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12013 edition Wilfred E. Major firstname.lastname@example.org Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 3 part 3: Neuter Nouns2013 editionWilfred E. Major
2Ancient Greek for Everyone This classAGE Unit 3: Neuter NounsYou have learned the basics of masculine and feminine nouns in Greek.Now we add neuter nouns, the final gender.
3Ancient Greek for Everyone A NOUN indicates a person, place or thing.A Greek noun, however, normally communicates THREE pieces of information:GenderNumberCase
4Ancient Greek for Everyone Building a Greek NounAll the nouns in this unit have been either masculine or feminine in gender and have used the same endings to indicate number and case.This part of the unit adds nouns that are neuter in gender.Grammatically, neuter means that the noun is “neither” masculine nor feminine.
5Ancient Greek for Everyone Building a Greek NounThe Neuter Law: two rules apply to all neuter words in Greek.(1) The nominative singular and the accusative singular must be identical.(2) The nominative plural and the accusative plural must both end in a short -α.
6Ancient Greek for Everyone Building a Greek NounThe Neuter Law: two rules apply to all neuter words in Greek. The nouns in this unit meet the requirements as follows:(1) The nominative singular and the accusative singular add no ending to the stem.(2) The nominative plural and the accusative plural add short –α to the stem.
7Ancient Greek for Everyone SingularNominative –Genitive –οςDative –ιAccusative –PluralNominative –αGenitive –ωνDative –σιAccusative –αBuilding a Greek NounThird Declension Endings for neuter nouns
8Ancient Greek for Everyone Building a Greek NounThe stem ending –ματ is very common for neuter nouns.Recall that one of the noun endings involves adding a sigma to the stem (dat. plu. -σι) and that τ + σ = σ.Also recall that only a limited number of sounds may end a Greek word (vowel, -ν/-ρ/-ς), so the final –τ must drop off in the nominative singular and accusative singular, since now there is no additional ending.σωματ = “body”
9Ancient Greek for Everyone SingularNom. (σωματ ) σῶμαGen. σώματοςDat. σώματιAcc. (σωματ ) σῶμαPluralNom. σώματαGen. σωμάτωνDat. σώμασιAcc. σώματαBuilding a Greek Noundeclension of σῶμα -ατος τό body
10Ancient Greek for Everyone VOCABULARY: Since the nominative singular displays variations in response to the sigma, nouns are listed in three parts:The nominative singular: so you always see exactly how this form appears.The genitive singular: so you can see the stem (everything before the ending -ος)The gender: the word τό indicates that these nouns are neuter.
11Ancient Greek for Everyone Examples of Vocabulary entriesαἷμα -ατος τό bloodὄνομα -ατος τό nameπνεῦμα -ατος τό wind, breath, spiritστόμα -ατος τό mouthσῶμα -ατος τό body
12Ancient Greek for Everyone Building a Greek NounThe word τό indicates the noun is neuter in gender.This is the neuter form of the definite article in Greek. As with masculine and feminine nouns, the article must match its noun in gender, number and case.The neuter definite article is the same as the masculine definite article, but with the Neuter Law applied.
13Ancient Greek for Everyone SingularNom. τόGen. τοῦDat. τῷAcc. τόPluralNom. τάGen. τῶνDat. τοῖςAcc. τάBuilding a Greek NounThe neuter definite article
14Ancient Greek for Everyone SingularNom. τὸ σῶμαGen. τοῦ σώματοςDat. τῷ σώματιAcc. τὸ σῶμαPluralNom. τὰ σώματαGen. τῶν σωμάτωνDat. τοῖς σώμασιAcc. τὰ σώματαBuilding a Greek Noundeclension + article of σῶμα -ατος τό body
15Ancient Greek for Everyone Nextpractice with ἄρχων, ἐλπίς, νύξ, σῶμαBe able to pronounce and parse a random form.Be able to link the noun form with the appropriate form of the definite article and vice versa.Be able to link the case of the form to its function in a sentence.
16Ancient Greek for Everyone Building a Greek SentenceNeuter nouns derive from collective feminine nouns, and so originally they were always singular.This habit persists in ancient Greek in a strange way. Whenever a neuter noun is the subject of a sentence, the verb is 3rd person singular (even if the neuter subject is plural):τὸ σῶμα δείκνυσι.... “The body shows…”τὰ σώματα δείκνυσι....“The bodies show…”