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Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 3 part 3: Neuter Nouns 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 3 part 3: Neuter Nouns 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major"— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 3 part 3: Neuter Nouns 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major

2 Ancient Greek for Everyone This class AGE Unit 3: Neuter Nouns You have learned the basics of masculine and feminine nouns in Greek. Now we add neuter nouns, the final gender.

3 Ancient Greek for Everyone A NOUN indicates a person, place or thing. A Greek noun, however, normally communicates THREE pieces of information: – Gender – Number – Case

4 Ancient Greek for Everyone Building a Greek Noun All the nouns in this unit have been either masculine or feminine in gender and have used the same endings to indicate number and case. This part of the unit adds nouns that are neuter in gender. Grammatically, neuter means that the noun is “neither” masculine nor feminine.

5 Ancient Greek for Everyone Building a Greek Noun The Neuter Law: two rules apply to all neuter words in Greek. (1) The nominative singular and the accusative singular must be identical. (2) The nominative plural and the accusative plural must both end in a short - α.

6 Ancient Greek for Everyone Building a Greek Noun The Neuter Law: two rules apply to all neuter words in Greek. The nouns in this unit meet the requirements as follows: (1) The nominative singular and the accusative singular add no ending to the stem. (2) The nominative plural and the accusative plural add short – α to the stem.

7 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular Nominative – Genitive –ος Dative –ι Accusative – Plural Nominative –α Genitive –ων Dative –σι Accusative –α Building a Greek Noun Third Declension Endings for neuter nouns

8 Ancient Greek for Everyone Building a Greek Noun The stem ending – ματ is very common for neuter nouns. Recall that one of the noun endings involves adding a sigma to the stem (dat. plu. - σι ) and that τ + σ = σ. Also recall that only a limited number of sounds may end a Greek word (vowel, - ν /- ρ /- ς ), so the final – τ must drop off in the nominative singular and accusative singular, since now there is no additional ending. σωματ = “body”

9 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular Nom. (σωματ  ) σῶμα Gen. σώματος Dat. σώματι Acc. (σωματ  ) σῶμα Plural Nom. σώματα Gen. σωμάτων Dat. σώμασι Acc. σώματα Building a Greek Noun declension of σῶμα -ατος τό body

10 Ancient Greek for Everyone VOCABULARY: Since the nominative singular displays variations in response to the sigma, nouns are listed in three parts: – The nominative singular: so you always see exactly how this form appears. – The genitive singular: so you can see the stem (everything before the ending - ος ) – The gender: the word τό indicates that these nouns are neuter.

11 Ancient Greek for Everyone Examples of Vocabulary entries αἷμα -ατος τό blood ὄνομα -ατος τό name πνεῦμα -ατος τό wind, breath, spirit στόμα -ατος τό mouth σῶμα -ατος τό body

12 Ancient Greek for Everyone Building a Greek Noun The word τό indicates the noun is neuter in gender. This is the neuter form of the definite article in Greek. As with masculine and feminine nouns, the article must match its noun in gender, number and case. The neuter definite article is the same as the masculine definite article, but with the Neuter Law applied.

13 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular Nom. τό Gen. τοῦ Dat. τῷ Acc. τό Plural Nom. τά Gen. τῶν Dat. τοῖς Acc. τά Building a Greek Noun The neuter definite article

14 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular Nom. τὸ σῶμα Gen. τοῦ σώματος Dat. τῷ σώματι Acc. τὸ σῶμα Plural Nom. τὰ σώματα Gen. τῶν σωμάτων Dat. τοῖς σώμασι Acc. τὰ σώματα Building a Greek Noun declension + article of σῶμα -ατος τό body

15 Ancient Greek for Everyone Next – practice with ἄρχων, ἐλπίς, νύξ, σῶμα Be able to pronounce and parse a random form. Be able to link the noun form with the appropriate form of the definite article and vice versa. Be able to link the case of the form to its function in a sentence.

16 Ancient Greek for Everyone Building a Greek Sentence Neuter nouns derive from collective feminine nouns, and so originally they were always singular. This habit persists in ancient Greek in a strange way. Whenever a neuter noun is the subject of a sentence, the verb is 3 rd person singular (even if the neuter subject is plural): – τὸ σῶμα δείκνυσι.... “The body shows…” – τὰ σώματα δείκνυσι.... “The bodies show…”

17 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 3 part 3 Vocabulary: DCC Classical αἷμα -ατος τό blood γράμμα -ατος τό letter ὄνομα -ατος τό name πνεῦμα -ατος τό wind, breath, spirit πρᾶγμα -ατος τό thing; (pl.) circumstances, affairs, business στόμα -ατος τό mouth σχῆμα -ατος τό form, appearance σῶμα -ατος τό body χρῆμα -ατος τό thing, (pl.) money

18 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 3 part 3 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) αἷμα -ατος τό blood θέλημα -ατος τό will, wish, desire ὄνομα -ατος τό name πνεῦμα -ατος τό wind, breath, spirit ῥῆμα -ατος τό word, saying σπέρμα -ατος τό seed, offspring στόμα -ατος τό mouth σῶμα -ατος τό body

19 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 3 part 3 Vocabulary: Core αἷμα -ατος τό blood ὄνομα -ατος τό name πνεῦμα -ατος τό wind, breath, spirit στόμα -ατος τό mouth σῶμα -ατος τό body

20 Ancient Greek for Everyone Next class – Unit 3 Classical reading. – Be able to: read the sentences aloud parse each verb and noun (with article where it appears) translate the sentences into English.

21 Ancient Greek for Everyone Next class – Unit 3 Biblical reading. – Be able to: read the sentences aloud parse each verb and noun (with article where it appears) translate the sentences into English.


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