Shelmerdine Chapter 25 1. The subjunctive mood This chapter introduces a new mood: the subjunctive. The distinctive marker of this mood is the lengthening of the thematic vowel: –ε η –ο ω The subjunctive is considered primary at all times, so it always uses primary endings.
Shelmerdine Chapter 25 1. The subjunctive mood The subjunctive exists in only two tenses, the present and aorist. –Both tenses use exactly the same endings. –Remember that only the indicative mood has an augment, so the aorist subjunctive will have no augment.
Shelmerdine Chapter 25 2. The subjunctive of thematic and athematic (-μι) verbs Contract verbs follow the normal rules for contraction (see page 172). Because two short vowels tend to contract to η or ω anyway, many subjunctive forms of contract verbs are identical to the indicative forms. This problem affects only the present tense (since there is no imperfect subjunctive).
Shelmerdine Chapter 25 2. The subjunctive of thematic and athematic (-μι) verbs –μι verbs are generally regular in the subjunctive mood. δίδωμι “give” τίθημι “put, place, make” and ἵστημι “stand” always accent their stem vowel in the subjunctive (e.g., τιθῆτε ). δίδωμι “give” always uses ω, never η, in the subjunctive (e.g., διδῶτε ).
Shelmerdine Chapter 25 3. Exhortations The first person plural of the subjunctive expresses an urge or exhortation. This use is normally called “hortatory.” κλέπτωμεν. –Let’s steal (= Let’s be thieves for a living). –The present tense refers to a general action. κλέψωμεν τὸν κροκόδειλον. –Let’s steal the crocodile. –The aorist tense refers to a specific situation.
Shelmerdine Chapter 25 4. The deliberative subjunctive In a question, the subjunctive considers what is to happen or what one is to do. This use is normally called “deliberative.” κλέψωμεν τὸν κροκόδειλον; –So, are we going to steal the crocodile?
Shelmerdine Chapter 25 5. Prohibitions In the negative, the aorist of the subjunctive serves as a more specific version of the present imperative: μὴ κλέπτε. –Don’t steal. –The present imperative refers to a general action. μὴ κλέψῃς τὸν κροκόδειλον. –Don’t steal the crocodile. –The aorist subjunctive refers to a specific situation.
Shelmerdine Chapter 25 5. Prohibitions In the negative, the aorist of the subjunctive serves as a more specific version of the present imperative: μηδεὶς κλεπτέτω. –Let no one steal. –The imperative refers to a general action. μηδεὶς κλέψῃ τὸν κροκόδειλον. –Let no one steal the crocodile. –The subjunctive refers to a specific situation.
Shelmerdine Chapter 25 6. γίγνομαι γίγνομαι is a deponent verb meaning “become” or “happen” and often serves as a replacement for εἰμί, especially in the aorist tense (since εἰμί does not have an aorist). γίγνομαι, γενήσομαι ἐγενόμην γέγονα γεγένομαι
Shelmerdine Chapter 25 for next class (Monday, March 14, 2011): Quiz: Write out the endings of the active and middle subjunctive (page 171 or slides 5-6). Prepare Reading “Aristogoras and His Map” for class.