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Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 7 part 2: The Future Tense 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 7 part 2: The Future Tense 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major"— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 7 part 2: The Future Tense 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major

2 Ancient Greek for Everyone This class AGE Unit 7: The Future Tense So far, all verbs have been in the present tense. In this unit, Part 2 adds a new tense, the future.

3 Ancient Greek for Everyone A Greek verb by itself usually communicates FIVE pieces of information: – Person: 1 st 2 nd 3 rd – Number: singular, plural – Tense: present, future – Mood: indicative, infinitive – Voice: active PARSING: To “parse” a Greek verb means to identify the above five qualities about a specific verb form.

4 Ancient Greek for Everyone Building a Greek verb Remember that, to begin building a Greek verb, start with the stem. The stem tells you what action the verb describes: δεικ = “show” λυ = “loosen, destroy”

5 Ancient Greek for Everyone Building a Greek verb All the verbs so far have been in the present tense. So the stem needed a marker that says the verb is in the present tense. Adding a -ν- to the stem typically marks a verb as in the present tense. It is easier to pronounce this verb by adding –νυ–, so now the stem looks (and sounds) like this: – δεικ νυ = “show” (in the present)

6 Ancient Greek for Everyone Building a Greek verb This unit introduces verbs in the future tense. So the stem needs a marker that says the verb is in the future tense. Adding a - σ - to the stem marks a verb as in the future tense. So now the stem looks (and sounds) like this: – λυ + σ = “loosen”  λυσ = “loosen” (in the future) – δεικ + σ = “show”  δειξ = “show” (in the future)

7 Ancient Greek for Everyone Conjugating a Greek verb Remember that Greek has two conjugations: – - μι verbs – - ω verbs ALL VERBS, regardless of what endings they use in the present tense, use - ω verb endings in the future tense. Future tense = verb stem + σ + - ω verb endings

8 Ancient Greek for Everyone Building a Greek verb Remember that, to indicate person and number, - ω verbs use distinct endings, which are as follows: - ω = I (1 st person singular) - ομεν = we (1 st person plural) - εις = you (2 nd person singular) - ετε = y’all (2 nd person plural) - ει = (s)he, it (3 rd person sing) - ουσι = they (3 rd person plural)

9 Ancient Greek for Everyone λύσω – I will loosen. λύσεις – You will loosen. λύσει – (S)he/it will loosen. λύσομεν – We will loosen. λύσετε – Y’all will loosen. λύσουσι – They will loosen. Building a Greek Verb The Future Indicative Active of λύω

10 Ancient Greek for Everyone δείξω – I will show. δείξεις – You will show. δείξει – (S)he/it will show. δείξομεν – We will show. δείξετε – Y’all will show. δείξουσι – They will show. Building a Greek Verb The Future Indicative Active of δείκνυμι

11 Ancient Greek for Everyone The ending – ειν signals that an - ω verb is in the infinitive. λύσειν δείξειν This form is the future, infinitive, active.

12 Ancient Greek for Everyone Vocabulary: Principal Parts Greek verbs can morph into a variety of forms (you already know 14 different forms of a verb). You have already seen how vocabulary entries begin with just the 1 st person singular present indicative active. Because adding - σ - to the verb stem can be tricky, vocabulary entries also normally include the 1 st person singular future indicative active as well. These two forms are called principal parts, because they are principal forms that indicate how other forms work.

13 Ancient Greek for Everyone Vocabulary: Principal Parts The following slides review the verbs from Units 2 and 7, adding in their second principal part, the 1 st person singular future indicative active. Some verbs never occur in the future indicative active. If a verb from a previous list is not repeated here, it is because it does not occur in the future indicative active. Verbs of the - ω conjugation that use the -ν- in the present tense rarely occur in the future indicative active, or are irregular in some way, so that set of verbs is not reviewed here.

14 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 part 2 Vocabulary: Classical βουλεύω, βουλεύσω deliberate, resolve θύω, θύσω sacrifice κελεύω, κελεύσω order κωλύω, κωλύσω prevent λύω, λύσω loosen, destroy παύω, παύσω stop πιστεύω, πιστεύσω trust, rely on, believe in (+ dat.) πορεύω, πορεύσω carry; (mid.) go, march φύω, φύσω produce

15 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 part 2 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) ἀκούω, ἀκούσω hear κλαίω, κλαύσω cry out λύω, λύσω loosen, destroy – ἀπολύω release, divorce, forgive περισσεύω, περισσεύσω be left over, increase, exceed πιστεύω, πιστεύσω trust, rely on, believe in (+ dat.)

16 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 2 Vocabulary: ἀπο + ολ-  ἀπόλλυμι, ἀπολῶ kill, destroy This verb has a “contract future,” which gives it a different accent, but which otherwise appears and sounds like a regular - ω verb. δεικ -  δείκνυμι, δείξω show μιγ -  μίγνυμι, μίξω mix δω -  δίδωμι, δώσω give – ἀποδίδωμι, ἀποδώσω give back – παραδίδωμι, παραδώσω hand over, deliver ἥ -  ἵημι, ἥσω throw – ἀφίημι, ἀφήσω let go, allow, forgive

17 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 2 Vocabulary: στη -  ἵστημι, στήσω stand – ἀνίστημι, ἀναστήσω raise, appoint – καθίστημι, καταστήσω set down, establish – παρίστημι, παραστήσω present θη -  τίθημι, θήσω put, make – ἐπιτίθημι, ἐπιθήσω put on – προστίθημι, προσθήσω add to φη -  φημί, φήσω say

18 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 part 2 Vocabulary: Core ἀκούω, ἀκούσω hear ἀποδίδωμι, ἀποδώσω give back ἀπόλλυμι, ἀπολῶ kill, destroy ἀφίημι, ἀφήσω let go, allow, forgive δίδωμι, δώσω give ἵστημι, στήσω stand λύω, λύσω loosen, destroy παραδίδωμι, παραδώσω hand over, deliver πιστεύω, πιστεύσω trust, rely on, believe in (+ dat.) τίθημι, θήσω put, make φημί, φήσω say


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