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1 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major firstname.lastname@example.org Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 7 part 2: The Future Tense2013 editionWilfred E. Major
2 Ancient Greek for Everyone This classAGE Unit 7: The Future TenseSo far, all verbs have been in the present tense.In this unit, Part 2 adds a new tense, the future.
3 Ancient Greek for Everyone A Greek verb by itself usually communicates FIVE pieces of information:Person: 1st 2nd 3rdNumber: singular, pluralTense: present, futureMood: indicative, infinitiveVoice: activePARSING: To “parse” a Greek verb means to identify the above five qualities about a specific verb form.
4 Ancient Greek for Everyone Building a Greek verbRemember that, to begin building a Greek verb, start with the stem.The stem tells you what action the verb describes:δεικ = “show”λυ = “loosen, destroy”
5 Ancient Greek for Everyone Building a Greek verbAll the verbs so far have been in the present tense.So the stem needed a marker that says the verb is in the present tense.Adding a -ν- to the stem typically marks a verb as in the present tense.It is easier to pronounce this verb by adding –νυ–, so now the stem looks (and sounds) like this:δεικνυ = “show” (in the present)
6 Ancient Greek for Everyone Building a Greek verbThis unit introduces verbs in the future tense.So the stem needs a marker that says the verb is in the future tense.Adding a -σ- to the stem marks a verb as in the future tense.So now the stem looks (and sounds) like this:λυ + σ = “loosen” λυσ = “loosen” (in the future)δεικ + σ = “show” δειξ = “show” (in the future)
7 Ancient Greek for Everyone Conjugating a Greek verbRemember that Greek has two conjugations:-μι verbs-ω verbsALL VERBS, regardless of what endings they use in the present tense, use -ω verb endings in the future tense.Future tense = verb stem + σ + -ω verb endings
8 Ancient Greek for Everyone Building a Greek verbRemember that, to indicate person and number,-ω verbs use distinct endings, which are as follows:-ω = I (1st person singular) -ομεν = we (1st person plural)-εις = you (2nd person singular) -ετε = y’all (2nd person plural)-ει = (s)he, it (3rd person sing) -ουσι = they (3rd person plural)
9 Ancient Greek for Everyone λύσωI will loosen.λύσειςYou will loosen.λύσει(S)he/it will loosen.λύσομενWe will loosen.λύσετεY’all will loosen.λύσουσιThey will loosen.Building a Greek VerbThe Future Indicative Active of λύω
10 Ancient Greek for Everyone δείξωI will show.δείξειςYou will show.δείξει(S)he/it will show.δείξομενWe will show.δείξετεY’all will show.δείξουσιThey will show.Building a Greek VerbThe Future Indicative Active of δείκνυμι
11 Ancient Greek for Everyone The ending –ειν signals that an -ω verb is in the infinitive.λύσεινδείξεινThis form is the future, infinitive, active.
12 Ancient Greek for Everyone Vocabulary: Principal PartsGreek verbs can morph into a variety of forms (you already know 14 different forms of a verb).You have already seen how vocabulary entries begin with just the 1st person singular present indicative active.Because adding -σ- to the verb stem can be tricky, vocabulary entries also normally include the 1st person singular future indicative active as well.These two forms are called principal parts, because they are principal forms that indicate how other forms work.
13 Ancient Greek for Everyone Vocabulary: Principal PartsThe following slides review the verbs from Units 2 and 7, adding in their second principal part, the 1st person singular future indicative active.Some verbs never occur in the future indicative active. If a verb from a previous list is not repeated here, it is because it does not occur in the future indicative active.Verbs of the -ω conjugation that use the -ν- in the present tense rarely occur in the future indicative active, or are irregular in some way, so that set of verbs is not reviewed here.
14 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 part 2 Vocabulary: Classicalβουλεύω, βουλεύσω deliberate, resolveθύω, θύσω sacrificeκελεύω, κελεύσω orderκωλύω, κωλύσω preventλύω, λύσω loosen, destroyπαύω, παύσω stopπιστεύω, πιστεύσω trust, rely on, believe in (+ dat.)πορεύω, πορεύσω carry; (mid.) go, marchφύω, φύσω produce
15 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 part 2 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament)ἀκούω, ἀκούσω hearκλαίω, κλαύσω cry outλύω, λύσω loosen, destroyἀπολύω release, divorce, forgiveπερισσεύω, περισσεύσω be left over, increase, exceedπιστεύω, πιστεύσω trust, rely on, believe in (+ dat.)
16 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 2 Vocabulary:ἀπο + ολ- ἀπόλλυμι, ἀπολῶ kill, destroyThis verb has a “contract future,” which gives it a different accent, but which otherwise appears and sounds like a regular -ω verb.δεικ- δείκνυμι, δείξω showμιγ- μίγνυμι, μίξω mixδω- δίδωμι, δώσω giveἀποδίδωμι, ἀποδώσω give backπαραδίδωμι, παραδώσω hand over, deliverἥ- ἵημι, ἥσω throwἀφίημι, ἀφήσω let go, allow, forgive
17 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 2 Vocabulary:στη- ἵστημι, στήσω standἀνίστημι, ἀναστήσω raise, appointκαθίστημι, καταστήσω set down, establishπαρίστημι, παραστήσω presentθη- τίθημι, θήσω put, makeἐπιτίθημι, ἐπιθήσω put onπροστίθημι, προσθήσω add toφη- φημί, φήσω say
18 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 part 2 Vocabulary: Coreἀκούω, ἀκούσω hearἀποδίδωμι, ἀποδώσω give backἀπόλλυμι, ἀπολῶ kill, destroyἀφίημι, ἀφήσω let go, allow, forgiveδίδωμι, δώσω giveἵστημι, στήσω standλύω, λύσω loosen, destroyπαραδίδωμι, παραδώσω hand over, deliverπιστεύω, πιστεύσω trust, rely on, believe in (+ dat.)τίθημι, θήσω put, makeφημί, φήσω sayThis is the vocabulary that appears on both the DCC and NT 30+ list