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Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 9 part 2: Unorthodox Futures 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 9 part 2: Unorthodox Futures 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major"— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 9 part 2: Unorthodox Futures 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major

2 Ancient Greek for Everyone This class AGE Unit 9 part 2: Unorthodox Futures This unit adds the other principal voice in Greek, the middle. This part covers a quirk in the future of some Greek verbs.

3 Ancient Greek for Everyone VOCABULARY: For reasons unclear now, and obscure already in antiquity, some verbs that are regularly active in the present tense become deponent in the future tense. These verbs are said to have a “deponent future.” These verbs retain active meaning in the future, even though the forms are middle. The challenge of conveying middle or passive meaning in the future of these verbs is complex, and a topic reserved for advanced study.

4 Ancient Greek for Everyone Building a Greek verb Following are two examples of verbs with a “deponent future.” Recall that the verb εἰμί “be,” despite its irregularities in the present tense, has the stem ἐσ -. This verb is regular in the future tense, but it is deponent. The model verb λαμβάνω “take” is also deponent in the future tense.

5 Ancient Greek for Everyone ἔσομαι ἔσει / ῃ ἔσεται ἐσόμεθα ἔσεσθε ἔσονται Building a Greek Verb The Future Indicative and Infinitive Middle of εἰμί ἔσεσθαι

6 Ancient Greek for Everyone Building a Greek verb Recall that adding a - σ - to the stem marks a verb as in the future tense. So now the stem looks (and sounds) like this: – λαβ + σ = “take”  ληψ = “take” (in the future) ALL VERBS, regardless of what endings they use in the present tense, use - ω verb endings in the future tense. Future tense = verb stem + σ + - ω verb endings This is true in both the active and middle voices.

7 Ancient Greek for Everyone λήψομαι λήψει / ῃ λήψεται ληψόμεθα λήψεσθε λήψονται Building a Greek Verb The Future Indicative and Infinitive Middle of λαμβάνω λήψεσθαι

8 Ancient Greek for Everyone Vocabulary: Principal Parts Greek verbs can morph into a variety of forms (you now know 28 different forms of a verb). You have already seen how vocabulary entries have two principal parts: 1 st person singular present indicative active/middle (- μι, - ω or - μαι ) 1 st person singular future indicative active/middle (- ω or - μαι ) Following are the verbs from your vocabulary so far that have deponent futures. As it happens, most - ω verbs that add a ν or σκ to mark the present tense have deponent futures.

9 Ancient Greek for Everyone Future Deponent Vocabulary: Classical ἀκούω, ἀκούσομαι hear ἁμαρτ-  ἁμαρτάνω, ἁμαρτήσομαι miss, make a mistake βη -  βαίνω, βήσομαι walk, come, go – συμβαίνω happen, agree, result βλέπω, βλέψομαι see, look γνω -  γιγνώσκω, γνώσομαι know, learn, judge, think ἐσ -  εἰμί, ἔσομαι be – πάρειμι, παρέσομαι be present

10 Ancient Greek for Everyone Future Deponent Vocabulary: Classical θαν-  ἀποθνῄσκω, ἀποθανοῦμαι die λαβ-  λαμβάνω, λήψομαι take, grab; receive, get – καταλαμβάνω seize, catch up to, arrest – ὑπολαμβάνω take up, reply, suppose μαθ-  μανθάνω, μαθήσομαι learn πι-  πίνω, πίομαι drink φεύγω, φεύξομαι flee, run away

11 Ancient Greek for Everyone Future Deponent Vocabulary: NT ἁμαρτ-  ἁμαρτάνω, ἁμαρτήσομαι miss, make a mistake βη -  βαίνω, βήσομαι walk, come, go – ἀναβαίνω walk up, go aboard, enter – καταβαίνω walk down, descend γνω -  γινώσκω, γνώσομαι know, learn, judge, think Notice the change of spelling ( γιγνώσκω  γινώσκω ) from Classical to Koine. – ἀναγινώσκω read – ἐπιγινώσκω know, understand

12 Ancient Greek for Everyone Future Deponent Vocabulary: NT ἐσ -  εἰμί, ἔσομαι be θαν-  ἀποθνῄσκω, ἀποθανοῦμαι die λαβ-  λαμβάνω, λήψομαι take, grab; receive, get – παραλαμβάνω take, receive, accept πι-  πίνω, πίομαι drink

13 Ancient Greek for Everyone Future Deponent Vocabulary: Core ἁμαρτάνω, ἁμαρτήσομαι miss, make a mistake ἀποθνῄσκω, ἀποθανοῦμαι die βαίνω, βήσομαι walk, come, go γί ( γ ) νώσκω, γνώσομαι know, learn, judge, think εἰμί, ἔσομαι be λαμβάνω, λήψομαι take, grab; receive, get πίνω, πίομαι drink

14 Ancient Greek for Everyone VOCABULARY: The verbs on the following slides all have futures, mostly deponent, with variations or stem changes that are unpredictable or more complex than the patterns presented so far. These are all very common and important verbs, however, and recognizing these unusual principal parts is essential to reading Greek.

15 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unorthodox Futures Vocabulary: Classical ἔρχομαι, ἐλεύσομαι come, go ἔχω, ἕξω and σχήσω have, hold, be παρέχω provide ὁράω, ὄψομαι see πάσχω, πείσομαι suffer, experience πίπτω, πεσοῦμαι fall

16 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unorthodox Futures Vocabulary: Classical πλέω, πλεύσομαι and πλευσοῦμαι sail πυνθάνομαι, πεύσομαι learn, hear, inquire τίκτω, τέξομαι give birth τυγχάνω, τεύξομαι happen, meet φέρω, οἴσω carry, bring – διαφέρω spread, differ – συμφέρω benefit, profit

17 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unorthodox Futures Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) ἔρχομαι, ἐλεύσομαι come, go – διέρχομαι come, go through – εἰσέρχομαι come, go into – ἐξέρχομαι come, go out of – προσέρχομαι come, go to ἐσθίω, φάγομαι eat ἔχω, ἕξω and σχήσω have, hold, be

18 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unorthodox Futures Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) ὁράω, ὄψομαι see πάσχω, πείσομαι suffer, experience πίπτω, πεσοῦμαι fall πλέω, πλεύσομαι and πλευσοῦμαι sail φέρω, οἴσω carry, bring προσφέρω offer, present

19 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unorthodox Futures Vocabulary: Core ἔρχομαι, ἐλεύσομαι come, go ἔχω, ἕξω and σχήσω have, hold, be παρέχω provide ὁράω, ὄψομαι see πάσχω, πείσομαι suffer, experience πίπτω, πεσοῦμαι fall πλέω, πλεύσομαι and πλευσοῦμαι sail φέρω, οἴσω carry, bring


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