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C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 28.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 28."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 28

2 Shelmerdine Chapter 28 1.Future and General Conditions 2.Conditions with the subjunctive 3.Conditions with the optative 4.Directional suffixes

3 Shelmerdine Chapter 28 1.Future and General Conditions 2.Conditions with the subjunctive 3.Conditions with the optative 4.Directional suffixes

4 Shelmerdine Chapter Future and General Conditions Chapter introduced conditions. –Simple conditions –Contrary-to-fact conditions Chapter 28 introduces –Future more vivid conditions (with the subjunctive) –Future less vivid conditions (with the optative) This presentation surveys all four types of conditions somewhat differently from the chapter.

5 Shelmerdine Chapter 28 A condition consists of two parts: –The protasis (πρότασις) = the if-statement, a subordinate clause. In Greek, it begins with εἰ “if” use μή to express “not” –The apodosis (ἀπόδοσις) = the conclusion, the main or independent clause. In Greek, use οὐ to express “not”

6 Shelmerdine Chapter Future and General Conditions Whereas English marks conditions by tense, Greek marks conditions more by mood than by tense. Greek has two broad categories of conditions. Conditions referring to the past or present –These use the indicative mood. Conditions referring to the future –These conditions use the future indicative, subjunctive, or optative depending on the likelihood of the situation to happen.

7 Shelmerdine Chapter 28 Conditions referring to the past or present use only the indicative mood: –(protasis) εἰ δῶρα πέμπουσιν, “If they send gifts, –(apodosis) τὴν εἰρήνην διώκομεν. we pursue peace.”

8 Shelmerdine Chapter 28 These conditions simply express the mechanism of the condition –εἰ δῶρα πέμπουσιν, τὴν εἰρήνην διώκομεν. “If they are sending gifts, we are pursuing peace.” present indicative verbs –εἰ δῶρα ἔπεμπον, τὴν εἰρήνην ἐδιώκομεν. “If they were sending gifts, we were pursuing peace.” imperfect indicative verbs –εἰ δῶρα ἔπεμψαν, τὴν εἰρήνην ἐδιώξαμεν. “If they sent gifts, we pursued peace.” aorist indicative verbs

9 Shelmerdine Chapter 28 If the protasis is unreal (“contrary to fact”), then the apodosis adds the particle ἄν. –εἰ δῶρα ἔπεμπον, τὴν εἰρήνην ἂν ἐδιώκομεν. “If they were sending gifts [but they are not], we would be pursuing peace [but we are not].” imperfect indicative verbs –εἰ δῶρα ἔπεμψαν, τὴν εἰρήνην ἂν ἐδιώξαμεν. “If they had sent gifts [but they did not], we would have pursued peace [but we did not].” aorist indicative verbs

10 Shelmerdine Chapter 28 1.Future and General Conditions If the condition refers to the future, then the mood depends on the certainty of the speaker about the likelihood of the situation to happen: –completely certain = future indicative –confident = subjunctive –uncertain = optative The particle ἄν always accompanies the subjunctive in a protasis (or any dependent clause) and the optative in an apodosis.

11 Shelmerdine Chapter 28 1.Future and General Conditions 2.Conditions with the subjunctive 3.Conditions with the optative 4.Directional suffixes

12 Shelmerdine Chapter Conditions with the subjunctive The particle ἄν always accompanies the subjunctive in a protasis (or any dependent clause). In practice, εἰ + ἄν usually contracts to ἐάν or even ἄν. –the particle ἄν never begins a clause, so if ἄν begins a clause, it is a contraction for εἰ + ἄν.

13 Shelmerdine Chapter Conditions with the subjunctive A very common combination (called the “Future More Vivid” condition) has the subjunctive in the protasis and a future indicative in the apodosis. –ἐὰν δῶρα πέμπωσιν, τὴν εἰρήνην διώξομεν. –ἐὰν δῶρα πέμψωσιν, τὴν εἰρήνην διώξομεν. “If they send gifts, we will pursue peace.” The present or aorist in the subjunctive verb indicates aspect, not time.

14 Shelmerdine Chapter Conditions with the subjunctive Beware that, with a present indicative in the apodosis, a subjunctive in the protasis (or any dependent clause) simply generalizes the condition. –εἰ δῶρα πέμπουσιν, τὴν εἰρήνην διώκομεν. “If they are sending gifts, we are pursuing peace.” present indicative protasis –ἐὰν δῶρα πέμπωσιν, τὴν εἰρήνην διώκομεν. “In general, if they send gifts, we pursue peace.” subjunctive protasis

15 Shelmerdine Chapter 28 1.Future and General Conditions 2.Conditions with the subjunctive 3.Conditions with the optative 4.Directional suffixes

16 Shelmerdine Chapter Conditions with the optative A very common combination (called the “Future Less Vivid” condition) has the optative in both the protasis and in the apodosis (with ἄν, since it is, in effect, a potential optative). –εἰ δῶρα πέμποιεν, τὴν εἰρήνην ἄν διώκοιμεν. –εἰ δῶρα πέμψειαν, τὴν εἰρήνην ἄν διώξαιμεν. “If they should send gifts, we would pursue peace.” The present or aorist in the optative verb indicates aspect, not time.

17 Shelmerdine Chapter Conditions with the optative Beware that, with an imperfect indicative in the apodosis, an optative in the protasis (or any dependent clause) simply generalizes the condition. –εἰ δῶρα ἔπεμπον, τὴν εἰρήνην ἐδιώκομεν. “If they were sending gifts, we were pursuing peace.” imperfect indicative protasis –εἰ δῶρα πέμψειαν, τὴν εἰρήνην ἐδιώκομεν. “In general, if they sent gifts, we pursued peace.” optative protasis

18 Shelmerdine Chapter 28 1.Future and General Conditions 2.Conditions with the subjunctive 3.Conditions with the optative 4.Directional suffixes

19 Shelmerdine Chapter Directional suffixes With words referring to places, two suffixes can indicate direction: –-δε = “to, toward” οἴκαδε “(to) home” Ἀθήναζε “to Athens” –-θεν = “from” οἴκοθεν “from home” Ἀθήνηθεν “from Athens”

20 Shelmerdine Chapter 28 for tomorrow (Thursday, March 31, 2011): Quiz: vocabulary. –Other: omit Ἀθήναζε, Ἀθήνηθεν, οἴκαδε, οἴκοθεν Biblical Reading for Chapter 28. Don’t forget the Greek Gathering! –5-630 pm and then Star Trek “Who Mourns for Adonais?” –Hodges 329 (lounge) –free Greek food!

21 Shelmerdine Chapter 28 ἄγγελος δέ τις Λακεδαιμόνιος, ταῦτα ἀκούσας, εἶπε τάδε· Οὔ σοι ἐπιτρέψομεν τὴν ἡγεμονίαν· ἀλλ‘ ἐὰν μὲν βούλῃ βοηθεῖν τῇ Ἑλλάδι, ἀρχθήσει ὑπὸ Λακεδαιμονίων· εἰ δὲ μὴ ἄρχεσθαι, σὺ δὲ μηδὲ ἔθελε βοηθεῖν. πρὸς δὲ ταῦτα ὁ Γέλων ἀπεκρίνατο· Ὦ ξένε Λακεδαιμόνιε, ἐμὲ ὑβρίσας, οὔ με ἔπεισας ὑβρίζειν σε. πολλῷ μὲν μείζων ἐστὶν ἡ ἐμὴ στρατιά, πολλῷ δὲ πλείονες αἱ νῆες, ἀλλὰ ὑπείξομεν σοί. ἐὰν τοῦ μὲν πεζοῦ ὑμεῖς ἡγεμονεύητε, τοῦ δὲ ναυτικοῦ ἐγώ ἄρξω· εἰ δὲ ὑμῖν ἡδύ ἐστι κατὰ θάλατταν ἡγεμονεύειν, τοῦ πεζοῦ ἐγὼ ἐθέλω. ἐὰν δὲ μὴ ὑπείξητε τοῦτο, ἄνευ συμμάχων ἀπελεύσεσθε.

22 Shelmerdine Chapter 28 ἄγγελος δέ τις Λακεδαιμόνιος, ταῦτα ἀκούσας, εἶπε τάδε· Οὔ σοι ἐπιτρέψομεν τὴν ἡγεμονίαν· ἀλλ‘ ἐὰν μὲν βούλῃ βοηθεῖν τῇ Ἑλλάδι, ἀρχθήσει ὑπὸ Λακεδαιμονίων· εἰ δὲ μὴ ἄρχεσθαι, σὺ δὲ μηδὲ ἔθελε βοηθεῖν. πρὸς δὲ ταῦτα ὁ Γέλων ἀπεκρίνατο·

23 Shelmerdine Chapter 28 Ὦ ξένε Λακεδαιμόνιε, ἐμὲ ὑβρίσας, οὔ με ἔπεισας ὑβρίζειν σε. πολλῷ μὲν μείζων ἐστὶν ἡ ἐμὴ στρατιά, πολλῷ δὲ πλείονες αἱ νῆες, ἀλλὰ ὑπείξομεν σοί. ἐὰν τοῦ μὲν πεζοῦ ὑμεῖς ἡγεμονεύητε, τοῦ δὲ ναυτικοῦ ἐγώ ἄρξω· εἰ δὲ ὑμῖν ἡδύ ἐστι κατὰ θάλατταν ἡγεμονεύειν, τοῦ πεζοῦ ἐγὼ ἐθέλω. ἐὰν δὲ μὴ ὑπείξητε τοῦτο, ἄνευ συμμάχων ἀπελεύσεσθε.

24 Shelmerdine Chapter 28 ὁ δὲ τῶν Ἀθηναίων ἄγγελος εὐθὺς εἶπε τάδε· Ὦ βασιλεῦ Συρακοσίων, ἡ Ἑλλὰς ἀπέπεμψεν ἡμᾶς πρός σε οὐχ ἵνα ἡγεμόνα αἰτήσαιμεν, ἀλλὰ στρατιάν· οὐδ’ ἐὰν ὁ Λακεδαιμόνιος βούληταί σοι ἐπιτρέπειν τὴν τοῦ ναυτικοῦ ἀρχήν, ἡμεῖς ταῦτα οὐκ ἐάσομεν· ἡμετέρα γάρ ἐστιν αὕτη, μὴ αὐτῶν βουλομένων τῶν Λακεδαιμονίων. ἀπεκρίνατο δὲ Γέλων· Ξένε Ἀθηναῖε, ὑμεῖς δοκεῖτε τοὺς μὲν ἄρχοντας ἔχειν, τοὺς δὲ ἀρχομένους οὐχ ἕξειν. ἐπεὶ τοίνυν, οὐδὲν ὑπείκοντες, ἔχειν τὸ πᾶν ἐθέλετε, εὐθὺς ἀποχωρήσατε εἰς τὴν Ἑλλάδα.

25 Shelmerdine Chapter 28 ὁ δὲ τῶν Ἀθηναίων ἄγγελος εὐθὺς εἶπε τάδε· Ὦ βασιλεῦ Συρακοσίων, ἡ Ἑλλὰς ἀπέπεμψεν ἡμᾶς πρός σε οὐχ ἵνα ἡγεμόνα αἰτήσαιμεν, ἀλλὰ στρατιάν· οὐδ’ ἐὰν ὁ Λακεδαιμόνιος βούληταί σοι ἐπιτρέπειν τὴν τοῦ ναυτικοῦ ἀρχήν, ἡμεῖς ταῦτα οὐκ ἐάσομεν· ἡμετέρα γάρ ἐστιν αὕτη, μὴ αὐτῶν βουλομένων τῶν Λακεδαιμονίων.

26 Shelmerdine Chapter 28 ἀπεκρίνατο δὲ Γέλων· Ξένε Ἀθηναῖε, ὑμεῖς δοκεῖτε τοὺς μὲν ἄρχοντας ἔχειν, τοὺς δὲ ἀρχομένους οὐχ ἕξειν. ἐπεὶ τοίνυν, οὐδὲν ὑπείκοντες, ἔχειν τὸ πᾶν ἐθέλετε, εὐθὺς ἀποχωρήσατε εἰς τὴν Ἑλλάδα.

27 Shelmerdine Chapter 28 1 Τότε ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἀνήχθη εἰς τὴν ἔρημον ὑπὸ τοῦ πνεύματος, πειρασθῆναι ὑπὸ τοῦ διαβόλου. 2 καὶ νηστεύσας ἡμέρας τεσσαράκοντα καὶ νύκτας τεσσαράκοντα ὕστερον ἐπείνασεν. 3 Καὶ προσελθὼν ὁ πειράζων εἶπεν αὐτῷ, Εἰ υἱὸς εἶ τοῦ θεοῦ, εἰπὲ ἵνα οἱ λίθοι οὗτοι ἄρτοι γένωνται. ἀνάγω lead up ἄρτος –ου ὁ bread διάβολος –ου ὁ slanderer, the Devil ἔρημος –ου ἡ desert νηστεύω fast πεινάω be hungry πειράζω test, tempt πνεῦμα –ατος τό breath, spirit, life προσέρχομαι go to τεσσαράκοντα forty υἱός, υἱοῦ ὁ son

28 Shelmerdine Chapter 28 4 ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν, Γέγραπται, Οὐκ ἐπ’ ἄρτῳ μόνῳ ζήσεται ὁ ἄνθρωπος, ἀλλ’ ἐπὶ παντὶ ῥήματι ἐκπορευομένῳ διὰ στόματος θεοῦ. 5 Τότε παραλαμβάνει αὐτὸν ὁ διάβολος εἰς τὴν ἁγίαν πόλιν, καὶ ἵστησιν αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὸ πτερύγιον τοῦ ἱεροῦ, 6 καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ, ἅγιος -α –ον holy ἄρτος –ου ὁ bread γέγραπται “it is written” διάβολος –ου ὁ slanderer, the Devil ἐκπορεύομαι journey out ζάω live ἱερόν -οῦ τό temple μόνος –η –ον only, alone παραλαμβάνει take to πτερύγιον –ου τό parapet, pinnacle ῥῆμα –ατος τό spoken word στόμα –ατος τό mouth υἱός, υἱοῦ ὁ son

29 Shelmerdine Chapter 28 6 καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ, Εἰ υἱὸς εἶ τοῦ θεοῦ, βάλε σεαυτὸν κάτω· γέγραπται γὰρ ὅτι Τοῖς ἀγγέλοις αὐτοῦ ἐντελεῖται περὶ σοῦ καὶ ἐπὶ χειρῶν ἀροῦσίν σε, μήποτε προσκόψῃς πρὸς λίθον τὸν πόδα σου. 7 ἔφη αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Πάλιν γέγραπται, Οὐκ ἐκπειράσεις κύριον τὸν θεόν σου. αἴρω, ἀρῶ raise γέγραπται “it is written” ἐκπειράζω test, tempt ἐντέλλομαι command, give orders to κάτω down κύριος –ου ὁ lord μήποτε never πάλιν again πούς ποδός ὁ foot προσκόπτω stumble, strike on υἱός, υἱοῦ ὁ son χείρ, χειρός ἡ hand

30 Shelmerdine Chapter 28 8 Πάλιν παραλαμβάνει αὐτὸν ὁ διάβολος εἰς ὄρος ὑψηλὸν λίαν, καὶ δείκνυσιν αὐτῷ πάσας τὰς βασιλείας τοῦ κόσμου καὶ τὴν δόξαν αὐτῶν, 9 καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ, Ταῦτά σοι πάντα δώσω ἐὰν πεσὼν προσκυνήσῃς μοι. βασιλεία –ας ἡ kingdom διάβολος –ου ὁ slanderer, the Devil κόσμος –ου ὁ cosmos, world, universe λίαν too (much) ὄρος –ους τό mountain παραλαμβάνω take to ἔπεσον < πίπτω fall προσκυνέω kneel, worship, bow down ὑψηλός –ή –όν high, sublime

31 Shelmerdine Chapter τότε λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Ὕπαγε, Σατανᾶ· γέγραπται γάρ, Κύριον τὸν θεόν σου προσκυνήσεις καὶ αὐτῷ μόνῳ λατρεύσεις. 11 Τότε ἀφίησιν αὐτὸν ὁ διάβολος, καὶ ἰδοὺ ἄγγελοι προσῆλθον καὶ διηκόνουν αὐτῷ. ἀφίησιν < ἀφίημι let go, leave γέγραπται “it is written” διάβολος –ου ὁ slanderer, the Devil διακονέω serve, minister ἰδοὺ Look! κύριος –ου ὁ lord λατρεύω serve, worship μόνος –η –ον only, alone προσέρχομαι go to προσκυνέω kneel, worship, bow down ὑπάγω depart, go away

32 Shelmerdine Chapter 28 Don’t forget the Greek Gathering today! –5-630 pm and then Star Trek “Who Mourns for Adonais?” –Hodges 329 (lounge) –free Greek food! for next class (Monday, April 4, 2011): Quiz: parsing on Chapter 28 Biblical Reading Read Chapter 29


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