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C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 7.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 7."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 7

2 Shelmerdine Chapter st and 2 nd declension adjectives 2.Attributive adjectives 3.Predicate adjectives and nouns 4.Enclitics 5.The present indicative and infinitive of εἰμί, ‘be’ 6.Dative of possession

3 Shelmerdine Chapter st and 2 nd declension adjectives 2.Attributive adjectives 3.Predicate adjectives and nouns 4.Enclitics 5.The present indicative and infinitive of εἰμί, ‘be’ 6.Dative of possession

4 Shelmerdine Chapter st and 2 nd declension adjectives This chapter introduces adjectives. Like the definite article, adjectives always agree with nouns in gender, number, and case.

5 Shelmerdine Chapter st and 2 nd declension adjectives Adjectives use the same endings as nouns of the 1 st and 2 nd declension, differentiated by gender: –When modifying a masculine noun, the adjective uses 2 nd declension masculine endings (like λόγος ) –When modifying a feminine noun, the adjective uses 1 st declension endings (like τιμή ) –When modifying a neuter noun, the adjective uses 2 nd declension neuter endings (like δῶρον )

6 Shelmerdine Chapter st and 2 nd declension adjectives When modifying a masculine noun, the adjective uses 2 nd declension masculine endings (like λόγος ). Hence σοφός -ή -όν “wise” singular σοφός σοφοῦ σοφῷ σοφόν σοφέ plural σοφοί σοφῶν σοφοῖς σοφούς Voc. = nom.

7 Shelmerdine Chapter st and 2 nd declension adjectives When modifying a feminine noun, the adjective uses 1 st declension endings (like τιμή ). Hence σοφός -ή -όν “wise” singular Nom. σοφή Gen. σοφῆς Dat. σοφῇ Acc. σοφήν Voc. = Nom. plural Nom. σοφαί Gen. σοφῶν Dat. σοφαῖς Acc. σοφάς Voc. = Nom.

8 Shelmerdine Chapter st and 2 nd declension adjectives But, as with first declension nouns, if the stem of the adjective ends in ε, ι, or ρ, then a long α replaces the η in the singular (like χώρα ). Hence φίλιος -α -ον “friendly,” when it modifies a feminine singular noun: singular Nom. φιλία Gen. φιλίας Dat. φιλίᾳ Acc. φιλίαν Voc. = Nom.

9 Shelmerdine Chapter st and 2 nd declension adjectives When modifying a neuter noun, the adjective uses 2 nd declension neuter endings (like δῶρον ). Hence σοφός -ή -όν “wise” singular σοφόν σοφοῦ σοφῷ σοφόν Voc. = nom. plural σοφά σοφῶν σοφοῖς σοφά Voc. = nom.

10 Shelmerdine Chapter st and 2 nd declension adjectives Adjectives follow the same rules for accents as nouns. Accents are persistent and may begin on the antepenult, penult or ultima. As with nouns, the nominative plural endings –αι and –οι are considered short for purposes of accent, even though they are diphthongs. Note that, while in the 1 st declension the genitive plural ending had a fixed circumflex accent (- ῶν ), for adjectives, even when using 1 st declension endings to modify feminine nouns, the accent remains persistent.

11 Shelmerdine Chapter 7 Looking up a Greek adjective In a vocabulary, glossary, lexicon, or dictionary, a Greek adjective is listed by its (1) masculine nominative singular, (2) feminine nominative singular ending, and (3) neuter nominative singular ending. –σοφός -ή -όν “wise” –φίλιος -α -ον “friendly”

12 Shelmerdine Chapter st and 2 nd declension adjectives 2.Attributive adjectives 3.Predicate adjectives and nouns 4.Enclitics 5.The present indicative and infinitive of εἰμί, ‘be’ 6.Dative of possession

13 Shelmerdine Chapter 7 2. Attributive adjectives The position of a Greek adjective is significant. There are two basic positions: –Attributive –Predicate

14 Shelmerdine Chapter 7 2. Attributive adjectives There are two basic positions: –Attributive immediately following the definite article –ὁ immediately preceding the noun λόγος or both –ὁ λόγος

15 Shelmerdine Chapter 7 2. Attributive adjectives In the attributive position, translate an adjective as an attribute: ὁ σοφὸς λόγος –“the wise word” ὁ λόγος ὁ σοφός –“the wise word” σοφὸς λόγος –“a wise word”

16 Shelmerdine Chapter st and 2 nd declension adjectives 2.Attributive adjectives 3.Predicate adjectives and nouns 4.Enclitics 5.The present indicative and infinitive of εἰμί, ‘be’ 6.Dative of possession

17 Shelmerdine Chapter 7 3. Predicate adjectives and nouns There are two basic positions: –Predicate anywhere else –ὁ λόγος anywhere else in the sentence

18 Shelmerdine Chapter 7 3. Predicate adjectives and nouns In the predicate position, translate an adjective as a predicate (usually supplying the verb “is”): σοφὸς ὁ λόγος ὁ λόγος σοφός –“the word is wise”

19 Shelmerdine Chapter 7 3. Predicate adjectives and nouns When two nouns are in the same case, translate the noun in the predicate position as a predicate (usually supplying the verb “is”): ὁ στρατιώτης ποιητής ποιητής ὁ στρατιώτης –“the soldier is a poet”

20 Shelmerdine Chapter 7 2. Attributive and predicate position Thus when two nouns appear in the same case, the one with the definite article is the subject and the other the predicate, regardless of the order of the nouns: ὁ στρατιώτης ποιητής ποιητὴς ὁ στρατιώτης –“the soldier is a poet” στρατιώτης ὁ ποιητής ὁ ποιητὴς στρατιώτης –“the poet is a soldier”

21 Shelmerdine Chapter st and 2 nd declension adjectives 2.Attributive adjectives 3.Predicate adjectives and nouns 4.Enclitics 5.The present indicative and infinitive of εἰμί, ‘be’ 6.Dative of possession

22 Shelmerdine Chapter 7 4. Enclitics A word is enclitic if it “leans on” (ἐνκλίνω) the preceding word for its accent, rather than bearing its own accent. Only a handful of Greek words are enclitic. –In Moodle is a pdf listing all the enclitics in Greek. All enclitics have either just one or two syllables.

23 Shelmerdine Chapter 7 4. Enclitics How an enclitic “leans on” the preceding word for its accent depends on (1) the accent on the preceding word and (2) whether the enclitic has one or two syllables.

24 Shelmerdine Chapter 7 4. Enclitics A word with an acute on the antepenult or circumflex on the penult adds an extra acute on its ultima: –πόλεμός ἐστι –δῶρόν ἐστι

25 Shelmerdine Chapter 7 4. Enclitics A word with an acute on the penult forces a two- syllable enclitic to bear an accent on its ultima: –λόγος ἐστί two-syllable enclitic with acute accent –λόγος τινῶν two-syllable enclitic with circumflex accent –λόγος τις one-syllable enclitic still has no accent

26 Shelmerdine Chapter 7 4. Enclitics If the preceding word has an accent on the ultima, the enclitic simply bears no accent: –σοφόν ἐστι Notice the acute accent (/) does not become a grave (\) when followed by an enclitic! –σοφῶν ἐστι

27 Shelmerdine Chapter 7 4. Enclitics If several enclitics appear in a row, all but the last bear an accent: –ποταμός τίς ἐστί σοι. enclitics

28 Shelmerdine Chapter 7 4. Enclitics If several enclitics appear in a row, all but the last bear an accent: –ποταμός τίς ἐστί σοι. τις leans on ποταμός for its accent

29 Shelmerdine Chapter 7 3. Enclitics If several enclitics appear in a row, all but the last bear an accent: –ποταμός τίς ἐστί σοι. ἐστι throws its accent on τις

30 Shelmerdine Chapter 7 3. Enclitics If several enclitics appear in a row, all but the last bear an accent: –ποταμός τίς ἐστί σοι. σοι throws its accent on ἐστι

31 Shelmerdine Chapter 7 Looking up an enclitic In a vocabulary, glossary, lexicon, or dictionary, an enclitic will appear with the accent it uses, but most of the time, the word will not use this accent: –εἰμί “I am” (in vocabulary) –φίλιός εἰμι. “I am friendly.” (in a sentence)

32 Shelmerdine Chapter 7 Proclitics Ten words in Greek are proclitics. These words do not bear any accent of their own, using instead the word following them for their accent.

33 Shelmerdine Chapter 7 Proclitics 1-4: The masculine and feminine nominative forms of the definite article are proclitic: –ὁ, ἡ, οἱ, αἱ 5-7: Three prepositions are proclitic: –ἐν, ἐκ/ἐξ, εἰς

34 Shelmerdine Chapter 7 Proclitics 8: The conjunction εἰ “if” is proclitic. 9: The adverb οὐ/οὐκ/οὐχ “not” is proclitic. 10: The adverb and conjunction ὡς “as, so that” is proclitic.

35 Shelmerdine Chapter 7 Proclitics Proclitics bear an accent (acute) only when followed by an enclitic: –οὔ τε “and not” ( τε is enclitic) Often such combinations are written as one word: –οὔτε “and not”

36 Shelmerdine Chapter 7 Looking up a proclitic In a vocabulary, glossary, lexicon, or dictionary, a proclitic will appear with no accent.: –ὁ, ἡ, τό “the”

37 Shelmerdine Chapter st and 2 nd declension adjectives 2.Attributive adjectives 3.Predicate adjectives and nouns 4.Enclitics 5.The present indicative and infinitive of εἰμί, ‘be’ 6.Dative of possession

38 Shelmerdine Chapter 7 singular εἰμί “I am” εἶ “you are” ἐστί(ν) “(s)he, it is” plural ἐσμέν “we are” ἐστέ “you/y’all are” εἰσί(ν) “they are” present tense indicative active Except for the 2 nd person singular, all forms are enclitic. present infinitive active εἶναι

39 Shelmerdine Chapter 7 singular ἐσ-μι  εἰμι “I am” ἐσ-ς  εἶ “you are” ἐσ-τι “(s)he, it is” plural ἐσ-μεν “we are” ἐσ-τε “you/y’all are” ἐσ-σι  εἰσι “they are” present tense indicative active The verb has the stem ἐ σ-. The unusual forms mostly result from reducing the -σ- sound. -μι and -σι are personal endings you will see again. -τι is the original 3 rd person singular ending (contracted in virtually all other verbs).

40 Shelmerdine Chapter 7 present tense infinitive active The verb has the stem ἐ σ-. -ναι is an infinitive ending you will see again. The form results from reducing the -σ- sound. ἐσ-ναι  εἰναι

41 Shelmerdine Chapter 7 5. The present indicative and infinitive of εἰμί, ‘be’ The very common verb ἐστί is enclitic, thus usually not bearing an accent, and very often is even omitted from a sentence: –ἡ δικαιοσύνη χαλεπή ἐστιν. –ἡ δικαιοσύνη χαλεπή. Justice is difficult.

42 Shelmerdine Chapter 7 5. The present indicative and infinitive of εἰμί, ‘be’ When it means “there is,” however, it bears an accent on its penult: –οὐκ ἔστι δικαιοσύνη. There is no justice!

43 Shelmerdine Chapter 7 5. The present indicative and infinitive of εἰμί, ‘be’ In its enclitic form, ἐστί cannot begin a sentence: –ἡ δικαιοσύνη χαλεπή ἐστιν. Justice is difficult. In its emphatic form, it usually begins a sentence: –ἔστι δικαιοσύνη. There is justice! –οὐκ ἔστι δικαιοσύνη. There is not justice!

44 Shelmerdine Chapter st and 2 nd declension adjectives 2.Attributive adjectives 3.Predicate adjectives and nouns 4.Enclitics 5.The present indicative and infinitive of εἰμί, ‘be’ 6.Dative of possession

45 Shelmerdine Chapter 7 6. Dative of possession Nouns in the dative case with ἐστί or εἰσί can indicate possession: –τῷ στρατιώτῃ ἡ νίκη ἐστίν. Victory is for (belongs to) the soldier. The soldier has the victory. –τῷ στρατιώτῃ ἵπποι εἰσίν. Horses are for (belong to) the soldier. The soldier has horses.


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