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C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 27.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 27."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 27

2 Shelmerdine Chapter 27 1.Sequence of moods 2.Purpose (final) clauses 3.Future participle to express purpose 4.οἶδα 5.Irregular strong aorists 6.Supplementary participles in indirect statement 7.Indirect statement with ὅτι or ὡς

3 Shelmerdine Chapter 27 1.Sequence of moods 2.Purpose (final) clauses 3.Future participle to express purpose 4.οἶδα 5.Irregular strong aorists 6.Supplementary participles in indirect statement 7.Indirect statement with ὅτι or ὡς

4 Shelmerdine Chapter Sequence of moods Recall that tenses in Greek can be divided into “primary” and “secondary.” –Primary tenses are the present and future. –Secondary tenses are the imperfect and aorist. Recall also that the subjunctive mood uses primary endings and the optative mood uses secondary endings.

5 Shelmerdine Chapter 27 1.Sequence of moods Generally the subjunctive mood is associated with primary tenses and the optative mood with secondary tenses. This association is known as the “sequence of moods.”

6 Shelmerdine Chapter 27 1.Sequence of moods The “sequence of moods” means that if a main clause has a verb in a primary tense, then clauses dependent on it will tend to be in the subjunctive. Likewise, if a main clause has a verb in a secondary tense, then clauses dependent on it will tend to be in the optative.

7 Shelmerdine Chapter 27 1.Sequence of moods 2.Purpose (final) clauses 3.Future participle to express purpose 4.οἶδα 5.Irregular strong aorists 6.Supplementary participles in indirect statement 7.Indirect statement with ὅτι or ὡς

8 Shelmerdine Chapter Purpose (final) clauses This chapter introduces ways to express purpose in ancient Greek. A purpose clause (also called a “final” clause), as its name suggests, refers to an action which is the purpose of some other action.

9 Shelmerdine Chapter Purpose (final) clauses English has several ways to express purpose: –We sent the messengers so that they would tell the truth to the king. –We sent the messengers in order to tell the truth to the king. –We sent the messengers to tell the truth to the king.

10 Shelmerdine Chapter Purpose (final) clauses Greek likewise has several equivalent ways to express purpose. The most basic way is to introduce the purpose clause with ἵνα, ὅπως, or ὡς. Different authors prefer different conjunctions, but there is no difference in meaning or translation.

11 Shelmerdine Chapter Purpose (final) clauses By rule, the verb in a purpose clause changes mood from the indicative. There are ways to form purpose clauses with verbs in the subjunctive/optative, infinitive, and participle moods.

12 Shelmerdine Chapter Purpose (final) clauses Following the conjunctions ἵνα, ὅπως, or ὡς, the verb of the purpose clause will become subjunctive or optative. –Following a verb in a primary tense, the verb in the purpose clause becomes subjunctive. –Following a verb in a secondary tense, the verb in the purpose clause generally becomes optative.

13 Shelmerdine Chapter Purpose (final) clauses πέμπομεν τοὺς ἀγγέλους ἵνα (ὅπως) τῷ βασιλεῖ τἀληθῆ λέγωσιν. –We send the messengers to tell the truth to the king. ἐπέμψαμεν τοὺς ἀγγέλους ἵνα (ὅπως) τῷ βασιλεῖ τἀληθῆ λέγοιεν. –We sent the messengers to tell the truth to the king.

14 Shelmerdine Chapter 27 1.Sequence of moods 2.Purpose (final) clauses 3.Future participle to express purpose 4.οἶδα 5.Irregular strong aorists 6.Supplementary participles in indirect statement 7.Indirect statement with ὅτι or ὡς

15 Shelmerdine Chapter Future participle to express purpose The future participle also expresses purpose. Since this is a circumstantial use, it will appear in the predicate position. Remember that any participle modifies its own subject.

16 Shelmerdine Chapter Future participle to express purpose πέμπομεν τοὺς ἀγγέλους λέξοντας τῷ βασιλεῖ τἀληθῆ. –We send the messengers to tell the truth to the king. ἐπέμψαμεν τοὺς ἀγγέλους λέξοντας τῷ βασιλεῖ τἀληθῆ. –We sent the messengers to tell the truth to the king.

17 Shelmerdine Chapter 27 1.Sequence of moods 2.Purpose (final) clauses 3.Future participle to express purpose 4.οἶδα 5.Irregular strong aorists 6.Supplementary participles in indirect statement 7.Indirect statement with ὅτι or ὡς

18 Shelmerdine Chapter οἶδα The verb οἶδα is, historically, the perfect of the lost verb *εἴδω “see” but in practice serves as the present of “know” (“have seen”  “know”). The regular, but deponent, future of this verb, εἴσομαι, means “will know.” The aorist εἶδον (which serves as the aorist of ὁράω “see,”) comes from this same verb.

19 Shelmerdine Chapter 27 οἶδα οἶσθα οἶδε(ν) ἴσμεν ἴστε ἴσασι(ν) ᾔδη/ᾔδειν ᾔδησθα/ᾔδεις ᾔδει(ν) ᾖσμεν/ᾔδεμεν ᾖστε/ᾔδετε ᾖσαν/ᾔδεσαν Present/Perfect TenseImperfect/Pluperfect Tense

20 Shelmerdine Chapter 27 εἰδῶ εἰδῇς εἰδῇ εἰδῶμεν εἰδῆτε εἰδῶσι(ν) εἰδείην εἰδείης εἰδείη εἰδεῖμεν/εἰδείημεν εἰδεῖτε/εἰδείητε εἰδεῖεν/εἰδείησαν Subjunctive MoodOptative Mood

21 Shelmerdine Chapter 27 imperatives –ἴσθι, ἴστε –ἴστω, ἴστων infinitive –εἰδέναι participle –εἰδώς, εἰδυῖα, εἰδός Other moods

22 Shelmerdine Chapter οἶδα In Moodle is a pdf entitled “Verbs of Seeing and Knowing in Ancient Greek” which lays out the various verbs of seeing and knowing in different tenses.

23 Shelmerdine Chapter 27 1.Sequence of moods 2.Purpose (final) clauses 3.Future participle to express purpose 4.οἶδα 5.Irregular strong aorists 6.Supplementary participles in indirect statement 7.Indirect statement with ὅτι or ὡς

24 Shelmerdine Chapter Irregular strong aorists Two common verbs are – μι verbs only in the aorist tense. –This means they add their personal endings (-ν, -ς, *, - μεν, -τε, -σαν) directly to their stem. βάινω “walk” has the aorist stem –βη– (shortened to βα– in the optative). γιγνώσκω “know, recognize” has the aorist stem –γνω– (shortened to γνο– in the optative).

25 Shelmerdine Chapter 27 ἔβην ἔβης ἔβη ἔβημεν ἔβητε ἔβησαν ἔγνων ἔγνως ἔγνω ἔγνωμεν ἔγνωτε ἔγνωσαν Aorist Indicative

26 Shelmerdine Chapter 27 βῶ βῇς βῇ βῶμεν βῆτε βῶσι γνῶ γνῷς γνῷ γνῶμεν γνῶτε γνῶσι Aorist Subjunctive

27 Shelmerdine Chapter 27 βαίην βαίης βαίη βαῖμεν βαῖτε βαῖεν γνοίην γνοίης γνοίη γνοῖμεν γνοῖτε γνοῖεν Aorist Optative

28 Shelmerdine Chapter 27 imperatives –βῆθι, βῆτε –βήτω, βάντων infinitive –βῆναι participle –βάς, βᾶσα, βάν Other moods imperatives –γνῶθι, γνῶτε –γνώτω, γνόντων infinitive –γνῶναι participle –γνούς, γνοῦσα, γνόν

29 Shelmerdine Chapter 27 1.Sequence of moods 2.Purpose (final) clauses 3.Future participle to express purpose 4.οἶδα 5.Irregular strong aorists 6.Supplementary participles in indirect statement 7.Indirect statement with ὅτι or ὡς

30 Shelmerdine Chapter Supplementary participles in indirect statement Verbs which mean “show” (e.g., δηλόω ) “know” (e.g., οἶδα ), or refer to perception by the senses (e.g., ὁράω “see,” ἀκούω “hear”) generally set up indirect statements with participles.

31 Shelmerdine Chapter Supplementary participles in indirect statement As always, the participle modifies its own subject (the subject of the indirect statement). οἱ στρατιῶται αἰσθάνονται τάχιστα ἐρχόμενοι. –The soldiers sense that they are coming very quickly. οἱ στρατιῶται αἰσθάνονται τοὺς πολεμίους τάχιστα ἐρχομένους. –The soldiers sense that the enemy come very quickly.

32 Shelmerdine Chapter Supplementary participles in indirect statement Remember that English sometimes backshifts the tense in indirect statement, but Greek does not. οἱ στρατιῶται ὁρῶσι τοὺς πολεμίους τάχιστα ἐρχομένους. –The soldiers see that the enemy are coming very quickly. οἱ στρατιῶται ὥρων τοὺς πολεμίους τάχιστα ἐρχομένους. –The soldiers saw that the enemy were coming very quickly.

33 Shelmerdine Chapter 27 1.Sequence of moods 2.Purpose (final) clauses 3.Future participle to express purpose 4.οἶδα 5.Irregular strong aorists 6.Supplementary participles in indirect statement 7.Indirect statement with ὅτι or ὡς

34 Shelmerdine Chapter Indirect statement with ὅτι or ὡς Verbs which mean “say,” (e.g., λέγω, εἶπον ), and sometimes other verbs, set up indirect statement with the conjunctions ὅτι or ὡς, much as English uses “that.”

35 Shelmerdine Chapter Indirect statement with ὅτι or ὡς The conjunctions ὅτι or ὡς do not require a change of mood. οἱ στρατιῶται λέγουσιν ὅτι οἱ πολέμιοι τάχιστα ἦλθον. –The soldiers say that the enemy came very quickly.

36 Shelmerdine Chapter Indirect statement with ὅτι or ὡς Remember that English sometimes backshifts the tense in indirect statement, but Greek does not. οἱ στρατιῶται λέγουσιν ὅτι οἱ πολέμιοι τάχιστα ἔρχονται. –The soldiers say that the enemy is coming very quickly. οἱ στρατιῶται εἷπον ὅτι οἱ πολέμιοι τάχιστα ἔρχονται. –The soldiers said that the enemy came very quickly.

37 Shelmerdine Chapter Indirect statement with ὅτι or ὡς When a verb in a secondary tense (imperfect, aorist, pluperfect) sets up indirect statement, the verb in indirect statement can change to the optative. οἱ στρατιῶται εἷπον ὅτι οἱ πολέμιοι τάχιστα ἔρχονται. οἱ στρατιῶται εἷπον ὅτι οἱ πολέμιοι τάχιστα ἔρχοιντο. –The soldiers said that the enemy came very quickly.

38 Shelmerdine Chapter 27 for next class (Tuesday, March 29, 2011): Quiz: Chapter 27 Vocabulary. –omit Ἀριστογόρας Biblical Reading

39 Shelmerdine Chapter 27 Ὡς δὲ οἱ τῶν Ἑλλήνων ἄγγελοι ἀφίκοντο εἰς τὰς Συρακούσας, τῷ Γέλωνι ἔλεγον τάδε· Ἔπεμψαν ἡμᾶς οἵ τε Λακεδαιμόνιοι καὶ οἱ Ἀθηαναῖοι καὶ οἱ τούτων σύμμαχοι, παραληψομένους σε πρὸς τὸν βάρβαρον· οἶσθα γὰρ ὅτι ὁ Πέρσης ἀνὴρ μέλλει, διαβὰς τὸν Ἑλλήσποντον ἐπαγαγὼν πάντα τὸν ἑαυτοῦ στρατὸν ἐκ τῆς Ἀσίας, στρατεύσειν ἐπὶ τὴν Ἑλλάδα. ὡς δέ σοι, τῷ τῆς Σικελὶας ἄρχοντι, μοῖρά ἐστιν οὐκ ἐλαχίστη τῆς Ἑλλάδος, βοήθει τοῖς τὴν Ἑλλάδα ἐλευθεροῦσι καὶ ἅμα ἐλευθέρου σεαυτόν· νικθέντων γὰρ ἡμῶν, καὶ σὺ νικηθήσει.

40 Shelmerdine Chapter 27 Ὡς δὲ οἱ τῶν Ἑλλήνων ἄγγελοι ἀφίκοντο εἰς τὰς Συρακούσας, τῷ Γέλωνι ἔλεγον τάδε· Ἔπεμψαν ἡμᾶς οἵ τε Λακεδαιμόνιοι καὶ οἱ Ἀθηαναῖοι καὶ οἱ τούτων σύμμαχοι, παραληψομένους σε πρὸς τὸν βάρβαρον· οἶσθα γὰρ ὅτι ὁ Πέρσης ἀνὴρ μέλλει, διαβὰς τὸν Ἑλλήσποντον ἐπαγαγὼν πάντα τὸν ἑαυτοῦ στρατὸν ἐκ τῆς Ἀσίας, στρατεύσειν ἐπὶ τὴν Ἑλλάδα.

41 Shelmerdine Chapter 27 ὡς δέ σοι, τῷ τῆς Σικελὶας ἄρχοντι, μοῖρά ἐστιν οὐκ ἐλαχίστη τῆς Ἑλλάδος, βοήθει τοῖς τὴν Ἑλλάδα ἐλευθεροῦσι καὶ ἅμα ἐλευθέρου σεαυτόν· νικθέντων γὰρ ἡμῶν, καὶ σὺ νικηθήσει.

42 Shelmerdine Chapter 27 ὁ δὲ Γέλων ἀπεκρίνατο· Ἄνδρες Ἕλληνες, ἐτολμήσατε μὲν δεῦρο ἐλθεῖν, ὅπως ἐμὲ σύμμαχον ἐπὶ τὸν βάρβαρον παρακαλέσαιτε· αὐτοὶ δέ, ὅτε ἐμοὶ πρὸς τοὺς Καρχηδονίους πόλεμος ἦν, οὐκ ἤλθετε ὡς βοηθήσοντες. νῦν δέ ἐπεὶ ὁ πόλεμος ἀφικνεῖται εἰς ὑμᾶς, πρὸς τὸν Γέλωνα ἔρχεσθε. ἀτιμηθεὶς δὲ ὑφ' ὑμῶν, οὐχ ὑμᾶς ἀτιμήσω, ἀλλ' ἐτοῖμός εἰμι βοηθεῖν, παρέχων διακοσίας τριήρεις καὶ δισμυρίοις ὁπλίτας καὶ δισχιλίους ἱππέας αὐτὸς ὢν στρατηγός τε καὶ ἡγεμὼν τῶν Ἑλλήνων πρὸς τὸν βάρβαρον· ἐπὶ λόγῳ τούτῳ τάδε ὑφίσταμαι. ἐπ' ἄλλῳ δὲ λόγῳ οὔτ' ἂν αὐτὸς ἔλθοιμι οὔτ' ἄλλους πέμψαιμι.

43 Shelmerdine Chapter 27 ὁ δὲ Γέλων ἀπεκρίνατο· Ἄνδρες Ἕλληνες, ἐτολμήσατε μὲν δεῦρο ἐλθεῖν, ὅπως ἐμὲ σύμμαχον ἐπὶ τὸν βάρβαρον παρακαλέσαιτε· αὐτοὶ δέ, ὅτε ἐμοὶ πρὸς τοὺς Καρχηδονίους πόλεμος ἦν, οὐκ ἤλθετε ὡς βοηθήσοντες. νῦν δέ ἐπεὶ ὁ πόλεμος ἀφικνεῖται εἰς ὑμᾶς, πρὸς τὸν Γέλωνα ἔρχεσθε.

44 Shelmerdine Chapter 27 ἀτιμηθεὶς δὲ ὑφ' ὑμῶν, οὐχ ὑμᾶς ἀτιμήσω, ἀλλ' ἐτοῖμός εἰμι βοηθεῖν, παρέχων διακοσίας τριήρεις καὶ δισμυρίοις ὁπλίτας καὶ δισχιλίους ἱππέας αὐτὸς ὢν στρατηγός τε καὶ ἡγεμὼν τῶν Ἑλλήνων πρὸς τὸν βάρβαρον· ἐπὶ λόγῳ τούτῳ τάδε ὑφίσταμαι. ἐπ' ἄλλῳ δὲ λόγῳ οὔτ' ἂν αὐτὸς ἔλθοιμι οὔτ' ἄλλους πέμψαιμι.

45 Shelmerdine Chapter 27 9 καὶ εἶπεν τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ ἵνα πλοιάριον προσκαρτερῇ αὐτῷ διὰ τὸν ὄχλον ἵνα μὴ θλίβωσιν αὐτόν· 10 πολλοὺς γὰρ ἐθεράπευσεν, ὥστε ἐπιπίπτειν αὐτῷ ἵνα αὐτοῦ ἅψωνται ὅσοι εἶχον μάστιγας. 11 καὶ τὰ πνεύματα τὰ ἀκάθαρτα, ὅταν αὐτὸν ἐθεώρουν, προσέπιπτον αὐτῷ καὶ ἔκραζον λέγοντες ὅτι Σὺ εἶ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ. ἀκάθαρτος –ον unclean ἅπτω + gen. touch ἐπιπίπτω fall on θεωρέω notice, see θλίβω crush κράζω cry out μαθητής –οῦ ὁ student, disciple μάστιξ –ιγος ἡ whip, disease ὅσος –η –ον all who ὅταν whenever ὄχλος –ου ὁ crowd πλοιάριον –ου τό boat πνεῦμα –ατος τό breath, spirit, life προσκαρτερέω stand by, be ready προσπίπτω fall before υἱός, υἱοὑ ὁ son ὥστε + inf. with the result that (they)

46 Shelmerdine Chapter καὶ πολλὰ ἐπετίμα αὐτοῖς ἵνα μὴ αὐτὸν φανερὸν ποιήσωσιν. 13 καὶ ἀναβαίνει εἰς τὸ ὄρος καὶ προσκαλεῖται οὓς ἤθελεν αὐτός, καὶ ἀπῆλθον πρὸς αὐτόν. 14 καὶ ἐποίησεν δώδεκα, [οὓς καὶ ἀποστόλους ὠνόμασεν,] ἵνα ὦσιν μετ’ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἵνα ἀποστέλλῃ αὐτοὺς κηρύσσειν 15 καὶ ἔχειν ἐξουσίαν ἐκβάλλειν τὰ δαιμόνια· ἀναβαίνω walk to ἀποστέλλω –στελῶ -έστειλα send off δαιμόνιον –ου τό demon ἐκβάλλω throw out ἐξουσία –ας ἡ authority ἐπτιμάω order κηρύσσω proclaim, preach ὀνομάζω name ὄρος –ους τό mountain προσκαλέω call for, invite φανερός –α –ον clear, revealed

47 Shelmerdine Chapter [καὶ ἐποίησεν τοὺς δώδεκα,] καὶ ἐπέθηκεν ὄνομα τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρον, 17 καὶ Ἰάκωβον τὸν τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου καὶ Ἰωάννην τὸν ἀδελφὸν τοῦ Ἰακώβου, καὶ ἐπέθηκεν αὐτοῖς ὀνόματα Βοανηργές, ὅ ἐστιν Υἱοὶ Βροντῆς· 18 καὶ Ἀνδρέαν καὶ Φίλιππον καὶ Βαρθολομαῖον καὶ Μαθθαῖον καὶ Θωμᾶν καὶ Ἰάκωβον τὸν τοῦ Ἁλφαίου καὶ Θαδδαῖον καὶ Σίμωνα τὸν Καναναῖον 19 καὶ Ἰούδαν Ἰσκαριώθ, ὃς καὶ παρέδωκεν αὐτόν. (Κατὰ Μάρκον ) βροντή -ῆς ἡ thunder ἐπιτίθημι –θήσω -έθηκα add on παραδίδωμι –δώσω -έδωκα hand over, betray

48 Shelmerdine Chapter 27 for next class (Wednesday, March 30, 2011): Quiz: parsing on Chapter 27 Biblical Reading Read Chapter 28


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