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Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 8 part 1: Third Declension Nouns completed 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 8 part 1: Third Declension Nouns completed 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major"— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 8 part 1: Third Declension Nouns completed 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major

2 Ancient Greek for Everyone This class AGE Unit 8: Third Declension Nouns completed • In Unit 3, you learned the basics of Greek nouns. • This Unit completes the presentation of the common types of nouns. • This first part presents a handful of common nouns with slight variations from the models you have learned so far. • but first: Review Greek nouns from Unit 3.

3 Ancient Greek for Everyone • From Unit 3: A NOUN indicates a person, place or thing. • A Greek noun, however, normally communicates THREE pieces of information: – Gender – Number – Case • To begin building a Greek noun, start with the “stem.” • The stem tells you to what person, place or thing the noun refers: παιδ = “child”

4 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular • Nominative –ς • Genitive –ος • Dative –ι • Accusative –α Plural • Nominative –ες • Genitive –ων • Dative –σι • Accusative –ας Building a Greek Noun Third Declension Endings

5 Ancient Greek for Everyone From Unit 3: Building a Greek Noun • We begin with nouns whose stem ends in a dental (- τ /- δ /- θ /- ν ). • Recall that when a sigma follows a dental, the dental disappears and the sigma remains: δ + σ = σ. • Notice that two of the noun endings involve adding a sigma to the stem: nom. sing. = - ς, dat. plu. = - σι. παιδ = “child”

6 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular • Nom. (παιδς  ) παῖς • Gen. παιδός • Dat. παιδί • Acc. παῖδα Plural • Nom. παῖδες • Gen. παίδων • Dat. (παιδσι  ) παισί • Acc. παῖδας Building a Greek Noun declension of παῖς, παιδός ὁ/ἡ child

7 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular • Nom. ὁ παῖς • Gen. τοῦ παιδός • Dat. τῷ παιδί • Acc. τὸν παῖδα Plural • Nom. οἱ παῖδες • Gen. τῶν παίδων • Dat. τοῖς παισί • Acc. τοὺς παῖδας Building a Greek Noun Third Declension Endings

8 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular • Nom. ἡ παῖς • Gen. τῆς παιδός • Dat. τῇ παιδί • Acc. τὴν παῖδα Plural • Nom. αἱ παῖδες • Gen. τῶν παίδων • Dat. ταῖς παισί • Acc. τὰς παῖδας Building a Greek Noun Third Declension Endings

9 Ancient Greek for Everyone From Unit 3: Building a Greek Noun • The Neuter Law: two rules apply to all neuter words in Greek. • (1) The nominative singular and the accusative singular must be identical. • (2) The nominative plural and the accusative plural must both end in a short - α.

10 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular • Nominative – • Genitive –ος • Dative –ι • Accusative – Plural • Nominative –α • Genitive –ων • Dative –σι • Accusative –α Building a Greek Noun Third Declension Endings for neuter nouns

11 Ancient Greek for Everyone From Unit 3: Building a Greek Noun • The stem ending – ματ is very common for neuter nouns. • Recall that one of the noun endings involves adding a sigma to the stem (dat. plu. - σι ) and that τ + σ = σ. • Also recall that only a limited number of sounds may end a Greek word (vowel, - ν /- ρ /- ς ), so the final – τ must drop off in the nominative singular and accusative singular, since now there is no additional ending. σωματ = “body”

12 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular • Nom. τὸ σῶμα • Gen. τοῦ σώματος • Dat. τῷ σώματι • Acc. τὸ σῶμα Plural • Nom. τὰ σώματα • Gen. τῶν σωμάτων • Dat. τοῖς σώμασι • Acc. τὰ σώματα Building a Greek Noun declension of σῶμα -ατος τό body

13 Ancient Greek for Everyone From Unit 3: Review the forms of the definite article : Singular Plural • Nominative ὁ ἡ τό οἱ αἱ τά • Genitive τοῦ τῆς τοῦ τῶν • Dative τῷ τῇ τῷ τοῖς ταῖς τοῖς • Accusative τόν τήν τό τούς τάς τά

14 Ancient Greek for Everyone New: Building a Greek Noun • This unit adds nouns whose stem ends in - ρ. • Greek often avoids the combination - ρσ -, so the - ς always drops from the Nominative singular. • In the Dative plural, however, there is no single way of resolving the combination, but the - σι ending is always intact.

15 Ancient Greek for Everyone New: Building a Greek Noun • This unit adds nouns whose stem ends in - ρ. • In the Dative plural, however, there is no single way of resolving the combination, but - σι is always intact. – Some nouns simply allow the full - ρσι - combination. – The noun μάρτυς -υρος ὁ/ἡ “witness” drops the ρ : μάρτυσι – The noun χείρ, χειρός ἡ “hand” shortens its stem: χέρσι – Some nouns insert an - α - between the ρ - and the - σι. These nouns also show other small stem variations and shifts in accent. Full declensions of four common nouns of this type (all on your vocabulary list) follow on the next four slides. The good news is that the variations do not change the basic case endings.

16 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular • Nom. ὁ πατήρ • Gen. τοῦ πατρός • Dat. τῷ πατρί • Acc. τὸν πατέρα Plural • Nom. οἱ πατέρες • Gen. τῶν πατέρων • Dat. τοῖς πατράσι • Acc. τοὺς πατέρας Building a Greek Noun πατήρ, πατρός ὁ father

17 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular • Nom. ἡ μήτηρ • Gen. τῆς μητρός • Dat. τῇ μητρί • Acc. τὴν μητέρα Plural • Nom. αἱ μητέρες • Gen. τῶν μητέρων • Dat. ταῖς μητράσι • Acc. τὰς μητέρας Building a Greek Noun μήτηρ, μητρός ἡ mother

18 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular • Nom. ἡ θυγάτηρ • Gen. τῆς θυγατρός • Dat. τῇ θυγατρί • Acc. τὴν θυγατέρα Plural • Nom. αἱ θυγατέρες • Gen. τῶν θυγατέρων • Dat. ταῖς θυγατράσι • Acc. τὰς θυγατέρας Building a Greek Noun θυγάτηρ, θυγατρός ἡ daughter

19 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular • Nom. ὁ ἀνήρ • Gen. τοῦ ἀνδρός • Dat. τῷ ἀνδρί • Acc. τὸν ἄνδρα Plural • Nom. οἱ ἄνδρες • Gen. τῶν ἀνδρῶν • Dat. τοῖς ἀνδράσι • Acc. τοὺς ἄνδρας Building a Greek Noun ἀνήρ, ἀνδρός ὁ man

20 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 1 Vocabulary: Classical • ἀνήρ, ἀνδρός ὁ man • θυγάτηρ -τρός ἡ daughter • μάρτυς -υρος ὁ/ἡ witness • μήτηρ, μητρός ἡ mother • πατήρ, πατρός ὁ father • πῦρ, πυρός τό fire • χείρ, χειρός ἡ hand

21 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 1 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) • ἀνήρ, ἀνδρός ὁ man • μάρτυς -υρος ὁ/ἡ witness • μήτηρ, μητρός ἡ mother • πατήρ, πατρός ὁ father • πῦρ, πυρός τό fire • χείρ, χειρός ἡ hand

22 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 1 Vocabulary: Core • ἀνήρ, ἀνδρός ὁ man • μάρτυς -υρος ὁ/ἡ witness • μήτηρ, μητρός ἡ mother • πατήρ, πατρός ὁ father • πῦρ, πυρός τό fire • χείρ, χειρός ἡ hand

23 Ancient Greek for Everyone New: Building a Greek Noun • This unit adds nouns whose stem ends in - εσ. • As so often in Greek, the - σ - drops out and the surrounding vowels contract. • All the nouns of this type in your vocabulary are neuter. • There are some masculine and feminine nouns of this type, but they are less frequent or are proper names. – For example, Socrates declines – Nom. ὁ (Σωκράτεσς  ) Σωκράτης – Gen. τοῦ (Σωκράτεσος  Σωκράτεος  ) Σωκράτους – Dat. τῷ (Σωκράτεσι  ) Σωκράτει – Acc. τὸν (Σωκράτεσος  Σωκράτεα  ) Σωκράτη(ν)

24 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular • Nom. (ἔτες  ) ἔτος • Gen. (ἔτεσος  ἔτεος  ) ἔτους • Dat. (ἔτεσι  ) ἔτει • Acc. (ἔτες  ) ἔτος Plural • Nom. (ἔτεσα  ἔτεα  ) ἔτη • Gen. (ἐτέσων  ἐτέων  ) ἐτῶν • Dat. (ἔτεσσι  ) ἔτεσι • Acc. (ἔτεσα  ἔτεα  ) ἔτη Building a Greek Noun contractions in ἔτος -ους τό year

25 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular • Nom. τὸ ἔτος • Gen. τοῦ ἔτους • Dat. τῷ ἔτει • Acc. τὸ ἔτος Plural • Nom. τὰ ἔτη • Gen. τῶν ἐτῶν • Dat. τοῖς ἔτεσι • Acc. τὰ ἔτη Building a Greek Noun declension of ἔτος -ους τό year

26 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 1 Vocabulary: Classical • γένος -ους τό race, family; kind, class • ἔθνος -ους τό nation • εἶδος -ους τό form, shape • ἔπος -ους τό word • ἔτος -ους τό year • μέγεθος -ους τό magnitude

27 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 1 Vocabulary: Classical • μέρος -ους τό part, share • ὄρος -ους τό mountain, hill • πάθος -ους τό suffering, experience, emotion • πλῆθος -ους τό crowd • τεῖχος -ους τό wall • τέλος -ους τό end

28 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 1 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) • ἔθνος -ους τό nation • ἔτος -ους τό year • μέρος -ους τό part, share • ὄρος -ους τό mountain, hill • πλῆθος -ους τό crowd • σκότος –ους τό darkness • τέλος -ους τό end

29 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 1 Vocabulary: Core • ἔθνος -ους τό nation • ἔτος -ους τό year • μέρος -ους τό part, share • ὄρος -ους τό mountain, hill • πλῆθος -ους τό crowd • σκότος –ους τό darkness • τέλος -ους τό end

30 Ancient Greek for Everyone New: Building a Greek Noun • This unit adds nouns whose stem ends in - ι, which flattens to - ε in many forms, resulting in some contractions and other variations. • The Genitive singular ending lengthens from - ος to - ως. • The Accusative singular uses - ν (familiar from the definite article) instead of - α. • The Nominative and Accusative plural both contract to - εις. • Nouns of this type are consistently feminine.

31 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular • Nom. ἡ πόλις • Gen. τῆς πόλεως • Dat. τῇ πόλει • Acc. τὴν πόλιν Plural • Nom. αἱ πόλεις • Gen. τῶν πόλεων • Dat. ταῖς πόλεσι • Acc. τὰς πόλεις Building a Greek Noun πόλις, πόλεως ἡ city

32 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 1 Vocabulary: Classical • δύναμις -εως ἡ power • πίστις -εως ἡ trust, proof, guarantee • πόλις -εως ἡ city • πρᾶξις -εως ἡ action • τάξις -εως ἡ arrangement, order • φύσις -εως ἡ nature

33 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 1 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) • ἀνάστασις -εως ἡ resurrection • δύναμις -εως ἡ power • θλῖψις -εως ἡ trouble • κρίσις -εως ἡ judgment • πίστις -εως ἡ faith • πόλις -εως ἡ city

34 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 1 Vocabulary: Core • δύναμις -εως ἡ power • πίστις -εως ἡ trust, proof, faith • πόλις -εως ἡ city

35 Ancient Greek for Everyone New: Building a Greek Noun • This unit adds nouns whose stem ends in - υ, which drops out many forms, resulting in some contractions and other variations. • Greek speakers and writers of different places and times spelled some forms differently, depending on how they pronounced them. The variations differ in quantity or contraction, but, generally speaking, they are ones familiar from the nouns that you have already studied. For example: – The Genitive singular may lengthen from - ος to - ως. – The Accusative singular may use - ν instead of - α. – The Nominative and Accusative plural might or might not contract.

36 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular • Nom. ὁ βασιλεύς • Gen. τοῦ βασιλέως • Dat. τῷ βασιλεῖ • Acc. τὸν βασιλέα Plural • Nom. οἱ βασιλῆς • Gen. τῶν βασιλέων • Dat. τοῖς βασιλεῦσι • Acc. τοὺς βασιλέας Building a Greek Noun βασιλεύς -έως ὁ king (Classical)

37 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular • Nom. ὁ βασιλεύς • Gen. τοῦ βασιλέως • Dat. τῷ βασιλεῖ • Acc. τὸν βασιλέα Plural • Nom. οἱ βασιλεῖς • Gen. τῶν βασιλέων • Dat. τοῖς βασιλεῦσι • Acc. τοὺς βασιλεῖς Building a Greek Noun βασιλεύς -έως ὁ king (Koine)

38 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular • Nom. ἡ ναῦς • Gen. τῆς νεώς • Dat. τῇ νηί • Acc. τὴν ναῦν Plural • Nom. αἱ νῆες • Gen. τῶν νεῶν • Dat. ταῖς ναυσί • Acc. τὰς ναῦς Building a Greek Noun ναῦς, νεώς ἡ ship

39 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular • Nom. βοῦς • Gen. βοός • Dat. βοί • Acc. βοῦν Plural • Nom. βόες • Gen. βοῶν • Dat. βουσί • Acc. βοῦς Building a Greek Noun βοῦς, βοός ὁ bull, ox; ἡ cow

40 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 1 Vocabulary: Classical • βασιλεύς -έως ὁ king • βοῦς βοός ὁ bull, ox; ἡ cow • ἱππεύς -έως ὁ horseman, charioteer • ναῦς, νεώς ἡ ship • πρέσβυς -εως ὁ old man; (pl.) ambassadors

41 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 1 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) • ἀρχιερύς -έως ὁ high priest • βασιλεύς -έως ὁ king • γραμματεύς -έως ὁ scribe, clerk, legal expert • ἱερεύς -έως ὁ priest Note: The Classical Greek word ναῦς, νεώς ἡ “ship” occurs only once in the NT (Acts 27:41; πλοῖον is the more common word) but it is easy to confuse with ναός, ναοῦ ὁ “temple” (45 times) or with νοῦς, νοός ὁ “mind” (24 times).

42 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 1 Vocabulary: Core • βασιλεύς -έως ὁ king

43 Ancient Greek for Everyone New: Building a Greek Noun • All the nouns from this part and from Unit 3 belong to a class of nouns normally called the Third Declension. The second part of this unit presents the first two declensions (which basically decline like the definite article, so their forms will look familiar). • The final slides list the last remaining nouns of Third Declension from your vocabulary lists. • While they all belong to the Third Declension, each of the following nouns exhibits some variation from the strictly normal paradigm.

44 Ancient Greek for Everyone Classical Vocabulary • γυνή, γυναικός ἡ woman, wife – irregular nominative singular form • εἰκός, εἰκότος τό probability, likelihood – regular (except that most neuter dental stem nouns have – ματ ) • ποῦς, ποδός ὁ foot – irregular nominative singular form

45 Ancient Greek for Everyone Classical Vocabulary • ὕδωρ, ὕδατος τό water – irregular nominative/accusative singular form • φῶς, φωτός τό light – irregular nominative/accusative singular form • χάρις -ιτος ἡ favor, gratitude – irregular accusative singular χάριν

46 Ancient Greek for Everyone New Testament Vocabulary • γυνή, γυναικός ἡ woman, wife • irregular nominative singular form • οὖς, ὠτός τό ear – irregular nominative/accusative singular form • ποῦς, ποδός ὁ foot – irregular nominative singular form • σάρξ, σαρκός ἡ flesh – regular (it just happens to be the only palatal stem 3 rd declension noun on either of the vocabulary lists)

47 Ancient Greek for Everyone New Testament Vocabulary • ὕδωρ, ὕδατος τό water • irregular nominative/accusative singular form • φῶς, φωτός τό light – irregular nominative/accusative singular form • χάρις -ιτος ἡ grace, favor – irregular accusative singular χάριν

48 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 1 Vocabulary: Core • γυνή, γυναικός ἡ woman, wife • ποῦς, ποδός ὁ foot • ὕδωρ, ὕδατος τό water • φῶς, φωτός τό light • χάρις -ιτος ἡ grace, favor


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