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Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 7: Introduction to - ω verbs 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 7: Introduction to - ω verbs 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major"— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 7: Introduction to - ω verbs 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major

2 Ancient Greek for Everyone This class AGE Unit 7: Introduction to - ω verbs This unit introduces - ω verbs, but first: Review Greek verbs from Unit 2.

3 Ancient Greek for Everyone From Unit 2: A Greek verb by itself usually communicates FIVE pieces of information: – Person – Number – Tense – Mood – Voice PARSING: To “parse” a Greek verb means to identify the above five qualities about a specific verb form.

4 Ancient Greek for Everyone From Unit 2: Building a Greek verb To begin building a Greek verb, start with the “stem.” The stem tells you what action the verb describes: δεικ = “show”

5 Ancient Greek for Everyone From Unit 2: Building a Greek verb All the verbs in this unit are in the present tense. So the stem needs a marker that says the verb is in the present tense. Adding a -ν- to the stem typically marks a verb as in the present tense. It will be easier to pronounce this verb by adding – νυ –. So now the stem looks (and sounds) like this: – δεικ νυ = “show” (in the present)

6 Ancient Greek for Everyone From Unit 2: Building a Greek verb So now the verb is in the present tense. The most common mood of Greek verbs is the indicative (which means the action is real). This is also effectively the default mood for verbs. All the verbs in this unit are in the active voice, so the following verb forms are – Present tense – Indicative mood – Active voice

7 Ancient Greek for Everyone From Unit 2: Building a Greek verb To indicate person and number, the verb needs distinct endings, which are as follows: - μι = I (1 st person singular) - μεν = we (1 st person plural) - ς = you (2 nd person singular) - τε = y’all (2 nd person plural) - σι = (s)he, it (3 rd person sing) - ασι = they (3 rd person plural)

8 Ancient Greek for Everyone δείκνυμι – I show, am showing, do show. δείκνυς – You show, are showing, do show. δείκνυσι – (S)he/it shows, is showing, does show. δείκνυμεν – We show, are showing, do show. δείκνυτε – Y’all show, are showing, do show. δεικνύασι – They show, are showing, do show. Building a Greek Verb The Present Indicative Active of δείκνυμι

9 Ancient Greek for Everyone From Unit 2: The second most common mood of Greek verbs is the infinitive (which refers to the action without person, number or tense, so it needs only a single ending). The ending – ναι signals the verb is in the infinitive. δεικνύναι – “show” in the infinitive mood (mode) This form is the present, infinitive, active.

10 Ancient Greek for Everyone Conjugating a Greek verb The Latin verb conjugare means “join together” and from this verb “conjugate” means to join a verb stem together with its endings. Thus conjugating the present indicative active of a Greek verb means saying or writing out all the forms in the present indicative active.

11 Ancient Greek for Everyone Conjugating a Greek verb From the practice of conjugating verbs, we can speak of a “conjugation.” A conjugation is simply a set of verbs that all use the same endings. You can think of a conjugation as a verb family or verb type. Greek has two conjugations. They are named and identified by the 1 st person singular present active indicative ending that they use.

12 Ancient Greek for Everyone Conjugating a Greek verb All the verbs so far use the 1 st person singular present active indicative ending - μι, so they are known as “- μι verbs.” This is one conjugation. This unit introduces the other conjugation, known as “- ω verbs,” because they use the 1 st person singular present active indicative ending - ω.

13 Ancient Greek for Everyone Conjugating a Greek verb Greek has two conjugations: – - μι verbs – - ω verbs Both conjugations build and parse the same way. They just use somewhat different endings to designate person and number. These two conjugations are not totally separate. Once all the tenses (past, present and future) are reckoned, all Greek verbs in fact use a blend of the two conjugations.

14 Ancient Greek for Everyone Building a Greek verb Remember that, to begin building a Greek verb, start with the “stem.” The stem tells you what action the verb describes: δεικ = “show” λυ = “loosen, destroy” λαβ = “take”

15 Ancient Greek for Everyone Building a Greek verb All - ω verbs have a sort of buffer sound just before the verb’s ending. This buffer is a vowel sound called the “thematic vowel.” - μι verbs do not have this vowel. This “thematic vowel” blends with the verb ending in a stable, consistent way, so you actually learn the thematic vowel and the verb ending combination together. The thematic vowel keeps the verb ending stable. Recall how some - μι verbs change vowel lengths or make other changes. - ω verbs are not susceptible to these types of changes because of the thematic vowel.

16 Ancient Greek for Everyone From Unit 2: Building a Greek verb Recall that almost all the verb forms so far are – Present tense – Indicative mood – Active voice

17 Ancient Greek for Everyone Building a Greek verb To indicate person and number, - ω verbs need distinct endings, which are as follows: - ω = I (1 st person singular) - ομεν = we (1 st person plural) - εις = you (2 nd person singular) - ετε = y’all (2 nd person plural) - ει = (s)he, it (3 rd person sing) - ουσι = they (3 rd person plural)

18 Ancient Greek for Everyone Building a Greek verb To indicate person and number, - ω verbs need distinct endings, which are as follows: - ω = I (1 st person singular) - ομεν = we (1 st person plural) - εις = you (2 nd person singular) - ετε = y’all (2 nd person plural) - ει = (s)he, it (3 rd person sing) - ουσι = they (3 rd person plural) Notice that the thematic vowel is an “o” sound in the 1 st person (singular and plural) and the 3 rd person plural, but an “e” sound in the 2 nd person (singular and plural) and the 3 rd person singular.

19 Ancient Greek for Everyone λύω – I loosen, destroy. λύεις – You loosen, destroy. λύει – (S)he/it loosens, destroy. λύομεν – We loosen, destroy. λύετε – Y’all loosen, destroy. λύουσι – They loosen, destroy. Building a Greek Verb The Present Indicative Active of λύω

20 Ancient Greek for Everyone The ending – ειν signals that an - ω verb is in the infinitive. λύειν – “loosen, destroy” in the infinitive mood (mode) This form is the present, infinitive, active.

21 Ancient Greek for Everyone Spell it Like It Sounds! Remember: A word ending in - σι can add a final - ν (“nu-movable”) to make pronunciation easier: – For example, εἴκοσι εἶσι  εἴκοσιν εἶσιν. – This added - ν has no meaning; it simply helps pronunciation. – For the verb λύω, this means λύουσι can appear as λύουσιν. It does not affect the parsing, meaning or translation.

22 Ancient Greek for Everyone From Unit 2: Placing the accent: – On most Greek words, the “recessive” rule determines the placement of the accent. This means: – If the last syllable of the word contains a single short vowel, the accent “recedes” two syllables: – δίδοτε – It can recede only to the last short vowel sound of this syllable (never to the first part), so the accent appears as an acute (“/”): – ἄνθρωπος, δώσετε (= δοόσετε )

23 Ancient Greek for Everyone From Unit 2: Placing the accent: – On most Greek words, the “recessive” rule determines the placement of the accent. This means: – If the word has only two syllables and the last syllable of the word contains a single short vowel, the accent “recedes” to the first syllable: – δότε – or the first part of a long vowel sound: – δῶρον (= δόορον )

24 Ancient Greek for Everyone From Unit 2: Placing the accent: – On most Greek words, the “recessive” rule determines the placement of the accent. This means: – If the last syllable of the word contains a long vowel sound, the accent “recedes” only one syllable: – διδότω. – It can recede only to the second part of this syllable, so the accent always appears as an acute (“/”): – παραδώσω (= παραδοόσω = παραδοόσοο )

25 Ancient Greek for Everyone VOCABULARY: Although a Greek verb can morph into many different forms, it is listed in a dictionary (Greek “lexicon”) under just one form: – First person – Singular – Present – Indicative – Active For example: λύω set free, destroy λαμβάνω take

26 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 part 1 Vocabulary: Classical ἀκούω hear βουλεύω deliberate, resolve θύω sacrifice κελεύω order κωλύω prevent λύω loosen, destroy παύω stop πιστεύω trust, rely on, believe in πορεύω carry; (mid.) go, march φύω produce

27 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 part 1 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) ἀκούω hear ἀπολύω release, divorce, forgive θεραπεύω heal, serve κλαίω cry out λύω loosen, destroy περισσεύω be left over, increase, exceed πιστεύω trust, rely on, believe in

28 Ancient Greek for Everyone Building a Greek verb All the verbs so far are in the present tense. Like some - μι verbs, some - ω verbs have a specific marker to indicate that the verb is in the present tense. As for - μι verbs, adding a - ν - to the stem typically marks a verb as in the present tense. To make a verb easier to pronounce, the stem often adds – αν – rather than – ν – by itself. For example, this stem looks (and sounds) like this: – λαβ = “take”  λαμβαν = “take” (in the present)

29 Ancient Greek for Everyone λαμβάνω – I take. λαμβάνεις – You take. λαμβάνει – (S)he/it takes. λαμβάνομεν – We take. λαμβάνετε – Y’all take. λαμβάνουσι – They take. Building a Greek Verb The Present Indicative Active of λαμβάνω

30 Ancient Greek for Everyone The ending – ειν signals that an - ω verb is in the infinitive. λαμβάνειν – “take” in the infinitive mood (mode) This form is the present, infinitive, active.

31 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 part 1 Vocabulary: Classical ἁμαρτ-  ἁμαρτάνω miss, fail, make a mistake βη -  βαίνω walk, come, go – συμβαίνω happen, agree, result ἐλα -  ἐλαύνω drive λαβ-  λαμβάνω take, grab; receive, get – καταλαμβάνω seize, catch up to, arrest – ὑπολαμβάνω take up, reply, suppose

32 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 part 1 Vocabulary: Classical λαθ-  λανθάνω escape notice of; (mid.) forget μαθ-  μανθάνω learn πι -  πίνω drink τεμ-  τέμνω cut τυχ-  τυγχάνω happen to (+part.), meet (+gen)

33 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 part 1 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) ἁμαρτ-  ἁμαρτάνω miss, fail, make a mistake ἀνα + βη -  ἀναβαίνω walk up, go aboard, enter κατα + βη -  καταβαίνω walk down, descend λαβ-  λαμβάνω take, grab; receive, get παρα + λαβ-  παραλαμβάνω take, receive, accept πι-  πίνω drink

34 Ancient Greek for Everyone Building a Greek verb All the verbs so far are in the present tense. Like some - μι verbs, some - ω verbs have a specific marker to indicate that the verb is in the present tense. Another such marker is - σκ -. Some of these verbs, as do some - μι verbs, duplicate the initial sound of the stem in the present tense. For example, this stem looks (and sounds) like this: γνω = “know”  γιγνωσκ = “know” (in the present)

35 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 part 1 Vocabulary: Classical θαν-  θνήσκω or ἀποθνῄσχω die γνω -  γιγνώσκω know διδαχ -  διδάσκω teach εὑρ -  εὑρίσκω find μνη  μιμνήσκω remind παθ  πάσχω suffer, experience

36 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 part 1 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) θαν-  ἀποθνῄσχω die γνω -  γινώσκω know, recognize, understand – ἀναγινώσκω read – ἐπιγινώσκω know, recognize, understand διδαχ -  διδάσκω teach εὑρ -  εὑρίσκω find παθ  πάσχω suffer, experience Note: Classical γιγνώσκω becomes γινώσκω in Koine Greek.

37 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 part 1 Vocabulary: Core ἀκούω hear ἁμαρτάνω miss, fail, make a mistake ἀποθνῄσχω die βαίνω walk, come, go γι(γ)νώσκω know, recognize, understand διδάσκω teach εὑρίσκω find

38 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 part 1 Vocabulary: Core λαμβάνω take, grab; receive, get λύω loosen, destroy πάσχω suffer, experience πίνω drink πιστεύω trust, rely on, believe in


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