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LAN 402 BEGINNING GREEK II Class IX: Imperative. Imperative 1.1 Imperative  In English – second person command You! No inflection  In Greek similar.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "LAN 402 BEGINNING GREEK II Class IX: Imperative. Imperative 1.1 Imperative  In English – second person command You! No inflection  In Greek similar."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 LAN 402 BEGINNING GREEK II Class IX: Imperative

2 Imperative 1.1 Imperative  In English – second person command You! No inflection  In Greek similar but with greater range of meaning Second and third person – difficulty translating Pr., aor., [pf. x4 in NT] ASPECT not time is significant pr. = continuous; aor. = undefined

3 Imperative 1.2 Forming imperative – present and aorist imp.  Second singular needs to be memorized Pr. stem+ con. vowel+ imperative morpheme λυ+ ε+ τω  λυέτω  Unaugmented aor. stem+ tense form+ imp. morpheme λυ+ σα+ τω  λυσάτω

4 Imperative  Morpheme chart Pr. act. and aor. pass.Pr./Aor. Middle/passive Sg. 2 ?? Sg. 3 - τω-σθω Pl. 2 - τε-σθε Pl. 3 - τωσαν-σθωσαν

5 Imperative  Paradigm – imperative ActivePresent1 st Aor.Translation Sg. 2 λῦελῦελ ῦ σον (You) loose Sg. 3 λυέτωλυσάτω Let him loose Pl. 2 λύετελύσατε (You) loose Pl. 3 λυέτωσα ν λυσάτωσα ν Let them loose

6 Imperative Mid.Present1 st Aor.Translation Sg. 2 λύου λ ῦ σαι You loose for yourself Sg. 3 λυέσθωλυσάσθω Let him loose for himself Pl. 2 λύεσθελύσασθε You loose for yourself Pl. 3 λυέσθωσ αν λύσασθωσ αν Let them loose for themselves

7 Imperative Pass.Present1 st Aor.Translation Sg. 2 λύουλύθητι You be loosed Sg. 3 λυέσθωλυθήτω Let him be loosed Pl. 2 λύεσθελύθητε You be loosed Pl. 3 λυέσθωσ αν λυθήτωσα ν Let them be loosed

8 Imperative  Some confusing forms  Imperative pl.2 is the same as indicative Use context as the guide Aorist lacks augment ἔ χετε πίστιν θεο ῦ (Mk 11:22) Have faith in God OR you have faith in God  λύου ( sg.2 mid/pass.imp.) looks like impf. w/o augment

9 Imperative  2 nd Aorist forms  Built on 2 nd aorist stem – same ending as pr. Indicative  Parsing: tense, voice, “imperative”, person, number…  For contract verbs and ε ἰ μί see p Aor.ActiveMiddlePassive Sg. 2 λάβε γενο ῦ γράφητι Sg. 3 λαβέτωγενέσθωγραφήτω Pl. 2 λάβετεγένεσθεγράφητε Pl. 3 λαβέτωσα ν γενέσθωσ αν γραφήτωσαν

10 Imperative 2.1 Meaning of imperative (i) Command ἀ κολούθει μοι [cf. ποίει ( imp.) – ποιε ῖ (ind.)] Follow me (Mark 2:14) δότε α ὐ το ῖ ς ὑ με ῖ ς φαγε ῖ ν You give them [something] to eat (Mk 6:37) (ii) Imperative of entreaty – request κύριε, δίδαξον ἡ μ ᾶ ς προσεύχεσθαι Lord, teach us to pray See also, the Lord’s prayer (Matt 6:10)

11 Imperative 2.2 Prohibition and Negations  Different kinds of prohibitions and negations (i) ο ὐ with the future indicative – simple negation ο ὐ μοιχεύσεις, ο ὐ φονεύσεις... You shall not commit adultery, …not murder... (Rom 13:9) (ii) μή plus pr. impr. – prohibiting continuous action μ ὴ μεριμν ᾶ τε τ ῇ ψυχ ῇ ὑ μ ῶ ν Do not worry about your life

12 Imperative (iii) μή plus the aorist imp. – prohibiting undefined action μ ὴ γνώτω ἡ ἀ ριστερά σου τί ποιε ῖ ἡ δεξιά σου Do not let your left hand know what your right hand is doing (iv) μή plus the aor. subj. – stronger “no” than no: (i) μ ὴ νομισήτε ὅ τι ἦ λθον καταλ ῦ σαι τ ὸ ν νόμον ἤ το ὺ ς... Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law… (v) ο ὐ μή plus aor. subj – firm fut. negation (firmer than iv) ο ἱ λόγοι μου ο ὐ μ ὴ παρέλθωσιν My words will [truly] not pass away

13 Imperative  Practice:  Parsing and warm-up p. 137  Homework:  p. 139, No: 7-8


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