDLE/PASSIVE/DEPONENT INFINITIVEλελύσθαι – to have been loosened (passive)
30 PERFECT REDUPLICATION When verb begins with:Most consonants > simple reduplication πεπιστευκα λελυκαVowel / diphthong > lengthen the vowel / diphthong ἀγαπαω> ἠγαπηκαAspirated consonant (φ θ χ) > reduplicated with corresponding unaspirated consonant θεραπευω > τεθεραπευκα φιλεω > πεφιληκαDouble consonant (ψ ζ ξ) or two consonants > reduplicate with ἐ (yes, it looks just like an augment) ζητεω > ἐζητηκα σταυροω > ἐσταυρωμαιIrregulars: See section 105, page 86f.
31 ANALYSIS ἤγγικεν ἐγνώκειτε σέσωκέν προείρηκα ἐξεληλύθει γεγονέναι (for Inf, no Pers/#)PERS 1 2 3# S PTENSE Pres, Impf, Aor, FutMOOD Ind InfVOICE Act Mid Dep PassTRANSἤγγικενἐγνώκειτεσέσωκένπροείρηκαἐξεληλύθειγεγονέναι
32 TENSE Pres, Impf, Aor, Fut, Pf, Plpf ANALYSIS(for Inf, no Pers/#)PERS 1 2 3# S PTENSE Pres, Impf, Aor, Fut, Pf, PlpfMOOD Ind InfVOICE Act M D PTRANSἤγγικεν3SPfINDActit has drawn nearἐγνώκειτε2PPlpfyou had knownσέσωκένs/he has savedπροείρηκα1I have spoken beforeἐξεληλύθειs/he had gone outγεγονέναιINFto have become