Aorist Simple past tense (all indicative forms have an augment). Formed in one of two ways (1 st or 2 nd ). 1 st and 2 nd aorist have to do with form, not function. Function is identical regardless of which way a verb produces its aorist forms.
Identifying Aorist Forms 2 nd Aorist Secondary Endings. Augment. Stem Change from Present Stem.
Reference Materials for 2 nd Aorist Stems Mary’s Handout, “Top 20 Irregular Verbs” (3 rd Principal Part = Aorist Active/Middle Stem). Mounce’s Lists Textbook, “Second Aorists,” pp. 382-83. Laminated Sheet, “Principal Parts of Common Verbs,” back page, top. Biblical Greek: A Compact Guide, “Chart of Tense Forms,” pp. 135-153.
Identifying Aorist Forms 2 nd Aorist Secondary Endings. Augment. Stem Change from Present Stem. 1 st Aorist Secondary Endings. Augment. σα Tense Formative between Stem and Connecting Vowel.
Summarizing 1 st Aorist Forms Patterns for AoristExample PresentAorist 1 st Aorist ἀ κούω ἤ κουσα 1 st Aorist Contract Stems ἀ γαπάω ἠ γάπησα 1 st Aorist Stem Ends in a Stopβλέπω ἔ βλεψα 1 st Aorist Stem Ends in Liquid Consonant κρίνω ἔ κρινα Mounce Textbook, pp. 210-11. At the end of ch. 23 vocabulary.
Translating Aorist Translate with simple past in English. ἐ πιστευσα – I believed. ἔ μειναν - They remained.