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C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 17.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 17."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 17

2 Shelmerdine Chapter 17 1.The middle voice: meaning 2.The middle voice: formation 3.Review of middle future forms 4.Some uses of the accusative 5.Time expressions

3 Shelmerdine Chapter 17 1.The middle voice: meaning 2.The middle voice: formation 3.Review of middle future forms 4.Some uses of the accusative 5.Time expressions

4 Shelmerdine Chapter The middle voice: meaning Greek has an intermediate voice, between the active and passive voices, called the middle voice. Generally, the middle voice means the subject of the verb initiates the action but in some way the result of the action affects the subject, too.

5 Shelmerdine Chapter The middle voice: meaning The active voice means the subject initiates or causes the action. The middle voice means the subject of the verb initiates the action and in some way participates in the result of the action, too. The passive voice means the subject of the verb receives the result of the action.

6 Shelmerdine Chapter 17 parse/parsing 1 st, 2 nd or 3 RD PERSON SINGULAR or PLURAL PRESENT, IMPERFECT, FUTURE, or AORIST INDICATIVE, IMPERATIVE, or INFINITIVE ACTIVE, MIDDLE, PASSIVE

7 Shelmerdine Chapter The middle voice: meaning Ways to translate a verb in the middle voice: –add a reflexive pronoun –use an intransitive English verb (a verb without a direct object) –use a different English verb from one that translates the active voice

8 Shelmerdine Chapter The middle voice: meaning Active: παύω τὸν πόλεμον. “I stop the war.” –In the active voice, this verb must have a direct object (accusative). Middle: παύομαι. “I stop (myself)”  “I stop.” –If there is no direct object, the middle form means the direct object is reflexive.

9 Shelmerdine Chapter The middle voice: meaning Active: λαμβάνω τὸν ἰχθύν. “I catch the fish.” –Subject begins the action. Middle: λαμβάνομαι τὸν ἰχθύν. “I catch myself the fish.” –Subject begins the action and receives some of the result.

10 Shelmerdine Chapter The middle voice: meaning Active: διδάκσω τὸν υἱόν. “I teach my son.” –Subject begins the action. Middle: διδάσκομαι τὸν υἱόν. “I cause the teaching of my son (and so I benefit indirectly).”  “I have my son taught.” –Subject begins the action and receives some of the result.

11 Shelmerdine Chapter The middle voice: meaning Active: πείθω. “I persuade.” Middle: πείθομαι. ( “I participate in persuasion and receive the results.”)  “I obey.” –English conveys the active and middle ideas with different verbs.

12 Shelmerdine Chapter The middle voice: meaning Active: πείθω τὸν φίλον. “I persuade my friend.” Middle: πείθομαι τῷ φίλῳ. “I participate in persuasion with my friend and receive the results.”  “I obey my friend.” Passive: πείθομαι ὑπὸ τοῦ φίλου. “I receive the results of the persuasion from my friend.”  “I am persuaded by my friend.”

13 Shelmerdine Chapter The middle voice: meaning Some Greek verbs seem inherently to have meanings which fit the middle voice. –For example, μάχομαι “fight in battle” is always in the middle voice, perhaps because someone in battle always causes and receives the effects of battle. These verbs then have no active forms but only middle forms. A verb which as no active forms is called deponent.

14 Shelmerdine Chapter 17 1.The middle voice: meaning 2.The middle voice: formation 3.Review of middle future forms 4.Some uses of the accusative 5.Time expressions

15 Shelmerdine Chapter The middle voice: formation The middle voice uses the same endings you learned in Chapter 15 for the passive of the present and imperfect tenses. –Use the primary endings -μαι -σαι -ται -μεθα - σθε -νται for the present and future tenses. –Use the secondary endings -μην -σο -το -μεθα - σθε -ντο for the imperfect and aorist tenses.

16 Shelmerdine Chapter 17 ACTIVE singular λύω λύεις λύει plural λύομεν λύετε λύουσι MIDDLE/PASSIVE singular λύομαι (λύεσαι  ) λύῃ/λύει λύεται plural λυόμεθα λύεσθε λύονται present tense stem = λυ

17 Shelmerdine Chapter 17 ACTIVE singular ἔλυον ἔλυες ἔλυε plural ἐλύομεν ἐλύετε ἔλυον MIDDLE/PASSIVE singular ἐλυόμην (ἐλύεσο  ) ἐλύου ἐλύετο plural ἐλυόμεθα ἐλύεσθε ἐλύοντο imperfect tense stem = λυ

18 Shelmerdine Chapter 17 ACTIVE singular λύσω λύσεις λύσει plural λύσομεν λύσετε λύσουσι MIDDLE/PASSIVE singular λύσομαι (λύσεσαι  ) λύσῃ/λύσει λύσεται plural λυσόμεθα λύσεσθε λύσονται future tense stem = λυσ

19 Shelmerdine Chapter 17 ACTIVE singular ἔλυσα ἔλυσας ἔλυσε plural ἐλύσαμεν ἐλύσατε ἔλυσαν MIDDLE singular ἐλυσάμην (ἐλύσασο  ) ἐλύσω ἐλύσατο plural ἐλυσάμεθα ἐλύσασθε ἐλύσαντο 1 st (weak) aorist tense stem = λυσ

20 Shelmerdine Chapter 17 ACTIVE singular ἔπιθον ἔπιθες ἔπιθε plural ἐπίθομεν ἐπίθετε ἔπιθον MIDDLE singular ἐπιθόμην (ἐπίθεσο  ) ἐπίθου ἐπίθετο plural ἐπιθόμεθα ἐπίθεσθε ἐπίθοντο 2 nd (strong) aorist stem = πιθ

21 Shelmerdine Chapter 17 1.The middle voice: meaning 2.The middle voice: formation 3.Review of middle future forms 4.Some uses of the accusative 5.Time expressions

22 Shelmerdine Chapter Review of middle future forms Some Greek verbs seem inherently to have meanings which fit the middle voice. –For example, μάχομαι “fight in battle” is always in the middle voice, perhaps because someone in battle always causes and receives the effects of battle. These verbs then have no active forms but only middle forms. A verb which as no active forms is called deponent.

23 Shelmerdine Chapter Review of middle future forms A verb which as no active forms is called deponent. Some verbs are deponent only in the future tense. Page 107 lists five verbs you know which are deponent in the future tense. If the principal parts list the middle form for the second principal part, its future is deponent.

24 Shelmerdine Chapter 17 1.The middle voice: meaning 2.The middle voice: formation 3.Review of middle future forms 4.Some uses of the accusative 5.Time expressions

25 Shelmerdine Chapter Some uses of the accusative Recall that the accusative is generally used for a primary object. The accusative of respect refers to this primary object when it is not a direct object: ἀγαθὸς μέν ἐστι τὴν μάχην, –He is good at battle, ἔβλαψα δὲ τὴν κεφάλην. –but I damaged his head (direct object). ἐβλάβη δὲ τὴν κεφάλην. –but he was injured in the head (respect).

26 Shelmerdine Chapter Some uses of the accusative The dative of means or instrument and the infinitive (which derives from the dative case) can function similarly. ἀγαθός ἐστι τὴν μάχην. –He is good at battle. ἀγαθός ἐστι τῇ μάχῃ. –He is good at battle. (by means of a battle) ἀγαθός ἐστι μάχεσθαι. –He is good at fighting. (by means of fighting)

27 Shelmerdine Chapter Some uses of the accusative The accusative of extent of space indicates the area over which an action takes place: ἐπορεύοντο μακρὰν ὁδόν. –They journeyed over a long road.

28 Shelmerdine Chapter Some uses of the accusative Greeks felt that some verbs called for a double accusative instead of an accusative and dative, or where English might use a direct object and a preposition: μιμνῄσκει τὸν ἄνδρα τὰ χρήματα. –She reminds her husband (acc.) about the money (acc.). ἐποίησαν τὸν ἄνδρα στρατηγόν. –They made the man (direct object acc.) general (predicate acc.).

29 Shelmerdine Chapter 17 1.The middle voice: meaning 2.The middle voice: formation 3.Review of middle future forms 4.Some uses of the accusative 5.Time expressions

30 Shelmerdine Chapter Time expressions The accusative, dative and genitive each convey distinct expressions of time. The accusative expresses duration of time: οἱ πολέμιοι ἔφυγον πέντε ἡμέρας. –The enemy were fleeing for five days.

31 Shelmerdine Chapter Time expressions The accusative, dative and genitive each convey distinct expressions of time. The dative expresses a point in time: ὁ στρατηγὸς ἔταξε τὴν στρατιὰν τῇ πέμπτῃ ἡμέρα. –The general drew up his army on the fifth day.

32 Shelmerdine Chapter Time expressions The accusative, dative and genitive each convey distinct expressions of time. The genitive expresses time within which: πέμψει τοὺς στρατιώτας πέντε ἡμέρων –He will send the soldiers within five days.

33 Shelmerdine Chapter 17 ἐν δὲ τῇ Ἀρμενίᾳ ἔπιπτε χιὼν πλείστη, ἣ ἀπέκρυψε καὶ τὰ ὅπλα καὶ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους· καὶ τὰ ὑποζύγια ἐκώλυσεν ἡ χιών· ἐν δὲ τῷ στρατοπέδῳ οἱ στρατιῶται ἐν ἀθυμίᾳ ἦσαν. ἐπεὶ δὲ Ξενοφῶν ἔσπευσε κόψαι ξύλα, εὐθὺς καὶ ἄλλοι ἔκοπτον καὶ πῦρ ἔκαιον. ἔπειτα δὲ ὁ Ξενοφῶν ἐκέλευσε τοὺς στρατιώτας ἀπολιπεῖν τὸ χωρίον, καὶ φυγεῖν εἰς τὰς κώμας εἰς οἰκίας.

34 Shelmerdine Chapter 17 ἐν δὲ τῇ Ἀρμενίᾳ ἔπιπτε χιὼν πλείστη, ἣ ἀπέκρυψε καὶ τὰ ὅπλα καὶ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους· καὶ τὰ ὑποζύγια ἐκώλυσεν ἡ χιών· ἐν δὲ τῷ στρατοπέδῳ οἱ στρατιῶται ἐν ἀθυμίᾳ ἦσαν. ἐπεὶ δὲ Ξενοφῶν ἔσπευσε κόψαι ξύλα, εὐθὺς καὶ ἄλλοι ἔκοπτον καὶ πῦρ ἔκαιον. ἔπειτα δὲ ὁ Ξενοφῶν ἐκέλευσε τοὺς στρατιώτας ἀπολιπεῖν τὸ χωρίον, καὶ φυγεῖν εἰς τὰς κώμας εἰς οἰκίας.

35 Shelmerdine Chapter 17 ἐν δὲ τῇ Ἀρμενίᾳ ἔπιπτε χιὼν πλείστη, ἣ ἀπέκρυψε καὶ τὰ ὅπλα καὶ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους· καὶ τὰ ὑποζύγια ἐκώλυσεν ἡ χιών· ἐν δὲ τῷ στρατοπέδῳ οἱ στρατιῶται ἐν ἀθυμίᾳ ἦσαν. ἐπεὶ δὲ Ξενοφῶν ἔσπευσε κόψαι ξύλα, εὐθὺς καὶ ἄλλοι ἔκοπτον καὶ πῦρ ἔκαιον. ἔπειτα δὲ ὁ Ξενοφῶν ἐκέλευσε τοὺς στρατιώτας ἀπολιπεῖν τὸ χωρίον, καὶ φυγεῖν εἰς τὰς κώμας εἰς οἰκίας.

36 Shelmerdine Chapter 17 ἀγγέλλει δ' αὐτοῖς αἰχμάλωτός τις ὅτι πολέμιοι ἐγγύς εἰσι καὶ ἐθέλουσι μάχεσθαι αὐτοῖς ἐν τῇ τοῦ ὄρους εἰσβολῇ. οἱ οὖν στρατηγοὶ συνήγαγον τὸ στρατὸν ἀπὸ τῶν κωμῶν καὶ ἐκέλευσεν τοὺς μὲν φυλάττειν τὸ στρατόπεδον, τοὺς δὲ πορεύεσθαι ἐπὶ τοὺς βαρβάρους· ὁ δὲ αἰχμάλοτος ἡγεμὼν ἦν αὐτοῖς.

37 Shelmerdine Chapter 17 ἀγγέλλει δ' αὐτοῖς αἰχμάλωτός τις ὅτι πολέμιοι ἐγγύς εἰσι καὶ ἐθέλουσι μάχεσθαι αὐτοῖς ἐν τῇ τοῦ ὄρους εἰσβολῇ. οἱ οὖν στρατηγοὶ συνήγαγον τὸ στρατὸν ἀπὸ τῶν κωμῶν καὶ ἐκέλευσεν τοὺς μὲν φυλάττειν τὸ στρατόπεδον, τοὺς δὲ πορεύεσθαι ἐπὶ τοὺς βαρβάρους· ὁ δὲ αἰχμάλοτος ἡγεμὼν ἦν αὐτοῖς.

38 Shelmerdine Chapter 17 ἀγγέλλει δ' αὐτοῖς αἰχμάλωτός τις ὅτι πολέμιοι ἐγγύς εἰσι καὶ ἐθέλουσι μάχεσθαι αὐτοῖς ἐν τῇ τοῦ ὄρους εἰσβολῇ. οἱ οὖν στρατηγοὶ συνήγαγον τὸ στρατὸν ἀπὸ τῶν κωμῶν καὶ ἐκέλευσεν τοὺς μὲν φυλάττειν τὸ στρατόπεδον, τοὺς δὲ πορεύεσθαι ἐπὶ τοὺς βαρβάρους· ὁ δὲ αἰχμάλοτος ἡγεμὼν ἦν αὐτοῖς.

39 Shelmerdine Chapter 17 ἐπεὶ δὲ ὑπερέβαλλον τὸ ὄρος, οἱ πελτασταὶ οὐκ ἔμενον τοὺς ὁπλίτας, ἀλλὰ κραυγῇ ἔσπευδον ἐπὶ τὸ τῶν βαρβάρων στρατόπεδον. οἱ δὲ βάρβαροι, ὡς ἤκουσαν τὸν θόρυβον, οὐχ ὑπέμενον, ἀλλ' ἔφευγον. οἱ δὲ Ἕλληνες ὀλίγους τῶν βαρβάρων ἀποκτείνουσι καὶ λαμβάνουσιν εἴκοσιν ἵππους καὶ τὴν τοῦ ἄρχοντος σκηνὴν καὶ ἐν αὐτῇ κλίνας ἀργύρου καὶ ἐκπώματα.

40 Shelmerdine Chapter 17 ἐπεὶ δὲ ὑπερέβαλλον τὸ ὄρος, οἱ πελτασταὶ οὐκ ἔμενον τοὺς ὁπλίτας, ἀλλὰ κραυγῇ ἔσπευδον ἐπὶ τὸ τῶν βαρβάρων στρατόπεδον. οἱ δὲ βάρβαροι, ὡς ἤκουσαν τὸν θόρυβον, οὐχ ὑπέμενον, ἀλλ' ἔφευγον. οἱ δὲ Ἕλληνες ὀλίγους τῶν βαρβάρων ἀποκτείνουσι καὶ λαμβάνουσιν εἴκοσιν ἵππους καὶ τὴν τοῦ ἄρχοντος σκηνὴν καὶ ἐν αὐτῇ κλίνας ἀργύρου καὶ ἐκπώματα.

41 Shelmerdine Chapter 17 ἐπεὶ δὲ ὑπερέβαλλον τὸ ὄρος, οἱ πελτασταὶ οὐκ ἔμενον τοὺς ὁπλίτας, ἀλλὰ κραυγῇ ἔσπευδον ἐπὶ τὸ τῶν βαρβάρων στρατόπεδον. οἱ δὲ βάρβαροι, ὡς ἤκουσαν τὸν θόρυβον, οὐχ ὑπέμενον, ἀλλ' ἔφευγον. οἱ δὲ Ἕλληνες ὀλίγους τῶν βαρβάρων ἀποκτείνουσι καὶ λαμβάνουσιν εἴκοσιν ἵππους καὶ τὴν τοῦ ἄρχοντος σκηνὴν καὶ ἐν αὐτῇ κλίνας ἀργύρου καὶ ἐκπώματα.

42 Shelmerdine Chapter 16 ὁ ὁπλίτης ὁ πελταστής

43 Shelmerdine Chapter 17 οἱ δὲ τῶν ὁπλιτῶν στρατηγοὶ ἐκέλευσαν τοὺς πελταστὰς παύσασθαι τῆς μάχης καὶ πορεύσασθαι πάλιν εἰς τὸ τῶν Ἑλλήνων στρατόπεδον.

44 Shelmerdine Chapter 17 οἱ δὲ τῶν ὁπλιτῶν στρατηγοὶ ἐκέλευσαν τοὺς πελταστὰς παύσασθαι τῆς μάχης καὶ πορεύσασθαι πάλιν εἰς τὸ τῶν Ἑλλήνων στρατόπεδον.

45 Shelmerdine Chapter 17 οἱ δὲ τῶν ὁπλιτῶν στρατηγοὶ ἐκέλευσαν τοὺς πελταστὰς παύσασθαι τῆς μάχης καὶ πορεύσασθαι πάλιν εἰς τὸ τῶν Ἑλλήνων στρατόπεδον.

46 Shelmerdine Chapter 16 for tomorrow (Wednesday, January 25, 2006): Quiz: Given the principal parts of a regular verb, write out the present and aorist infinitives (five total forms).

47 Shelmerdine Chapter 17 3 εἰ πορεύσονται δύο ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ καθόλου ἐὰν μὴ γνωρίσωσιν ἑαυτούς; γνωρίσωσιν "they know" δύο two ἐαν = εἰ if ἑαυτούς themselves εἰ introduces an impatient question καθόλου in general

48 Shelmerdine Chapter 17 4 εἰ ἐρεύξεται λέων ἐκ τοῦ δρυμοῦ αὐτοῦ θήραν οὐκ ἔχων; εἰ δώσει σκύμνος φωνὴν αὐτοῦ ἐκ τῆς μάνδρας αὐτοῦ καθόλου ἐὰν μὴ ἁρπάσῃ τι; ἁρπάσῃ " he snatches" δίδωμι, δώσω give δρυμός –οῦ ὁ woods ἐαν = εἰ if εἰ introduces an impatient question ἐρεύγομαι surge ἔχων + acc. with θήρα –ας ἡ beast, prey καθόλου in general λέων, λέοντος ὁ lion μάνδρα –ας ἡ den σκύμνος –ου ὁ lion cub τι something

49 Shelmerdine Chapter 17 5 εἰ πεσεῖται ὄρνεον ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν ἄνευ ἰξευτοῦ; εἰ σχασθήσεται παγὶς ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἄνευ τοῦ συλλαβεῖν τι; ἄνευ +gen. without εἰ introduces an impatient question ἰξευτής –οῦ ὁ bird catcher ὄρνεον –ου τό bird παγίς, παγίδος ἡ snare, trap πίπτω, πεσοῦμαι, ἔπεσον fall συλλαμβάνω, -λήψομαι, -έλαβον capture σχάζω, σχάσω, ἔσχασα, -, -, ἐσχάσθην leave τι something

50 Shelmerdine Chapter 17 6 εἰ φωνήσει σάλπιγξ ἐν πόλει καὶ λαὸς οὐ πτοηθήσεται; εἰ ἔσται κακία ἐν πόλει ἣν κύριος οὐκ ἐποίησεν; εἰ introduces an impatient question κακία –ας ἡ evil κύριος –ου ὁ lord λαός –οῦ ὁ the people ποιέω do, make πτοέω, πτοήσω, ἐπτοίησα, -, ἐπτοίημαι, ἐπτοιήθην terrify, scare σάλπιγξ, σάλπιγγος ἡ trumpet φονέω make a sound

51 Shelmerdine Chapter 17 7 διότι οὐ μὴ ποιήσῃ κύριος ὁ θεὸς πρᾶγμα, ἐὰν μὴ ἀποκαλύψῃ παιδείαν αὐτοῦ πρὸς τοὺς δούλους αὐτοῦ τοὺς προφήτας. ἀποκαλύψῃ "he reveals" διότι οὐ μή of course not ἐαν = εἰ if κύριος –ου ὁ lord παιδεία –ας ἡ training, plan ποιήσῃ "does" πρᾶγμα –ατος τό business, activity προφήτης –ου ὁ prophet

52 Shelmerdine Chapter 17 8 λέων ἐρεύξεται, καὶ τίς οὐ φοβηθήσεται; κύριος ὁ θεὸς ἐλάλησεν, καὶ τίς οὐ προφητεύσει; (Ἀμώς 3.3-8) ἐρεύγομαι surge κύριος –ου ὁ lord λαλέω speak λέων, λέοντος ὁ lion προφητεύω prophesy τίς who? φοβέομαι, φοβήσομαι, ἐφοβησάμην, πεφόβημαι, ἐφοβήθην fear


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