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C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 6.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 6."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 6

2 Shelmerdine Chapter 6 1.Neuter nouns of the 2 nd declension 2.Some uses of the dative 3.The present active infinitive of thematic verbs 4.The complementary infinitive 5.Reading expectations 6.The negatives οὐ and μή

3 Shelmerdine Chapter 6 1.Neuter nouns of the 2 nd declension 2.Some uses of the dative 3.The present active infinitive of thematic verbs 4.The complementary infinitive 5.Reading expectations 6.The negatives οὐ and μή

4 Shelmerdine Chapter 6 1. Neuter nouns of the 2 nd declension This chapter introduces neuter nouns of the 2 nd declension. These nouns use endings similar to that of the masculine nouns. Hence δῶρον “gift” singular τὸ δῶρον τοῦ δώρου τῷ δώρῳ τὸ δῶρον Voc. = nom. plural τὰ δῶρα τῶν δώρων τοῖς δώροις τὰ δῶρα Voc. = nom.

5 Shelmerdine Chapter 6 1. Neuter nouns of the 2 nd declension Two rules apply to all neuter words in Greek. –1. The nominative, accusative, and vocative singular must be identical singular τὸ δῶρον τοῦ δώρου τῷ δώρῳ τὸ δῶρον plural τὰ δῶρα τῶν δώρων τοῖς δώροις τὰ δῶρα

6 Shelmerdine Chapter 6 1. Neuter nouns of the 2 nd declension Two rules apply to all neuter words in Greek. –2. The nominative, accusative, and vocative plural must end in a short -α singular τὸ δῶρον τοῦ δώρου τῷ δώρῳ τὸ δῶρον plural τὰ δῶρα τῶν δώρων τοῖς δώροις τὰ δῶρα

7 Shelmerdine Chapter 6 Looking up a Greek noun Recall that in a vocabulary, glossary, lexicon, or dictionary, a Greek noun is listed by its (1) nominative singular, (2) genitive singular ending, and (3) the nominative singular article. –τιμή, -ῆς, ἡ “honor” –χώρα, -ας, ἡ “country” –κριτής, -οῦ, ὁ “judge” –λόγος, -ου, ὁ “word” –δῶρον, -οῦ, τό “gift”

8 Shelmerdine Chapter 6 Looking up a Greek noun Learn and observe both case forms closely, to determine the declension and pattern of endings: –τιμή, -ῆς, ἡ “honor” 1 st declension –χώρα, -ας, ἡ “country” 1 st declension –κριτής, -οῦ, ὁ “judge” 1 st declension masculine –λόγος, -ου, ὁ “word” 2 nd declension –δῶρόν, -οῦ, τό “gift” 2 nd declension neuter

9 Shelmerdine Chapter 6 1. Neuter nouns of the 2 nd declension If the subject of a sentence is neuter, then the verb is singular, even if the subject is plural: –τὸ δένδρον παρέχει καρπόν. The tree provides fruit. –τὰ δένδρα παρέχει καρπόν. The trees provide fruit.

10 Shelmerdine Chapter 6 1.Neuter nouns of the 2 nd declension 2.Some uses of the dative 3.The present active infinitive of thematic verbs 4.The complementary infinitive 5.Reading expectations 6.The negatives οὐ and μή

11 Shelmerdine Chapter 6 2. Some uses of the dative with the preposition ἐν –θύομεν ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ. “We sacrifice in the marketplace.” –παιδεύομεν τοὺς νεανίας ἐν τῇ σοφίᾳ. “We educate the young men in wisdom.”

12 Shelmerdine Chapter 6 2. Some uses of the dative to indicate means/instrument –τὸν κριτὴν ἐκώλυες τῇ φωνῇ. “You were hindering the judge with your voice.” –ἁμάξῃ διώκει τὴν στρατιάν. “He pursues the army by means of (with) a wagon.”

13 Shelmerdine Chapter 6 1.Neuter nouns of the 2 nd declension 2.Some uses of the dative 3.The present active infinitive of thematic verbs 4.The complementary infinitive 5.Reading expectations 6.The negatives οὐ and μή

14 Shelmerdine Chapter 6 parse/parsing 1 st, 2 nd or 3 RD PERSON SINGULAR or PLURAL PRESENT, IMPERFECT, FUTURE, or AORIST INDICATIVE or INFINITIVE ACTIVE

15 Shelmerdine Chapter 6 3. The present active infinitive of thematic verbs This chapter introduces another mood, the infinitive. The infinitive refers to just the action of the verb, without designating a subject, so it does not specify person or number.

16 Shelmerdine Chapter 6 3. The present active infinitive of thematic verbs The infinitive refers to just the action of the verb, without designating a subject, so it does not specify person or number. Without the need to express person or number, the infinitive needs only a single ending, –ειν. –λύειν –Parsing: present, infinitive, active

17 Shelmerdine Chapter 6 3. The present active infinitive of thematic verbs The infinitive is used whenever expressing the subject is unnecessary, impossible or undesirable. For example: –as a noun (always neuter singular) χαλεπόν ἐστι διαβαίνειν τὸν ποταμόν. –“To cross the river is dangerous.” –“It is dangerous to cross the river.” –“Crossing the river is dangerous.”

18 Shelmerdine Chapter 6 1.Neuter nouns of the 2 nd declension 2.Some uses of the dative 3.The present active infinitive of thematic verbs 4.The complementary infinitive 5.Reading expectations 6.The negatives οὐ and μή

19 Shelmerdine Chapter 6 4. The complementary infinitive The infinitive is used whenever expressing the subject is unnecessary, impossible or undesirable. For example: –To complete the meaning of another verb (complementary) ἐθέλομεν εὑρίσκειν τὸν φύλακα. –“We want to find the guard.” ἐκελεύσαμεν τοὺς φύλακας φεύγειν. –“We ordered the guards to flee.”

20 Shelmerdine Chapter 6 1.Neuter nouns of the 2 nd declension 2.Some uses of the dative 3.The present active infinitive of thematic verbs 4.The complementary infinitive 5.Reading expectations 6.The negatives οὐ and μή

21 Shelmerdine Chapter 6 5. Reading expectations The meaning of certain verbs sets up an expectation that an infinitive is necessary to complete its meaning. For example: –ἐθέλομεν εὑρίσκειν τὸν φύλακα. “We want to find the guard.” –ἐκελεύσαμεν τοὺς φύλακας φεύγειν. “We ordered the guards to flee.”

22 Shelmerdine Chapter 6 1.Neuter nouns of the 2 nd declension 2.Some uses of the dative 3.The present active infinitive of thematic verbs 4.The complementary infinitive 5.Reading expectations 6.The negatives οὐ and μή

23 Shelmerdine Chapter 6 6. The negatives οὐ and μή With complementary infinitives, the negative is μή, not οὐ, but there is no difference in meaning or translation. –κελεύσομεν τοὺς φύλακας μὴ φεύγειν. “We will order the guards not to flee.” Contrast the negative of an indicative verb: –οὐ κελεύσομεν τοὺς φύλακας φεύγειν. “We will not order the guards to flee.”

24 ELEMENTARY GREEK for tomorrow (Wednesday, October 5, 2005): Quiz: Write out all the forms of δῶρον complete with the definite article. prepare Exercises for class

25 ELEMENTARY GREEK for tomorrow (Monday, October 10, 2005): Quiz: write out the aorist of λύω prepare Exercises for class

26 ELEMENTARY GREEK for tomorrow (Tuesday, October 11, 2005): Quiz: parse the verbs and nouns in a sentence selected from Exercise 22 prepare Biblical readings for class

27 Shelmerdine Chapter 6 Vocabulary In Chapter 6 Vocabulary –Nouns: omit ζῷον, ζυγόν

28 ELEMENTARY GREEK for tomorrow (Wednesday, October 12, 2005): Quiz: vocabulary from Chapter 6 Read Chapter 7


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