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C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 25.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 25."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

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2 C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 25

3 Shelmerdine Chapter 25 1.The subjunctive mood 2.The subjunctive of thematic and athematic (-μι) verbs 3.Exhortations 4.The deliberative subjunctive 5.Prohibitions 6.γίγνομαι

4 Shelmerdine Chapter 25 1.The subjunctive mood 2.The subjunctive of thematic and athematic (-μι) verbs 3.Exhortations 4.The deliberative subjunctive 5.Prohibitions 6.γίγνομαι

5 Shelmerdine Chapter The subjunctive mood This chapter introduces a new mood: the subjunctive. The distinctive marker of this mood is the lengthening of the thematic vowel: –ε  η –ο  ω The subjunctive is considered primary at all times, so it always uses primary endings.

6 Shelmerdine Chapter 25 Indicative -ω -εις -ει -ομεν -ετε -ουσι(ν) Subjunctive -ω -ῃς -ῃ -ωμεν -ητε -ωσι(ν) Active Voice

7 Shelmerdine Chapter 25 Indicative -ομαι -ῃ -εται -ομεθα -εσθε -ονται Subjunctive -ωμαι -ῃ -ηται -ωμεθα -ησθε -ωνται Middle Voice

8 Shelmerdine Chapter 25 Active λύω λύῃς λύῃ λύωμεν λύητε λύωσι(ν) Middle/Passive λύωμαι λύῃ λύηται λύωμεθα λύησθε λύωνται Present Tense stem = λυ

9 Shelmerdine Chapter The subjunctive mood The subjunctive exists in only two tenses, the present and aorist. –Both tenses use exactly the same endings. –Remember that only the indicative mood has an augment, so the aorist subjunctive will have no augment.

10 Shelmerdine Chapter 25 Active λύσω λύσῃς λύσῃ λύσωμεν λύσητε λύσωσι(ν) Middle λύσωμαι λύσῃ λύσηται λύσωμεθα λύσησθε λύσωνται Aorist Tense stem = λυσ

11 Shelmerdine Chapter 25 Passive λυθῶ λυθῇς λυθῇ λυθῶμεν λυθῆτε λυθῶσι Aorist Tense stem = λυθ

12 Shelmerdine Chapter The subjunctive of thematic and athematic (-μι) verbs Contract verbs follow the normal rules for contraction (see page 172). Because two short vowels tend to contract to η or ω anyway, many subjunctive forms of contract verbs are identical to the indicative forms. This problem affects only the present tense (since there is no imperfect subjunctive).

13 Shelmerdine Chapter The subjunctive of thematic and athematic (-μι) verbs –μι verbs are generally regular in the subjunctive mood. δίδωμι “give” τίθημι “put, place, make” and ἵστημι “stand” always accent their stem vowel in the subjunctive (e.g., τιθῆτε ). δίδωμι “give” always uses ω, never η, in the subjunctive (e.g., διδῶτε ).

14 Shelmerdine Chapter 25 Parsing Verbs Person: 1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd Number: singular, plural Tense: Present, Imperfect, Future, Aorist Mood: Indicative, Participle, Infinitive, Subjunctive, Imperative Voice: Active, Middle, Passive

15 Shelmerdine Chapter 25 Frequency of Verb forms Person: 1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd Number: singular, plural Tense: Present (47%), Aorist (28%), Imperfect (13%), Perfect (6%), Future (4%), Pluperfect (1%), Future Perfect (.1%) Mood: Indicative (41%), Participle (31%), Infinitive (13%), Subjunctive (6%), Imperative (4%), Optative (3%) Voice: Active, Middle, Passive

16 Shelmerdine Chapter 25 1.The subjunctive mood 2.The subjunctive of thematic and athematic (-μι) verbs 3.Exhortations 4.The deliberative subjunctive 5.Prohibitions 6.γίγνομαι

17 Shelmerdine Chapter Exhortations The first person plural of the subjunctive expresses an urge or exhortation. This use is normally called “hortatory.” κλέπτωμεν. –Let’s steal (= Let’s be thieves for a living). –The present tense refers to a general action. κλέψωμεν τὸν κροκόδειλον. –Let’s steal the crocodile. –The aorist tense refers to a specific situation.

18 Shelmerdine Chapter 25 1.The subjunctive mood 2.The subjunctive of thematic and athematic (-μι) verbs 3.Exhortations 4.The deliberative subjunctive 5.Prohibitions 6.γίγνομαι

19 Shelmerdine Chapter The deliberative subjunctive In a question, the subjunctive considers what is to happen or what one is to do. This use is normally called “deliberative.” κλέψωμεν τὸν κροκόδειλον; –So, are we going to steal the crocodile?

20 Shelmerdine Chapter 25 1.The subjunctive mood 2.The subjunctive of thematic and athematic (-μι) verbs 3.Exhortations 4.The deliberative subjunctive 5.Prohibitions 6.γίγνομαι

21 Shelmerdine Chapter Prohibitions In the negative, the aorist of the subjunctive serves as a more specific version of the present imperative: μὴ κλέπτε. –Don’t steal. –The present imperative refers to a general action. μὴ κλέψῃς τὸν κροκόδειλον. –Don’t steal the crocodile. –The aorist subjunctive refers to a specific situation.

22 Shelmerdine Chapter Prohibitions In the negative, the aorist of the subjunctive serves as a more specific version of the present imperative: μηδεὶς κλεπτέτω. –Let no one steal. –The imperative refers to a general action. μηδεὶς κλέψῃ τὸν κροκόδειλον. –Let no one steal the crocodile. –The subjunctive refers to a specific situation.

23 Shelmerdine Chapter 25 1.The subjunctive mood 2.The subjunctive of thematic and athematic (-μι) verbs 3.Exhortations 4.The deliberative subjunctive 5.Prohibitions 6.γίγνομαι

24 Shelmerdine Chapter γίγνομαι γίγνομαι is a deponent verb meaning “become” or “happen” and often serves as a replacement for εἰμί, especially in the aorist tense (since εἰμί does not have an aorist). γίγνομαι, γενήσομαι ἐγενόμην γέγονα γεγένομαι

25 Shelmerdine Chapter 25 for next class (Monday, March 14, 2011): Quiz: Write out the endings of the active and middle subjunctive (page 171 or slides 5-6). Prepare Reading “Aristogoras and His Map” for class.

26 Shelmerdine Chapter 25 ὁ δὲ Ἀριστογόρας, ὁ τῆς Μιλήτου τύραννος, ἐβούλετο ἐλευθεροῦν τοὺς Ἴωνας ἀπὸ τῆς τῶν Περσῶν ἀρχῆς, ἔπλευσεν οὖν εἰς τὴν Σπάρτην καὶ διελέγετο τῷ Κλεομένι, τῷ τὴν ἀρχὴν ἔχοντι· καὶ ἔφερεν, ὡς οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι λέγουσι, χαλκοῦν πίνακα, ἐν ᾧ γῆς πάσης περίοδος ἐγέγραπτο καὶ θάλαττά τε πᾶσα καὶ ποταμοὶ πάντες.

27 Shelmerdine Chapter 25 ὁ δὲ Ἀριστογόρας, ὁ τῆς Μιλήτου τύραννος, ἐβούλετο ἐλευθεροῦν τοὺς Ἴωνας ἀπὸ τῆς τῶν Περσῶν ἀρχῆς, ἔπλευσεν οὖν εἰς τὴν Σπάρτην καὶ διελέγετο τῷ Κλεομένι, τῷ τὴν ἀρχὴν ἔχοντι· καὶ ἔφερεν, ὡς οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι λέγουσι, χαλκοῦν πίνακα, ἐν ᾧ γῆς πάσης περίοδος ἐγέγραπτο καὶ θάλαττά τε πᾶσα καὶ ποταμοὶ πάντες.

28 Miletus Sparta

29 Shelmerdine Chapter 25 Ὤ Κλεόμενες, ἔφη, μὴ θαυμάσῃς ὅτι δεῦρο ἥκω· ὅτι οἱ τῶν Ἰώνων παῖδές εἰσι δοῦλοι ἀντ' ἐλευθέρων μέγιστον μὲν γὰρ ἄλγος ἐστὶν ἡμῖν αὐτοῖς, ἔτι δὲ ὑμῖν, οἳ ἀριστεύετε ἐν τῇ Ἑλλάδι, νῦν οὖν πρὸς θεῶν σώσατε τοὺς Ἴωνας ἐκ δουλοσύνης ἄνδρας ὁμαίμονας.

30 Shelmerdine Chapter 25 Ὤ Κλεόμενες, ἔφη, μὴ θαυμάσῃς ὅτι δεῦρο ἥκω· ὅτι οἱ τῶν Ἰώνων παῖδές εἰσι δοῦλοι ἀντ' ἐλευθέρων μέγιστον μὲν γὰρ ἄλγος ἐστὶν ἡμῖν αὐτοῖς, ἔτι δὲ ὑμῖν, οἳ ἀριστεύετε ἐν τῇ Ἑλλάδι, νῦν οὖν πρὸς θεῶν σώσατε τοὺς Ἴωνας ἐκ δουλοσύνης ἄνδρας ὁμαίμονας.

31 Shelmerdine Chapter 25 ῥᾴδιον δὲ ὑμῖν ἐστι ταῦτα ποιεῖν· οὔτε γὰρ οἱ βάρβαροι ἀνδρεῖοί εἰσιν, ὔμεῖς τε ἀριστοί ἐστε τὸν πόλεμον. ἥ τε μάχη αὐτῶν τοιαύτη ἐστίν, τόξα καὶ αἰχμὴ βραχεῖα· ἀναξυρίδας δὲ ἔχοντες μάχονται καὶ κυρβασίας ἐπὶ ταῖς κεφαλαῖς οὕτω ῥᾴδιοι νικηθῆναί εἰσιν. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἀγαθὰ τοῖς τὴν ἤπειρον ἐκείνην οἰκοῦσιν, χρυσός τε καὶ ἄργυρος, καὶ ὑποζύγιά τε καὶ δοῦλοι· ἃ βουλόμενοι αὐτοὶ οἷοί τ' ἐστὲ σχεῖν.

32 Shelmerdine Chapter 25 ῥᾴδιον δὲ ὑμῖν ἐστι ταῦτα ποιεῖν· οὔτε γὰρ οἱ βάρβαροι ἀνδρεῖοί εἰσιν, ὔμεῖς τε ἀριστοί ἐστε τὸν πόλεμον. ἥ τε μάχη αὐτῶν τοιαύτη ἐστίν, τόξα καὶ αἰχμὴ βραχεῖα· ἀναξυρίδας δὲ ἔχοντες μάχονται καὶ κυρβασίας ἐπὶ ταῖς κεφαλαῖς οὕτω ῥᾴδιοι νικηθῆναί εἰσιν. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἀγαθὰ τοῖς τὴν ἤπειρον ἐκείνην οἰκοῦσιν, χρυσός τε καὶ ἄργυρος, καὶ ὑποζύγιά τε καὶ δοῦλοι· ἃ βουλόμενοι αὐτοὶ οἷοί τ' ἐστὲ σχεῖν.

33 Greek vase showing a Greek warrior fighting a Persian τόξα αἰχμὴ βραχεῖα κυρβασία ἀναξυρίδες

34 Shelmerdine Chapter 25 ἔλεγε δὲ ταῦτα δεικνὺς τὴν τῆς γῆς περίοδον, ἣν ἔφερε ἐν τῷ πίνακι γραφεῖσαν· ἐξηγεῖτο δὲ τὰς χώρας πάντων τῶν βαρβάρων, ἐξηγούμενος τὸν πλοῦτον ἐκάστης, καὶ τὰ Σοῦσα αὐτά, ἐν οἷς οἱ βασιλέως μεγάλου θησαυροὶ ἐνῆσαν. Λαβόντες ταύτην τὴν πόλιν, ἔφη, χρήματα πολλὰ σχήσετε.

35 Shelmerdine Chapter 25 ἔλεγε δὲ ταῦτα δεικνὺς τὴν τῆς γῆς περίοδον, ἣν ἔφερε ἐν τῷ πίνακι γραφεῖσαν· ἐξηγεῖτο δὲ τὰς χώρας πάντων τῶν βαρβάρων, ἐξηγούμενος τὸν πλοῦτον ἐκάστης, καὶ τὰ Σοῦσα αὐτά, ἐν οἷς οἱ βασιλέως μεγάλου θησαυροὶ ἐνῆσαν. Λαβόντες ταύτην τὴν πόλιν, ἔφη, χρήματα πολλὰ σχήσετε.

36 Shelmerdine Chapter 25 ἀλλὰ περὶ χώρας οὐ πολλῆς οὐδὲ οὕτω χρησίμης δεῖ ὑμᾶς μάχας παῦσαι, πρός τε Μεσσηνίους καὶ Ἀργείους, οἷς οὔτε χρυσός ἐστιν οὔτε ἄργυρος. Ἀριστογόρας μὲν ταῦτα ἔλεξε, Κλεομένης δὲ εἶπε τάδε· Ὦ ξένε Μιλήσιε, τριῶν ἡμερῶν ἀποκρινοῦμαι. ἐπεὶ δὲ ἡ κυρία ἡμέρα ἐγένετο, ὁ Κλεομένης ἠρώτησε, Πόσων ἡμερῶν ἐστιν ἡ ὁδὸς ἀπὸ τῆς τῶν Ἰώνων θαλάττης παρὰ βασιλέα;

37 Shelmerdine Chapter 25 ἀλλὰ περὶ χώρας οὐ πολλῆς οὐδὲ οὕτω χρησίμης δεῖ ὑμᾶς μάχας παῦσαι, πρός τε Μεσσηνίους καὶ Ἀργείους, οἷς οὔτε χρυσός ἐστιν οὔτε ἄργυρος. Ἀριστογόρας μὲν ταῦτα ἔλεξε, Κλεομένης δὲ εἶπε τάδε· Ὦ ξένε Μιλήσιε, τριῶν ἡμερῶν ἀποκρινοῦμαι. ἐπεὶ δὲ ἡ κυρία ἡμέρα ἐγένετο, ὁ Κλεομένης ἠρώτησε, Πόσων ἡμερῶν ἐστιν ἡ ὁδὸς ἀπὸ τῆς τῶν Ἰώνων θαλάττης παρὰ βασιλέα;

38 PersiaGreece

39 Shelmerdine Chapter 25 ὁ δὲ Ἀριστογόρας εἷπεν, Τριῶν μηνῶν. ὁ δὲ Κλεομένης εὐθὺς ἀπεκρίνετο· Ὦ ξένε Μιλήσιε, ἀποχώρησον ἐκ Σπάρτης πρὸ νυκτός· οὐ γὰρ εὖ συμβουλεύεις τοῖς Λακεδαιμονίοις, ἐθέλων αὐτοῖς ἀπὸ θαλάττης τριῶν μηνῶν ὁδὸν ἀγαγεῖν.

40 Shelmerdine Chapter 25 ὁ δὲ Ἀριστογόρας εἷπεν, Τριῶν μηνῶν. ὁ δὲ Κλεομένης εὐθὺς ἀπεκρίνετο· Ὦ ξένε Μιλήσιε, ἀποχώρησον ἐκ Σπάρτης πρὸ νυκτός· οὐ γὰρ εὖ συμβουλεύεις τοῖς Λακεδαιμονίοις, ἐθέλων αὐτοῖς ἀπὸ θαλάττης τριῶν μηνῶν ὁδὸν ἀγαγεῖν.

41 Shelmerdine Chapter 25 for next class (Tuesday, March 15, 2011): Quiz: Chapter 25 Vocabulary. –Omit προσβάλλω Read Chapter 25.

42 Shelmerdine Chapter 25 for next class (Wednesday, March 16, 2011): Quiz: Parsing. Finish reading “Aristogoras and His Map” Read Chapter 26.

43 Shelmerdine Chapter κατὰ δὲ ἑορτὴν εἰώθει ὁ ἡγεμὼν ἀπολύειν ἕνα τῷ ὄχλῳ δέσμιον ὃν ἤθελον. 16 εἶχον δὲ τότε δέσμιον ἐπίσημον λεγόμενον Βαραββᾶν. 17 συνηγμένων οὖν αὐτῶν εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Πιλᾶτος, Τίνα θέλετε ἀπολύσω ὑμῖν, Βαραββᾶν ἢ Ἰησοῦν τὸν λεγόμενον Χριστόν; 18 ᾔδει γὰρ ὅτι διὰ φθόνον παρέδωκαν αὐτόν. ἀπολύω set free βαραββᾶς ὁ Barabbas δέσμιος –ου ὁ prisoner εἰώθει (3 s pluperfect ind act) it was customary ἕνα (acc sg masc) one ἑορτή -ῆς ἡ feast ἐπίσημος –ον remarkable ᾔδει (3 s pluperfect ind act) he knew θέλω want ὄχλος –ου ὁ mob παραδίδωμι hand over Πιλᾶτος –ου ὁ Pilate συνάγω bring together τίνα whom? φθόνος –ου ὁ envy, jealousy

44 Shelmerdine Chapter καθημένου δὲ αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τοῦ βήματος ἀπέστειλεν πρὸς αὐτὸν ἡ γυνὴ αὐτοῦ λέγουσα, Μηδὲν σοὶ καὶ τῷ δικαίῳ ἐκείνῳ, πολλὰ γὰρ ἔπαθον σήμερον κατ᾽ ὄναρ δι᾽ αὐτόν. 20 οἱ δὲ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ πρεσβύτεροι ἔπεισαν τοὺς ὄχλους ἵνα αἰτήσωνται τὸν Βαραββᾶν τὸν δὲ Ἰησοῦν ἀπολέσωσιν. αἰτέω ask for ἀπόλλυμι –ολῶ -ώλεσα destroy ἀποστέλλω –στελῶ -έστειλα send off ἀρχιερεύς -έως ὁ high priest βαραββᾶς -ᾶ ὁ Barabbas βῆμα –ατος τό (judge's) bench ἵνα (in order) to (+ subjunctive verb) κάθημαι sit ὄναρ τό dream ὄχλος –ου ὁ mob πάσχω πείσομαι ἔπαθον suffer πρεσβύτερος –ου ὁ elder σήμερον today

45 Shelmerdine Chapter ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ ἡγεμὼν εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, Τίνα θέλετε ἀπὸ τῶν δύο ἀπολύσω ὑμῖν; οἱ δὲ εἶπαν, Τὸν Βαραββᾶν. 22 λέγει αὐτοῖς ὁ Πιλᾶτος, Τί οὖν ποιήσω Ἰησοῦν τὸν λεγόμενον Χριστόν; λέγουσιν πάντες, Σταυρωθήτω. 23 ὁ δὲ ἔφη, Τί γὰρ κακὸν ἐποίησεν; οἱ δὲ περισσῶς ἔκραζον λέγοντες, Σταυρωθήτω. (Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Ματθαῖον ) ἀποκρίνομαι answer ἀπολύω set free βαραββᾶς -ᾶ ὁ Barabbas δύο two εἶπαν = εἶπον θέλω want κράζω cry περισσῶς more Πιλᾶτος –ου ὁ Pilate σταυρόω crucify τί what? τίνα whom?


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