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C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 26.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 26."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 26

2 Shelmerdine Chapter 26 1.The optative mood 2.The optative of regular thematic verbs 3.The optative of contract verbs 4.The optative of athematic (-μι) verbs 5.The potential optative 6.Wishes

3 Shelmerdine Chapter 26 1.The optative mood 2.The optative of regular thematic verbs 3.The optative of contract verbs 4.The optative of athematic (-μι) verbs 5.The potential optative 6.Wishes

4 Shelmerdine Chapter The optative mood •This chapter introduces the final, and least common, mood in Greek: the optative. •The distinctive marker of this mood is an - ι - added before the personal ending. •The optative is considered secondary at all times, so it always uses secondary endings. •The optative retains the old first person singular ending - μι, which so far you have seen only on - μι verbs.

5 Shelmerdine Chapter 26 •Indicative •-ον •-ες •-ε •-ομεν •-ετε •-ον •Optative •-οιμι •-οις •-οι •-οιμεν •-οιτε •-οιεν Active Voice note the thematic vowel remains in all forms

6 Shelmerdine Chapter 26 •Indicative •-ομην •-εσο  ου •-ετο •-ομεθα •-εσθε •-οντο •Optative •-οιμην •-οισο  -οιο •-οιτο •-οιμεθα •-οισθε •-οιντο Middle Voice note the thematic vowel remains in all forms

7 Shelmerdine Chapter The optative mood •The optative exists in only two tenses, the present and aorist. •Shelmerdine shows forms for the future optative, but this is rare and of restricted use, so you may safely ignore it.

8 Shelmerdine Chapter 26 1.The optative mood 2.The optative of regular thematic verbs 3.The optative of contract verbs 4.The optative of athematic (-μι) verbs 5.The potential optative 6.Wishes

9 Shelmerdine Chapter The optative of regular thematic verbs •Both the present and second (strong) aorist use the same endings. •The first (weak) aorist retains its – α marker (see later slide). •Remember that only the indicative mood has an augment, so the aorist optative will have no augment. •When the diphthongs –αι or –οι end a verb form in the optative mood, they are long for purposes of accent (rather than short, as in all other words).

10 Shelmerdine Chapter 26 •Active •λύοιμι •λύοις •λύοι •λύοιμεν •λύοιτε •λύοιεν •Middle/Passive •λυοίμην •λύοιο •λύοιτο •λυοίμεθα •λύοισθε •λύοιντο Present Tense stem = λυ

11 Shelmerdine Chapter 26 •Active •λάβοιμι •λάβοις •λάβοι •λάβοιμεν •λάβοιτε •λάβοιεν •Middle/Passive •λαβοίμην •λάβοιο •λάβοιτο •λαβοίμεθα •λάβοισθε •λάβοιντο Strong (2 nd ) Aorist Tense stem = λαβ

12 Shelmerdine Chapter 26 •Active •λύσαιμι •λύσαις •λύσαι •λύσαιμεν •λύσαιτε •λύσαιεν •Middle •λυσαίμην •λύσαιο •λύσαιτο •λυσαίμεθα •λύσαισθε •λύσαιντο Aorist Tense stem = λυσ + α

13 Shelmerdine Chapter 26 1.The optative mood 2.The optative of regular thematic verbs 3.The optative of contract verbs 4.The optative of athematic (-μι) verbs 5.The potential optative 6.Wishes

14 Shelmerdine Chapter The optative of contract verbs 4. The optative of athematic (-μι) verbs •Adding the - ι - marker can prove difficult in actual pronunciation. Evidently, ancient Greek speakers fiddled with various ways to pronounce problematic optative forms. •The most common variant is to add - ιη - rather than just - ι -.

15 Shelmerdine Chapter The optative of contract verbs 4. The optative of athematic (-μι) verbs •Contract verbs and –μι verbs use the - ιη - variant, especially in singular forms, but only in the active. •The easiest and best way to remember this variation is to learn the optative forms of εἰμί “be,” because these forms also serve as endings for the aorist passive.

16 Shelmerdine Chapter 26 •optative of εἰμί •εἴην •εἴης •εἴη •εἶμεν •εἶτε •εἶεν •Aorist Passive •λυθείην •λυθείης •λυθείη •λυθεῖμεν •λυθεῖτε •λυθεῖεν Aorist Tense stem = λυθ

17 Shelmerdine Chapter The optative of contract verbs 4. The optative of athematic (-μι) verbs •Notice that a shortened version of the - ιη - variant, - ιε -, is regular in 3 rd person plural forms. –λύοιεν, λάβοιεν, λύσαιεν, εἶεν •In weak (1 st ) aorist forms, the endings –ειας ( rather than –αις ) –ειε (rather than –αι ) and –ειαν (rather than –αιεν ) are more common.

18 Shelmerdine Chapter 26 Parsing Verbs •Person: 1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd •Number: singular, plural •Tense: Present, Imperfect, Future, Aorist •Mood: Indicative, Participle, Infinitive, Imperative, Subjunctive, Optative •Voice: Active, Middle, Passive

19 Shelmerdine Chapter 26 Frequency of Verb forms •Person: 1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd •Number: singular, plural •Tense: Present (47%), Aorist (28%), Imperfect (13%), Perfect (6%), Future (4%), Pluperfect (1%), Future Perfect (.1%) •Mood: Indicative (41%), Participle (31%), Infinitive (13%), Subjunctive (6%), Imperative (4%), Optative (3%) •Voice: Active, Middle, Passive

20 Shelmerdine Chapter 26 1.The optative mood 2.The optative of regular thematic verbs 3.The optative of contract verbs 4.The optative of athematic (-μι) verbs 5.The potential optative 6.Wishes

21 Shelmerdine Chapter The potential optative •Often the optative is accompanied by the particle ἄν and expresses potential: •νικοῖμεν ἄν. –We might win. •λέγοις ἂν τοῦτο. –You could say that. •τίς λέγοι ἄν; –Who would say that?

22 Shelmerdine Chapter 26 1.The optative mood 2.The optative of regular thematic verbs 3.The optative of contract verbs 4.The optative of athematic (-μι) verbs 5.The potential optative 6.Wishes

23 Shelmerdine Chapter Wishes •The optative mood (< Latin optare “wish”) by itself expresses a wish for the future, often set up by εἰ γάρ or εἴθε. •(εἴθε) νικοῖμεν. –May we win. (Please let us win!) •εἰ γὰρ γένοιτο. –If only it would happen. (I hope it happens.) •μὴ γένοιτο. –May it not happen. (I hope it doesn’t happen.)

24 Shelmerdine Chapter 26 for next class (Thursday, March 17, 2011): •Quiz: Write out the endings for the optative mood (page 177 or slides 5-6). •Prepare Reading 1 “Marathon 1: Vain Appeal to Sparta” for class.

25 Shelmerdine Chapter 26 οἱ δὲ Ἀθηναῖοι ἦσαν ἐν μεγάλῳ κινδύνῳ· Φιλιππίδης οὖν ἐπέμφθη κῆρυξ ὑπὸ τῶν στρατηγῶν· καὶ δευτεραῖος ἐκ τοῦ Ἀθηναίων ἄστεως ἦν ἐν Σπάρτῃ, ἥκων δὲ ἐπὶ τοὺς ἄρχοντας ἔλεγε· Ὦ Λακεδαιμόνιοι, εἴθε ἐθέλοιτε τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις βοηθῆσαι, μηδὲ πόλις ἀρχαιοτάτη ἐν τοῖς Ἕλλησι δουλοῖτο ὑπὸ βαρβάρων ἀνδρῶν· καὶ γὰρ Ἐρετρία ἐδουλώθη, ἡμῖν σύμμαχος ἀγαθὸς οὖσα. οἱ δὲ Λακεδαιμόνιοι ἤθελον μὲν βοηθεῖν τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις, ἀδύνατον δὲ ἦν αὐτοῖς τὸ εὐθὺς ποιεῖν ταῦτα, οὐ βουλομένοις λῦσαι τὸν νόμον· ἔδει γὰρ αὐτοὺς τὴν πανσέληνον μένειν.

26 Shelmerdine Chapter 26 οἱ δὲ Ἀθηναῖοι ἦσαν ἐν μεγάλῳ κινδύνῳ· Φιλιππίδης οὖν ἐπέμφθη κῆρυξ ὑπὸ τῶν στρατηγῶν· καὶ δευτεραῖος ἐκ τοῦ Ἀθηναίων ἄστεως ἦν ἐν Σπάρτῃ, ἥκων δὲ ἐπὶ τοὺς ἄρχοντας ἔλεγε· Ὦ Λακεδαιμόνιοι, εἴθε ἐθέλοιτε τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις βοηθῆσαι, μηδὲ πόλις ἀρχαιοτάτη ἐν τοῖς Ἕλλησι δουλοῖτο ὑπὸ βαρβάρων ἀνδρῶν· καὶ γὰρ Ἐρετρία ἐδουλώθη, ἡμῖν σύμμαχος ἀγαθὸς οὖσα. οἱ δὲ Λακεδαιμόνιοι ἤθελον μὲν βοηθεῖν τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις, ἀδύνατον δὲ ἦν αὐτοῖς τὸ εὐθὺς ποιεῖν ταῦτα, οὐ βουλομένοις λῦσαι τὸν νόμον· ἔδει γὰρ αὐτοὺς τὴν πανσέληνον μένειν.

27 Shelmerdine Chapter 26 for next class (Monday, March 21, 2011): •Quiz: Chapter 26 Vocabulary. –omit εἴθε •Reading 2: “Marathon 2: The Battle”

28 Shelmerdine Chapter 26 ἐν δὲ τῷ μεταξὺ οἱ μὲν βάρβαροι ἤχθησαν εἰς τὸν Μαραθῶνα ὑπὸ τοῦ Ἱππίου τοῦ Πεισιστράτου παιδός, καὶ ἀφικόμενοι εἰς γῆν ἔστησαν· τῶν δὲ Ἀθηναίων ἐκεῖ ταχθέντων, τοῖς δὲ ἑαυτῶν στρατηγοῖς δύο ἐγένοντο αἱ γνῶμαι, τῶν μὲν οὐκ ἐθελόντων εὐθὺς μάχεσθαι (οἱ μὲν γὰρ Ἀθηναῖοι ὀλίγοι ἦσαν, οἱ δὲ Πέρσαι πολλοί), τῶν δὲ κελευόντων, ἐν οἷς καὶ Μιλτιάδης ἦν.

29 Shelmerdine Chapter 26 ἐν δὲ τῷ μεταξὺ οἱ μὲν βάρβαροι ἤχθησαν εἰς τὸν Μαραθῶνα ὑπὸ τοῦ Ἱππίου τοῦ Πεισιστράτου παιδός, καὶ ἀφικόμενοι εἰς γῆν ἔστησαν· τῶν δὲ Ἀθηναίων ἐκεῖ ταχθέντων, τοῖς δὲ ἑαυτῶν στρατηγοῖς δύο ἐγένοντο αἱ γνῶμαι, τῶν μὲν οὐκ ἐθελόντων εὐθὺς μάχεσθαι (οἱ μὲν γὰρ Ἀθηναῖοι ὀλίγοι ἦσαν, οἱ δὲ Πέρσαι πολλοί), τῶν δὲ κελευόντων, ἐν οἷς καὶ Μιλτιάδης ἦν.

30 Shelmerdine Chapter 26 ὡς δὲ ἐνίκα ἡ χείρων τῶν γνωμῶν, πρὸς τὸν πολέμαρχον, ὀνόματι Καλλίμαχον, ἐλθὼν ὁ Μιλτιάδης ἔλεξε τάδε· Ἐν σοὶ νῦν, ὦ Καλλίμαχε, ἔστιν ἢ δουλῶσαι τὰς Ἀθήνας ἢ ἐλευθέρας ποιήσαντα μνημόσυνον λιπέσθαι εἰς τὸν πάντα ἀνθρώπων βίον. ἡμῶν γὰρ τῶν στρατηγῶν δύο γίγνονται αἱ γνῶμαι, τῶν μὲν κελευόντων μάχεσθαι, τῶν δὲ οὔ. πάντα οὖν ἐκ σοῦ ἄρτηται. ὁ δὲ Καλλίμαχος ἐπείσθη ὑπὸ τοῦ Μιλτιάδου μάχην ψηφίζεσθαι.

31 Shelmerdine Chapter 26 ὡς δὲ ἐνίκα ἡ χείρων τῶν γνωμῶν, πρὸς τὸν πολέμαρχον, ὀνόματι Καλλίμαχον, ἐλθὼν ὁ Μιλτιάδης ἔλεξε τάδε· Ἐν σοὶ νῦν, ὦ Καλλίμαχε, ἔστιν ἢ δουλῶσαι τὰς Ἀθήνας ἢ ἐλευθέρας ποιήσαντα μνημόσυνον λιπέσθαι εἰς τὸν πάντα ἀνθρώπων βίον. ἡμῶν γὰρ τῶν στρατηγῶν δύο γίγνονται αἱ γνῶμαι, τῶν μὲν κελευόντων μάχεσθαι, τῶν δὲ οὔ. πάντα οὖν ἐκ σοῦ ἄρτηται. ὁ δὲ Καλλίμαχος ἐπείσθη ὑπὸ τοῦ Μιλτιάδου μάχην ψηφίζεσθαι.

32 Shelmerdine Chapter 26 ἐν δὲ τῇ μάχῃ οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι δρόμῳ προυχώρησαν ἐπὶ τοὺς βαρβάρους καὶ προσέβαλον αὐτοῖς. καὶ τὸ μὲν μέσον ἐνικῶντο οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι καὶ ἐδιώκοντο εἰς τὴν μεσόγειαν· τὸ δὲ κέρας ἑκάτερον οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι ἐνίκων. ἔπειτα δὲ οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι συναγαγόντες ἀμφότερα τὰ κέρατα προσέβαλον τοῖς τὸ μέσον τρέψασιν, καὶ ἐνίκων. καὶ οὕτως οἱ Πέρσαι ἐδιώχθησαν εἰς τὴν θάλατταν.

33 Shelmerdine Chapter 26 ἐν δὲ τῇ μάχῃ οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι δρόμῳ προυχώρησαν ἐπὶ τοὺς βαρβάρους καὶ προσέβαλον αὐτοῖς. καὶ τὸ μὲν μέσον ἐνικῶντο οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι καὶ ἐδιώκοντο εἰς τὴν μεσόγειαν· τὸ δὲ κέρας ἑκάτερον οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι ἐνίκων. ἔπειτα δὲ οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι συναγαγόντες ἀμφότερα τὰ κέρατα προσέβαλον τοῖς τὸ μέσον τρέψασιν, καὶ ἐνίκων. καὶ οὕτως οἱ Πέρσαι ἐδιώχθησαν εἰς τὴν θάλατταν.

34 Shelmerdine Chapter 26

35

36 for next class (Tuesday, March 22, 2011): •Quiz: College Greek Exam (syllabus and practice exam in Moodle).

37 Shelmerdine Chapter 26 μετὰ τοῦτο ἤνοιξεν Ιωβ τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ 2 καὶ κατηράσατο τὴν ἡμέραν αὐτοῦ, λέγων 3 Ἀπόλοιτο ἡ ἡμέρα, ἐν ᾗ ἐγεννήθην, καὶ ἡ νύξ, ἐν ᾗ εἶπαν Ἰδοὺ ἄρσεν. 4 ἡ ἡμέρα ἐκείνη εἴη σκότος, καὶ μὴ ἀναζητήσαι αὐτὴν ὁ κύριος ἄνωθεν, μηδὲ ἔλθοι εἰς αὐτὴν φέγγος· 5 ἐκλάβοι δὲ αὐτὴν σκότος καὶ σκιὰ θανάτου, ἐπέλθοι ἐπ’ αὐτὴν γνόφος. ἀναζητέω investigate, peer into ἀνοίγνυμι open ἄνωθεν above ἀπόλλυμαι –ολοῦμαι -ωλόμην perish ἄρσην –ενος ὁ male γνόφος –ου ὁ dark cloud εἶπαν = εἶπον ἐκλαμβάνω take away ἐπέρχομαι –εἶμι -ῆλθον come to ἰδού look! καταράομαι curse κύριος –ου ὁ Lord σκιά –ᾶς ἡ shadow σκότος –ου ὁ darkness στόμα –ατος τό mouth φέγγος –ους τό light

38 Shelmerdine Chapter 26 6 καταραθείη ἡ ἡμέρα καὶ ἡ νὺξ ἐκείνη, ἀπενέγκαιτο αὐτὴν σκότος· μὴ εἴη εἰς ἡμέρας ἐνιαυτοῦ μηδὲ ἀριθμηθείη εἰς ἡμέρας μηνῶν· 7 ἀλλὰ ἡ νὺξ ἐκείνη εἴη ὀδύνη, καὶ μὴ ἔλθοι ἐπ’ αὐτὴν εὐφροσύνη μηδὲ χαρμονή· 8 ἀλλὰ καταράσαιτο αὐτὴν ὁ καταρώμενος τὴν ἡμέραν ἐκείνην ὁ μέλλων τὸ μέγα κῆτος χειρώσασθαι. ἀποφέρω –οίσω -ένεγκα carry away ἀριθμέω count ἐνιαυτός –οῦ ὁ every year εὐφροσύνη –ης ἡ happy mood καταράομαι curse κῆτος –ους τό sea monster μήν μηνός ὁ month ὀδύνη –ης ἡ pain σκότος –ου ὁ darkness χαρμονή -ῆς ἡ delight χειρόω subdue

39 Shelmerdine Chapter 26 9 σκοτωθείη τὰ ἄστρα τῆς νυκτὸς ἐκείνης, ὑπομείναι καὶ εἰς φωτισμὸν μὴ ἔλθοι καὶ μὴ ἴδοι ἑωσφόρον ἀνατέλλοντα, 10 ὅτι οὐ συνέκλεισεν πύλας γαστρὸς μητρός μου· ἀπήλλαξεν γὰρ ἂν πόνον ἀπὸ ὀφθαλμῶν μου. (Ιωβ ) ἀνατέλλω rise up, bring to light ἀπαλλάσσω remove ἄστρον –ου τό star γαστήρ -ρός ὁ stomach, womb ἐωσφόρος –ου ὁ bringing of dawn ἴδοι aor. optative < εἶδον < ὁράω see ὀφθαλμός –οῦ ὁ eye πόνος –ου ὁ pain πύλη –ης ἡ gate σκοτόω darken συγκλείω shut closed ὑπομένω wait for φωτισμός –οῦ ὁ illumination

40 Shelmerdine Chapter 26 Exam 3 (Wednesday, March 23, 2011): •For δίδωμι or τίθημι (principal parts given), write out all forms of the 1 st /2 nd /3 rd person, sing/pl, present/imperfect/aorist indicative/infinitive. Test will specify either active or middle. •Given a noun and verb, write out the full declension of the noun with its definite article and the present participle of the verb (translation on test will specify either active or middle).

41 Shelmerdine Chapter 26 Exam 3 (Wednesday, March 23, 2011): •Translate a brief passage into clear, idiomatic English. •Parse selected words from this passage.


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