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C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 21.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 21."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 21

2 Shelmerdine Chapter 21 1.Participles 2.The present active participle in – ων (1 st principal part) 3.The attributive participle 4.The circumstantial participle 5.Further notes on participles 6.The future active participle (2 nd principal part) 7.The aorist active participle (3 rd principal part)

3 Shelmerdine Chapter 21 1.Participles 2.The present active participle in – ων (1 st principal part) 3.The attributive participle 4.The circumstantial participle 5.Further notes on participles 6.The future active participle (2 nd principal part) 7.The aorist active participle (3 rd principal part)

4 Shelmerdine Chapter 21 Verb person number tense mood voice Adjective number gender case Participle number gender case tense mood voice

5 Shelmerdine Chapter 21 PARTICIPLE verb stem + adjective ending tense of verb voice of verb meaning of verb number of subject gender of subject case of subject mood = participle

6 Shelmerdine Chapter 21 1.Participles Fundamentally, participles are verbs which modify their subjects using adjective endings (instead of using personal endings to indicate their subject). After the indicative mood, participles are the second most common mood in Greek. In general, nearly a third of Greek verbs appear in participle form.

7 Shelmerdine Chapter 21 1.Participles Participles exist in four tenses: 1.Present 2.Future 3.Aorist 4.Perfect Participles exist in all three voices: 1.Active 2.Middle 3.Passive

8 Shelmerdine Chapter 21 1.Participles All participles in the active voice use 3 rd declension endings for the masculine and neuter and 1 st declension endings for the feminine

9 Shelmerdine Chapter 21 1.Participles 2.The present active participle in – ων (1 st principal part) 3.The attributive participle 4.The circumstantial participle 5.Further notes on participles 6.The future active participle (2 nd principal part) 7.The aorist active participle (3 rd principal part)

10 Shelmerdine Chapter The present active participle in – ων • One of the most common and useful participles is the present participle active of εἰμί “be” • The masculine forms are effectively the endings you learned for λέων, λέοντος ὁ “lion” in Chapter 10.

11 Shelmerdine Chapter The present active participle in – ων present participle active of εἰμί “be” masculine forms singular Nom. ὤν Gen. ὄντος Dat. ὄντι Acc. ὄντα Voc. = nom. plural Nom. ὄντες Gen. ὄντων Dat. οὖσι Acc. ὄντας Voc. = nom. nom. sg.: οντς  ονς  ων dat. pl.: οντσι  ονσι  ουσι

12 Shelmerdine Chapter The present active participle in – ων present participle active of εἰμί “be” feminine forms singular Nom. οὖσα Gen. οὔσης Dat. οὔσῃ Acc. οὖσαν Voc. = nom. plural Nom. οὖσαι Gen. οὐσῶν Dat. οὔσαις Acc. οὔσας Voc. = nom. These are the same endings used by θάλαττα –ης ἡ “sea” in Chapter 3

13 Shelmerdine Chapter The present active participle in – ων present participle active of εἰμί “be” neuter forms singular Nom. ὄν Gen. ὄντος Dat. ὄντι Acc. = nom. Voc. = nom. plural Nom. ὄντα Gen. ὄντων Dat. οὖσι Acc. = nom. Voc. = nom. nom. sg.: οντ  ον dat. pl.: οντσι  ονσι  ουσι

14 Shelmerdine Chapter The present active participle in – ων For other verbs, simply add ὤν, οὖσα, ὄν as an ending: masculine forms singular Nom. λύων Gen. λύοντος Dat. λύοντι Acc. λύοντα Voc. = nom. plural Nom. λύοντες Gen. λυόντων Dat. λύουσι Acc. λύοντας Voc. = nom.

15 Shelmerdine Chapter The present active participle in – ων For other verbs, simply add ὤν, οὖσα, ὄν as an ending: feminine forms singular Nom. λύουσα Gen. λυούσης Dat. λυούσῃ Acc. λύουσαν Voc. = nom. plural Nom. λύουσαι Gen. λυουσῶν Dat. λυούσαις Acc. λυούσας Voc. = nom.

16 Shelmerdine Chapter The present active participle in – ων For other verbs, simply add ὤν, οὖσα, ὄν as an ending: neuter forms singular Nom. λῦον Gen. λύοντος Dat. λύοντι Acc. = nom. Voc. = nom. plural Nom. λύοντα Gen. λυόντων Dat. λύουσι Acc. = nom. Voc. = nom.

17 Shelmerdine Chapter The present active participle in – ων • Contract verbs follow the normal rules of contraction when forming participles, e.g., φιλέω. Nom. φιλῶν (φιλέων) φιλοῦσα (φιλέουσα) φιλοῦν (φιλέον) Gen. φιλοῦντος (φιλέοντος) φιλούσης (φιλέουσης) Dat. κτλ.

18 Shelmerdine Chapter The present active participle in – ων • Contract verbs follow the normal rules of contraction when forming participles, e.g., τιμάω. Nom. τιμῶν (τιμάων) τιμῶσα (τιμάουσα) τιμῶν (τιμάον) Gen. τιμῶντος (τιμάοντος) τιμώσης (τιμάουσης) Dat. κτλ.

19 Shelmerdine Chapter The present active participle in – ων • Contract verbs follow the normal rules of contraction when forming participles, e.g., δηλόω. Nom. δηλῶν (δηλόων) δηλοῦσα (δηλόουσα) δηλοῦν (δηλόον) Gen. δηλοῦντος (δηλόοντος) δηλούσης (δηλοούσης) Dat. κτλ.

20 Shelmerdine Chapter 21 1.Participles 2.The present active participle in – ων (1 st principal part) 3.The attributive participle 4.The circumstantial participle 5.Further notes on participles 6.The future active participle (2 nd principal part) 7.The aorist active participle (3 rd principal part)

21 Shelmerdine Chapter The attributive participle • A participle has two basic functions • Attributive, when a definite article precedes it. • Circumstantial, when no article precedes it.

22 Shelmerdine Chapter The attributive participle • A participle has two basic functions • Attributive, when a definite article precedes it. The participle can refer to a specific person or persons doing the action or to the whole class of people who perform this action. • οἱ ἄνδρες φεύγουσιν. The men flee. • οἱ φεύγοντες ἄνδρες... The men who flee… • οὐ τιμῶμεν τοὺς ἐκ τῆς μάχης φεύγοντας. We do not honor men who flee from battle.

23 Shelmerdine Chapter 21 1.Participles 2.The present active participle in – ων (1 st principal part) 3.The attributive participle 4.The circumstantial participle 5.Further notes on participles 6.The future active participle (2 nd principal part) 7.The aorist active participle (3 rd principal part)

24 Shelmerdine Chapter The circumstantial participle • A participle has two basic functions • Circumstantial, when no article precedes it. The participle now replaces a verb and a conjunction. • Although a participle almost never has its own conjunction, Greek verbs are, as we have seen, always linked, so a conjunction should be supplied in translation.

25 Shelmerdine Chapter The circumstantial participle • A participle has two basic functions • Circumstantial, when no article precedes it. The participle now replaces a verb and a conjunction. • τρέχομεν. λαμβάνομεν τοὺς ἵππους. • We are running. We catch the horses. • τρέχοντες λαμβάνομεν τοὺς ἵππους. We are running and we catch the horses. When we are running, we catch the horses. Because we are running, we catch the horses. Although we are running, we catch the horses.

26 Shelmerdine Chapter The circumstantial participle • A participle has two basic functions • Circumstantial, when no article precedes it. The participle now replaces a verb and a conjunction. • τρέχοντες λαμβάνομεν τοὺς ἵππους. If we are running, we catch the horses. Since we are running, we catch the horses. While we are running, we catch the horses. As long as we are running, we catch the horses. κτλ.

27 Shelmerdine Chapter The circumstantial participle • Make sure you translate the subject of the participle correctly. • λαμβάνομεν τρέχοντες τοὺς ἵππους. We catch the horses, while we are running. • λαμβάνομεν τρέχοντας τοὺς ἵππους. We catch the horses, while they are running.

28 Shelmerdine Chapter 21 1.Participles 2.The present active participle in – ων (1 st principal part) 3.The attributive participle 4.The circumstantial participle 5.Further notes on participles 6.The future active participle (2 nd principal part) 7.The aorist active participle (3 rd principal part)

29 Shelmerdine Chapter Further notes on participles The present participle refers to action happening at the same time as the main verb: τρέχοντες λαμβάνομεν τοὺς ἵππους. While we are running, we catch the horses. τρέχοντες ἐλαμβάνομεν τοὺς ἵππους. While we were running, we caught the horses.

30 Shelmerdine Chapter Further notes on participles The negative for a participle is normally ο ὐ : οὐ τρέχοντες ἐλαμβάνομεν τοὺς ἵππους. Although we were not running, we caught the horses.

31 Shelmerdine Chapter Further notes on participles For generic attributive participles, however, the negative is μή: λαμβάνομεν τοὺς μὴ τρέχοντας ἵππους. We catch horses that do not run. For circumstantial participles expressing a negative condition, the negative is μή: λαμβάνομεν τοὺς ἵππους μὴ τρέχοντας. We catch horses, if they are not running.

32 Shelmerdine Chapter 21 1.Participles 2.The present active participle in – ων (1 st principal part) 3.The attributive participle 4.The circumstantial participle 5.Further notes on participles 6.The future active participle (2 nd principal part) 7.The aorist active participle (3 rd principal part)

33 Shelmerdine Chapter The future active participle To form the future active participle, add ων, ουσα, ον to the future active stem: present: λύων, λύουσα, λῦον future: λύσων, λύσουσα, λῦσον

34 Shelmerdine Chapter The future active participle The future active participle refers to action after the main verb: λαμβάνομεν φεύγοντας τοὺς ἵππους. We catch the horses, while they are running away. present participle λαμβάνομεν φεύξοντας τοὺς ἵππους. We catch the horses, while they are about to run away. future participle

35 Shelmerdine Chapter The future active participle In practice, the future active participle often expresses purpose: ἐτρέχομεν διώξοντες τοὺς ἵππους. We were running, when we were about to chase the horses. We were running, in order to chase the horses.

36 Shelmerdine Chapter 21 1.Participles 2.The present active participle in – ων (1 st principal part) 3.The attributive participle 4.The circumstantial participle 5.Further notes on participles 6.The future active participle (2 nd principal part) 7.The aorist active participle (3 rd principal part)

37 Shelmerdine Chapter The aorist active participle To form the aorist active participle, if the verb has a 1 st (weak) aorist: to the aorist active stem, add -ας –ασα –αν (nominative singular endings) following the same pattern as πᾶς πᾶσα πᾶν.  λύσας λύσασα λῦσαν κτλ. Remember: only the indicative has an augment, so the participle has no augment.

38 Shelmerdine Chapter The aorist active participle To form the aorist active participle, if the verb has a 2 nd (strong) aorist: to the aorist active stem, add ών, οῦσα, όν identical to the present active except the accent never recedes past the ending.  λιπών, λιποῦσα, λιπόν κτλ. Remember, only the indicative has an augment, so the participle has no augment.

39 Shelmerdine Chapter The aorist active participle The aorist participle often refers to action prior to another verb. • λαβόντες οἱ ἄνθρωποι τοὺς ἵππους ἤγαγον οἴκαδε. After the men captured the horses, they led them home. Τhe men captured the horses, before they led them home.

40 Shelmerdine Chapter 21 •Summary of active participles –Present: present stem + – ων – ουσα – ον –Future: future stem + – ων – ουσα – ον –Aorist: •1 st (weak) aorist stem + – ας – ασα – αν •2 nd (strong) aorist stem + – ών – οῦσα – όν

41 Shelmerdine Chapter 21 μετὰ δὲ ἡμέρας ὀλίγας, ἀνὴρ ἁλιεὺς λαβὼν ἰχθὺν μέγαν τε καὶ καλὸν ἐνόμισεν αὐτὸν ἄξιονεἶναι δῶρον τῷ τυράννῳ. φέρων οὖν τὸν ἰχθὺν πρὸς τὴν τοῦ Πολυκράτους οἰκίαν, ἔφη ἐθέλειν λέγειν τῷ βασιλεῖ· τῷ δὲ Πολυκράτει ἐκβαίνοντι ἔλεγε παρέχων τὸν ἰχθὺν· Ὦ βασιλεῦ, ἐγὼ μέγαν ἰχθὺν λαβὼν οὐκ ἤθελον φέρειν εἰς ἀγοράν, καίπερ ὀλίγα χρήματα ἔχων, ἀλλά μοι ἐδόκει σοῦ τε εἶναι ἄξιος καὶ τῆς σῆς ἀρχῆς· σοὶ δὴ αὐτὸν φέρων αἰτῶ σε δέξασθαι.

42 Shelmerdine Chapter 21 μετὰ δὲ ἡμέρας ὀλίγας, ἀνὴρ ἁλιεὺς λαβὼν ἰχθὺν μέγαν τε καὶ καλὸν ἐνόμισεν αὐτὸν ἄξιον εἶναι δῶρον τῷ τυράννῳ. φέρων οὖν τὸν ἰχθὺν πρὸς τὴν τοῦ Πολυκράτους οἰκίαν, ἔφη ἐθέλειν λέγειν τῷ βασιλεῖ· τῷ δὲ Πολυκράτει ἐκβαίνοντι ἔλεγε παρέχων τὸν ἰχθὺν· Ὦ βασιλεῦ, ἐγὼ μέγαν ἰχθὺν λαβὼν οὐκ ἤθελον φέρειν εἰς ἀγοράν, καίπερ ὀλίγα χρήματα ἔχων, ἀλλά μοι ἐδόκει σοῦ τε εἶναι ἄξιος καὶ τῆς σῆς ἀρχῆς· σοὶ δὴ αὐτὸν φέρων αἰτῶ σε δέξασθαι.

43 Shelmerdine Chapter 21 ὁ δὲ ἡδόμενος τοῖς λόγοις καὶ λέγει· Εὖ τε ἐποίησας καὶ χάριν σοι ἔχομεν τῶν τε λόγων καὶ τοῦ δώρου· καί σε ἐπὶ δεῖπνον καλοῦμεν. ὁ μὲν οὖν ἁλιεὺς μάλιστα ἥδεται, ὡς οὕτω τιμᾶται· οἱ δὲ θεράποντες τὸν ἰχθὺν τέμνοντες, εὐρίσκουσιν ἐν τῇ γαστρὶ τὴν Πολυκράτους σφραγῖδα ἣν ἀπέβαλεν. ὡς δὲ εἶδόν τε καὶ ἔλαβον αὐτήν, ἔφερον παρὰ τὸν Πολυκράτη καὶ τὸ πρᾶγμα ἐξηγοῦντο.

44 Shelmerdine Chapter 21 ὁ δὲ ἡδόμενος τοῖς λόγοις καὶ λέγει· Εὖ τε ἐποίησας καὶ χάριν σοι ἔχομεν τῶν τε λόγων καὶ τοῦ δώρου· καί σε ἐπὶ δεῖπνον καλοῦμεν. ὁ μὲν οὖν ἁλιεὺς μάλιστα ἥδεται, ὡς οὕτω τιμᾶται· οἱ δὲ θεράποντες τὸν ἰχθὺν τέμνοντες, εὐρίσκουσιν ἐν τῇ γαστρὶ τὴν Πολυκράτους σφραγῖδα ἣν ἀπέβαλεν. ὡς δὲ εἶδόν τε καὶ ἔλαβον αὐτήν, ἔφερον παρὰ τὸν Πολυκράτη καὶ τὸ πρᾶγμα ἐξηγοῦντο.

45 Shelmerdine Chapter 21 τῷ δὲ Ἄμασι, ἀκούσαντι τὰ περὶ τοῦ θαύματος, δῆλον ἦν ὅτι σῶσαι τε ἀδύνατόν ἐστι ἀνθρώπῳ ἄνθρωπον ἐκ τοῦ μέλλοντος γενήσεσθαι πράγματος, καὶ ὅτι οὐκ εὖ ἀποθανεῖται Πολυκράτης εὐτυχῶν τὰ πάντα, ὃς καὶ ἃ ἀποβάλλει εὑρίσκει. πέμψας δὲ κήρυκα αὐτῷ εἰς Σάμον καὶ διελύσατο τὴν φιλίαν· οὐ γὰρ ἤθελεν, ὅτε δεινή συμφορὰ τὸν Πολυκράτη καταλύσει, αὐτὸς ἄλγος πάσχειν ὡς περὶ ξένου ἀνδρὸς.

46 Shelmerdine Chapter 21 τῷ δὲ Ἄμασι, ἀκούσαντι τὰ περὶ τοῦ θαύματος, δῆλον ἦν ὅτι σῶσαι τε ἀδύνατόν ἐστι ἀνθρώπῳ ἄνθρωπον ἐκ τοῦ μέλλοντος γενήσεσθαι πράγματος, καὶ ὅτι οὐκ εὖ ἀποθανεῖται Πολυκράτης εὐτυχῶν τὰ πάντα, ὃς καὶ ἃ ἀποβάλλει εὑρίσκει. πέμψας δὲ κήρυκα αὐτῷ εἰς Σάμον καὶ διελύσατο τὴν φιλίαν·

47 Shelmerdine Chapter 21 οὐ γὰρ ἤθελεν, ὅτε δεινή συμφορὰ τὸν Πολυκράτη καταλύσει, αὐτὸς ἄλγος πάσχειν ὡς περὶ ξένου ἀνδρὸς.

48 Shelmerdine Chapter ὅτε δὲ παρώργισαν οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν τὸν θεὸν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, ἔδωκεν αὐτοὺς εἰς χεῖρας Ναβουχοδονοσορ βασιλέως Βαβυλῶνος τοῦ Χαλδαίου καὶ τὸν οἶκον τοῦτον κατέλυσεν καὶ τὸν λαὸν ἀπῴκισεν εἰς Βαβυλῶνα. 13 ἀλλ’ ἐν ἔτει πρώτῳ Κύρου τοῦ βασιλέως Κῦρος ὁ βασιλεὺς ἔθετο γνώμην τὸν οἶκον τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦτον οἰκοδομηθῆναι. ἀποικίζω, ἀποικιῶ, ἀπῴκισα send away from home γνώμη –ης ἡ idea, intent ἔδωκεν 3rd sg aor. indic. act. δίδωμι give ἔθετο 3rd sg aor. indic. mid. τίθημι set λαὸς –οῦ ὁ the people οἰκοδομέω build οἶκος –ου ὁ home οὐρανός –ου ὁ heaven παροργίζω make angry τοῦτον οὗτος this χείρ, χειρός ἡ hand

49 Shelmerdine Chapter καὶ τὰ σκεύη τοῦ οἴκου τοῦ θεοῦ τὰ χρυσᾶ καὶ τὰ ἀργυρᾶ, ἃ Ναβουχοδονοσορ ἐξήνεγκεν ἀπὸ οἴκου τοῦ ἐν Ιερουσαλημ καὶ ἀπήνεγκεν αὐτὰ εἰς ναὸν τοῦ βασιλέως, ἐξήνεγκεν αὐτὰ Κῦρος ὁ βασιλεὺς ἀπὸ ναοῦ τοῦ βασιλέως καὶ ἔδωκεν τῷ Σασαβασαρ τῷ θησαυροφύλακι τῷ ἐπὶ τοῦ θησαυροῦ 15 καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Πάντα τὰ σκεύη λαβὲ καὶ πορεύου θὲς αὐτὰ ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ τῷ ἐν Ιερουσαλημ εἰς τὸν ἑαυτῶν τόπον. ἀποφέρω ἀποίσω ἀπήνεγκον carry away ἑαυτῶν “their own” ἐκφέρω ἐκοίσω ἐξήνεγκον carry out θὲς 2nd sg. aor. imper. act. τίθημι set θησαυρός –ου ὁ treasure θησαυροφύλαξ –κος ὁ treasurer ναός νεῶς ὁ temple οἶκος –ου ὁ home σκεύος –ους τό vessel τόπος –ου ὁ place

50 Shelmerdine Chapter τότε Σασαβασαρ ἐκεῖνος ἦλθεν καὶ ἔδωκεν θεμελίους τοῦ οἴκου τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ ἐν Ιερουσαλημ· καὶ ἀπὸ τότε ἕως τοῦ νῦν ᾠκοδομήθη καὶ οὐκ ἐτελέσθη. ἔδωκεν 3rd sg aor. indic. act. δίδωμι give ἐκεῖνος –η –ο that ἕως until ἦλθε 3rd sg aor. indic. act. ἔρχομαι come θεμέλιος –ου ὁ foundation οἰκοδομέω build οἶκος –ου ὁ home τελέω complete

51 Shelmerdine Chapter καὶ νῦν εἰ ἐπὶ τὸν βασιλέα ἀγαθόν, ἐπισκεπήτω ἐν οἴκῳ τῆς γάζης τοῦ βασιλέως Βαβυλῶνος, ὅπως γνῷς ὅτι ἀπὸ βασιλέως Κύρου ἐτέθη γνώμη οἰκοδομῆσαι τὸν οἶκον τοῦ θεοῦ ἐκεῖνον τὸν ἐν Ιερουσαλημ· καὶ γνοὺς ὁ βασιλεὺς περὶ τούτου πεμψάτω πρὸς ἡμᾶς. (LXX Εσδρας ) γάζα –ης ἡ archive γνοὺς mas. nom. sg. aor. part. act. γιγνώσκω know γνώμη –ης ἡ idea, intent γνῷς “you can know” ἐκεῖνος –η –ο that ἐπισκεπέω examine ἐτέθη 3rd sg aor. indic. pass. τίθημι set οἰκοδομέω build οἶκος –ου ὁ home ὅπως so that τελέω complete τούτου οὗτος this

52 Shelmerdine Chapter 21 for next class (Monday, February 14, 2011): •Quiz: Write out the forms of ὤν, οὖσα, ὄν as on page 137. •Prepare “Polycrates and the Ring 2: Destiny Is Destiny” for class.

53 Shelmerdine Chapter 21 for tomorrow (Tuesday, February 15, 2011): •Quiz: vocabulary –omit Ἄ μασις, Πολυκρ ά της, σφραγίς •Continue “Polycrates and the Ring 2: Destiny Is Destiny” and prepare Biblical reading for class.

54 Shelmerdine Chapter 21 for tomorrow (Wednesday, February 16, 2011): •Quiz: parsing on “Polycrates and the Ring 2: Destiny Is Destiny” •Read Chapter 22 and prepare reading “The Ingenuity of Cyrus” for class.


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