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Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 4: Conjunctions 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 4: Conjunctions 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major"— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 4: Conjunctions 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major

2 Ancient Greek for Everyone This class AGE Unit 4: Conjunctions • Conjunctions in Greek for the most part work very much as they do in English. Greek, however, uses them significantly more often than English does. • This is in part because Greek routinely links clauses and sentences together. Where consecutive sentences in English are separated by a pause (period), in Greek, conjunctions connect almost all consecutive sentences.

3 Ancient Greek for Everyone • AND – καί – δέ – μέν…δέ – τε • μήτε • οὔτε

4 Ancient Greek for Everyone • POSTPOSITIVE means that the connective follows the word that it links. – χρήματα καὶ ὑπάρχοντα “money and property” postpositive: – χρήματα μέν… ὑπάρχοντα δέ “money… and property” – χρήματα τε καὶ ὑπάρχοντα “both money and property”

5 Ancient Greek for Everyone • POSTPOSITIVE means that the connective follows the word that it links. As a result, the conjunction regularly is the second word in a clause or sentence. – δίδομεν τὰ σπέρματα καὶ δίδοτε τὸ ὕδωρ. – “We give the seeds and you give the water.” postpositive: – τὰ σπέρματα δίδομεν, ὕδωρ δὲ δίδοτε. – τὰ σπέρματα μὲν δίδομεν, ὕδωρ δὲ δίδοτε. – “We give the seeds and you give water.”

6 Ancient Greek for Everyone • The conjunctions οὔτε and μήτε are simply combinations of οὐ and μή with τε. – δίδομεν τὰ σπέρματα οὔτε δίδοτε τὸ ὕδωρ. – “We give the seeds and you do not give the water.” • The conjunction τε is enclitic (it is pronounced as the suffix to the preceding word) and so rarely has an accent.

7 Ancient Greek for Everyone • BUT – ἀλλά – δέ – μέν…δέ

8 Ancient Greek for Everyone • POSTPOSITIVE means that the connective follows the word that it links. As a result, the conjunction regularly is the second word in a clause or sentence. – δίδομεν τὰ σπέρματα ἀλλὰ δίδοτε τὸ ὕδωρ. – “We give the seeds but you give the water.” postpositive: – τὰ σπέρματα δίδομεν, ὕδωρ δὲ δίδοτε. – τὰ σπέρματα μὲν δίδομεν, ὕδωρ δὲ δίδοτε. – “We give the seeds but you give water.”

9 Ancient Greek for Everyone • OR – ἤ – εἴτε… εἴτε = either …or – μήτε… μήτε = neither …nor – οὔτε… οὔτε = neither …nor

10 Ancient Greek for Everyone • OR: – δίδομεν τὰ χρήματα ἢ δίδοτε τὰ ὑπάρχοντα. – “We give the money or you give the property.” – εἴτε δίδομεν τὰ χρήματα εἴτε δίδοτε τὰ ὑπάρχοντα. – “Either we give the money or you give the property.”

11 Ancient Greek for Everyone • CAUSE and EFFECT: Greek constantly explains the cause of a statement or action and the consequence of a statement or action: • BECAUSE: explains the cause of the previous statement or action • THEREFORE: explains the consequence of the previous statement or action

12 Ancient Greek for Everyone • BECAUSE: explains the cause of the previous statement or action – γάρ – ὅτι

13 Ancient Greek for Everyone • POSTPOSITIVE means that the connective follows the word that it links. As a result, the conjunction regularly is the second word in a clause or sentence. – οὐ δίδομεν, ὅτι χρήματα οὐκ ἀποδίδοτε. postpositive: – οὐ δίδομεν χρήματα, οὐ γὰρ ἀποδίδοτε. “We do not give money because you do not give it back.”

14 Ancient Greek for Everyone • THEREFORE: explains the consequence of the previous statement or action – ἄρα – διό – οὖν – τοίνυν

15 Ancient Greek for Everyone • POSTPOSITIVE means that the connective follows the word that it links. As a result, the conjunction regularly is the second word in a clause or sentence. – οὐκ ἀποδίδοτε, ἄρα χρήματα οὐ δίδομεν. – οὐκ ἀποδίδοτε, διὸ χρήματα οὐ δίδομεν. postpositive: – οὐκ ἀποδίδοτε, χρήματα οὖν οὐ δίδομεν. – οὐκ ἀποδίδοτε, χρήματα τοίνυν οὐ δίδομεν. – “You do not give it back, so we do not give money.”

16 • These conjunctions are also on your vocabulary lists: – εἰ, εἴπερ if – ἐπεί after, since, when – ἕως until, while – ἵνα where – μέχρι until – ὅθεν from where – ὅπου where – ὅτε when – πότερον whether – πρίν (w/indicative verbs) until; (w/ infinitive verbs) before – ὡς as – ὥστε that (indicates a resulting action) Ancient Greek for Everyone

17 Spell it Like It Sounds! • It is common for the final vowel of a conjunction to be elided before a word that begins with a vowel. ἀποδίδομεν χρήματα τε καὶ ὑπάρχοντα. χρήματα ὑπάρχοντα τ’ ἀποδίδομεν. “We return the money and property” τὰ σπέρματα μὲν δίδομεν, ὕδωρ δὲ δίδοτε. τὰ σπέρματα μὲν δίδομεν, δίδοτε δ’ ὕδωρ. “We give the seeds and you give water.”

18 Ancient Greek for Everyone Spell it Like It Sounds! • It is common for the final vowel of a conjunction to be elided before a word that begins with a vowel. δίδομεν τὰ σπέρματα οὔτε δίδοτε τὸ ὕδωρ. “We give the seeds and you do not give the water.” δίδομεν τὰ σπέρματα οὔτ’ ὕδωρ δίδοτε. “We give the seeds and you do not give water.”

19 Ancient Greek for Everyone Spell it Like It Sounds! • It is common for the final vowel of a conjunction to be elided before a word that begins with a vowel. δίδομεν τὰ σπέρματα ἀλλὰ τὸ ὕδωρ οὐ δίδοτε. δίδομεν τὰ σπέρματα ἀλλ’ οὐ δίδοτε τὸ ὕδωρ. “We give the seeds but you do not give the water.”

20 Ancient Greek for Everyone Spell it Like It Sounds! • It is common for the final vowel of a conjunction to be elided before a word that begins with a vowel. εἴτε τὰ χρήματα οὐ δίδομεν, εἴτε τὰ ὑπάρχοντα οὐ δίδοτε. εἴτ’ οὐ δίδομεν τὰ χρήματα, εἴτ’ οὐ δίδοτε τὰ ὑπάρχοντα. “Either we don’t give the money or you don’t give the property.”

21 Ancient Greek for Everyone Spell it Like It Sounds! • It is common for the final vowel of a conjunction to be elided before a word that begins with a vowel. – οὐκ ἀποδίδοτε, ἄρα χρήματα οὐ δίδομεν. – οὐκ ἀποδίδοτε, ἄρ’ οὐ δίδομεν χρήματα. – “You do not give it back, so we do not give money.”

22 Ancient Greek for Everyone Spell it Like It Sounds! • It is common for the final vowel of a conjunction to be elided before a word that begins with a vowel. ὅτε χρήματα ἀποδίδοτε, ὑπάρχοντα δίδομεν. ὅτ’ ἀποδίδοτε χρήματα, ὑπάρχοντα δίδομεν. “When you give money back, we give property.” • Note: ὅτι never elides, so ὅτ’ always = ὅτε.

23 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 4 Vocabulary: DCC Classical • ἀλλά but • ἄρα therefore • γάρ because • δέ and, but • εἰ, εἴπερ if • εἴτε either…or • ἐπεί after, since, when • ἕως until, while

24 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 4 Vocabulary: DCC Classical • ἤ or, than • ἵνα where • καί and, also, even • μέν…δέ (contrasts a pair) • μέχρι until • ὅθεν from where • ὅπου where • ὅτε when • ὅτι because; (indirect statement) that

25 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 4 Vocabulary: DCC Classical • οὖν therefore • οὔτε and not • πότερον whether • πρίν until, before • τε and; τε... τε both... and • τοίνυν therefore • ὡς as; (indirect statement) that, to • ὥστε that (result)

26 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 4 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) • ἀλλά but • δέ and, but • εἴτε either…or • ἤ or, than • καί and, also, even • μέν…δέ (contrasts a pair) • μήτε and not, either…or • οὔτε and not, either…or • τε and; τε... τε both... and

27 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 4 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) • ἄρα so then, therefore • γάρ for, because • διό therefore • ὅτι because, that • οὖν therefore, so

28 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 4 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) • ἕως until, while • ἵνα where • ὅτε when • ὡς as • ὥστε that (result)

29 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 4 Vocabulary: Core • ἀλλά but • ἄρα so then, therefore • γάρ for, because • δέ and, but • εἴτε either…or • ἕως until, while • ἤ or, than • ἵνα where • καί and, also, even

30 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 4 Vocabulary: Core • μέν…δέ (contrasts a pair) • μήτε and not, either…or • ὅπου where • ὅτε when • ὅτι because, that • οὖν therefore, so • οὔτε and not, either…or • τε and; τε... τε both... and • ὡς as • ὥστε that (result)


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