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Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 5: Introduction to Greek Pronouns 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 5: Introduction to Greek Pronouns 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major"— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 5: Introduction to Greek Pronouns 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major

2 Ancient Greek for Everyone This class AGE Unit 5: Introduction to Pronouns Pronouns in Greek for the most part work very much as they do in English, in that they replace nouns. Since Greek nouns are distinguished by gender, number and case, it is logical that pronouns replace them by these same qualities. That is, a pronoun substitutes for a noun by replacing it in a form that is the same in gender, number and case. You have already seen this basic mechanism in practice, where the definite article is the same gender, number and case as the noun. Indeed, most pronouns in Greek resemble the definite article.

3 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns – The first five pronouns in this unit closely resemble the definite article. – Review the forms of the definite article : Singular Plural Nominative ὁ ἡ τό οἱ αἱ τά Genitive τοῦ τῆς τοῦ τῶν Dative τῷ τῇ τῷ τοῖς ταῖς τοῖς Accusative τόν τήν τό τούς τάς τά

4 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns – The first pronoun is the Greek equivalent of several English pronouns: he/his/him, she/hers/her, it/its and they/their/them. – Greek uses a single pronoun for all of these, and declines it by gender, number and case. – Where the definite article has the stem τ -, this pronoun has the stem αὐτ-. They use the same endings. The masculine singular nominative form retains the nominative singular – ς where the definite article drops it.

5 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns Where the definite article has the stem τ -, this pronoun has the stem αὐτ-. They use the same endings. Singular Plural Nom. αὐτός αὐτή αὐτό αὐτοί αὐταί αὐτά Gen. αὐτοῦ αὐτῆς αὐτοῦ αὐτῶν Dat. αὐτῷ αὐτῇ αὐτῷ αὐτοῖς αὐταῖς αὐτοῖς Acc. αὐτόν αὐτήν αὐτό αὐτούς αὐτάς αὐτά

6 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns – The pronoun αὐτός αὐτή αὐτό replaces a noun by substituting the form that corresponds in gender, number and case. – For example: οἱ ἄρχοντες διδόασι τὴν ἐλπίδα τοῖς παισίν. The rulers give hope to their children. (αὐτοί) διδόασιν αὐτὴν αὐτοῖς. They give it to them.

7 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns – Since the pronoun is unnecessary in the nominative, adding it is emphatic: ἀποδίδομεν τὰ χρήματα, ἀλλ’ οὐκ αὐτοὶ ἀποδιδόασιν. We give money back, but they do not give (it) back.

8 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns – Likewise, adding it to a noun is emphatic: οἱ ἄρχοντες αὐτοὶ διδόασιν αὐτὴν τὴν ἐλπίδα τοῖς παισίν αὐτοῖς. The rulers themselves give hope itself to the children themselves.

9 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns – When it immediately follows the article or precedes the noun (known as the “attributive position”), it means “same”: οἱ αὐτοὶ ἄρχοντες διδόασι τὴν αὐτὴν ἐλπίδα τοῖς αὐτοῖς παισίν. The same rulers give the same hope to the same children.

10 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns – The next pronoun is the Greek equivalent of that/those. – This pronoun has the stem ἐκειν-, where the definite article has τ -, and again with the same endings. The masculine singular nominative form retains the nominative singular – ς where the definite article drops it.

11 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns Singular Plural Nom. ἐκεῖνος ἐκείνη ἐκεῖνο ἐκεῖνοι ἐκεῖναι ἐκεῖνα Gen. ἐκείνου ἐκείνης ἐκείνου ἐκείνων Dat. ἐκείνῳ ἐκείνῃ ἐκείνῳ ἐκείνοις ἐκείναις ἐκείνοις Acc. ἐκεῖνον ἐκείνην ἐκεῖνο ἐκείνους ἐκείνας ἐκεῖνα

12 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns – This pronoun can substitute for, or be added to, a noun (but it never appears in the attributive position). – For example: οἱ ἄρχοντες διδόασι τὴν ἐλπίδα τοῖς παισίν. The rulers give hope to their children. ἐκεῖνοι διδόασι τὴν ἐλπίδα τοῖς παισίν ἐκείνοις. Those (men) give hope to those children.

13 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns – The next pronoun is the Greek equivalent of this/these, which adds the suffix - δε to the definite article. Singular Plural Nominative ὅδε ἥδε τόδε οἵδε αἵδε τάδε Genitive τοῦδε τῆσδε τοῦδε τῶνδε Dative τῷδε τῇδε τῷδε τοῖσδε ταῖσδε τοῖσδε Accusative τόνδε τήνδε τόδε τούσδε τάσδε τάδε

14 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns – This pronoun can substitute for, or be added to, a noun (but it never appears in the attributive position). – For example: οἱ ἄρχοντες διδόασι τὴν ἐλπίδα τοῖς παισίν. The rulers give hope to their children. οἵδε διδόασι τὴν ἐλπίδα τοῖς παισίν τοῖσδε. These (men) give hope to these children.

15 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns – The next pronoun is the Greek equivalent of who/whose/whom. – To form this pronoun, Greek replaces the τ - of the definite article with the rough breathing ( ῾ ). Singular Plural Nominative ὅς ἥ ὅ οἵ αἵ ἅ Genitive οὗ ἧς οὗ ὧν Dative ᾧ ᾗ ᾧ οἷς αἷς οἷς Accusative ὅν ἥν ὅ οὕς ἅς ἅ

16 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns – This pronoun substitutes for a noun just as all other pronouns do (by gender, number and case), but it also joins two sentences or clauses together: οἱ ἄρχοντες διδόασι τὴν ἐλπίδα τοῖς παισίν. οἱ παῖδες ἀποδιδόασι τὰ χρήματα. The rulers give hope to the children. The children give their money back. οἱ ἄρχοντες διδόασι τὴν ἐλπίδα τοῖς παισίν οἳ τὰ χρήματα ἀποδιδόασιν. The leaders give hope to the children who (that) give their money back.

17 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns – Adding - περ to the relative pronoun gives it the meaning “the same one(s) who/which/that…” Singular Plural Nominative ὅσπερ ἥπερ ὅπεροἵπερ αἵπερ ἅπερ Genitive οὗπερ ἧσπερ οὗπερ ὧνπερ Dative ᾧπερ ᾗπερ ᾧπεροἷσπερ αἷσπερ οἷσπερ Accusative ὅνπερ ἥνπερ ὅπερ οὕσπερ ἅσπερ ἅπερ

18 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns – Adding - περ to the relative pronoun gives it the meaning “the same one(s) who/which/that…” οἱ ἄρχοντες διδόασι τὴν ἐλπίδα τοῖς παισίν. οἱ αὐτοὶ παῖδες ἀποδιδόασι τὰ χρήματα. The rulers give hope to children. The same children give their money back. οἱ ἄρχοντες διδόασι τὴν ἐλπίδα τοῖς παισίν οἵπερ τὰ χρήματα ἀποδιδόασιν. The leaders give hope to the same children who (that) give their money back.

19 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns – While most pronouns follow the pattern of the definite article, one common pronoun uses the endings of nouns. – This pronoun has the stem τιν-. – Just as on nouns whose stem ends in a dental (- τ /- δ /- θ /- ν ), in two forms, when the endings involve adding a sigma to the stem (nom. sing. = - ς, dat. plu. = - σι ), the - ν disappears from the end of the stem. Recall that when a sigma follows a dental, the dental disappears and the sigma remains: ν + σ = σ.

20 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns – While most pronouns follow the pattern of the definite article, one common pronoun uses the endings of nouns. – Review the endings of nouns: Singular Plural Nominative –ς (neut -) –ες (neut -α) Genitive –ος –ων Dative –ι –σι Accusative –α (neut -) –ας (neut -α)

21 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular (τινς  )/(τιν  ) Nom. τις τι Gen. τινος Dat. τινι Acc. τινα τι Plural Nom. τινες τινα Gen. τινων Dat. (τινσι  ) τισι Acc. τινας τινα

22 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns – This pronoun refers to someone or something indefinite. – It is postpositive, in that it never appears first in a clause and enclitic in that it bears an accent only if necessary. – For example: διδόασι τινὲς τὴν ἐλπίδα τοῖς παισίν. Some people are giving hope to their children. οἱ ἄρχοντες διδόασί τι τοῖς παισίν. The rulers are giving something to their children.

23 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns – This pronoun refers to someone or something indefinite. – It is postpositive, in that it never appears first in a clause and enclitic in that it bears an accent only if necessary. – This use is more common in negative sentences: δίδωσιν οὔτις τὴν ἐλπίδα τοῖς παισίν. No one gives hope to their children. οἱ ἄρχοντες οὐ διδόασί τι τοῖς παισίν. The rulers are not giving anything to their children.

24 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns – When τις, τι follows a noun it agrees with (in gender, number and case), it makes the noun indefinite. – For example: ἄρχοντές τινες διδόασι τὴν ἐλπίδα τοῖς παισίν. Some rulers are giving hope to their children. οἱ ἄρχοντες διδόασι ἐλπίδα τινὰ τοῖς παισίν. The rulers are giving some hope to their children.

25 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns – When τις, τι has an acute accent, it normally appears first in the clause or sentence and asks the question, Who…? or What…? – For example: τίς δίδωσιν τὴν ἐλπίδα τοῖς παισίν; Who is giving hope to their children? τί οἱ ἄρχοντες διδόασι τοῖς παισίν; What are the rulers giving to their children? τίσιν οἱ ἄρχοντες διδόασι τὴν ἐλπίδα; To whom are the rulers giving hope?

26 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns – The neuter accusative singular τί also asks the question Why…? – For example: τί οἱ ἄρχοντες διδόασι τοῖς παισίν; What are the rulers giving to their children? τί οἱ ἄρχοντες διδόασι τὴν ἐλπίδα τοῖς παισίν; Why are the rulers giving hope to their children?

27 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns – Adding τις, τι to the relative pronoun makes the antecedent indefinite: ὅστις δίδωσι τὴν ἐλπίδα τοῖς παισίν, ἀφίησι τὰ χρήματα. Anyone who gives hope to their children is throwing their money away.

28 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns – Just as neuter accusative singular τί asks the question Why…?, – the indefinite relative ὅτι serves as Because…: τί οἱ ἄρχοντες διδόασι τὴν ἐλπίδα τοῖς παισίν; Why are the rulers giving hope to their children? ὅτι ἀποδιδόασιν οἱ παῖδες τὰ χρήματα. Because the children give their money back.

29 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns – Adding τις, τι to the relative pronoun makes the antecedent indefinite: Singular Plural Nominative ὅστις ἥτις ὅ τι οἵτινες αἵτινες ἅτινα Genitive οὗτινος ἧστινος οὗτινος ὧντινων Dative ᾧτινι ᾗτινι ᾧτινιοἷστισι αἷστισι οἷστισι Accusative ὅντινα ἥντινα ὅ τι οὕστινας ἅστινας ἅτινα

30 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 5 Vocabulary: In a vocabulary entry for a pronoun, all the nominative singular forms are given, either in full or in abbreviated form: – αὐτός -ή -ό self, same, s/he/it – ἐκεῖνος -ή -ό that – ὅδε, ἥδε, τόδε this – ὅς, ἥ, ὅ who, which, that – ὅσπερ, ἥπερ, ὅπερ the same who, which, that – ὅστις, ἥτις, ὅ τι anyone/thing who/which – τις, τι someone, something – τίς, τί who? what? which?

31 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 5 Vocabulary: Classical – αὐτός -ή -ό self, same, s/he/it – ἐκεῖνος -ή -ό that – ὅδε, ἥδε, τόδε this – ὅς, ἥ, ὅ who, which, that – ὅσπερ, ἥπερ, ὅπερ the same who, which, that – ὅστις, ἥτις, ὅ τι anyone/thing who/which – τις, τι someone, something – τίς, τί who? what? which?

32 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 5 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) – αὐτός -ή -ό self, same, s/he/it – ἐκεῖνος -ή -ό that – ὅς, ἥ, ὅ who, which, that – ὅστις, ἥτις, ὅ τι anyone/thing who/which – τις, τι someone, something – τίς, τί who? what? which?

33 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 5 Vocabulary: Core – αὐτός -ή -ό self, same, s/he/it – ἐκεῖνος -ή -ό that – ὅδε, ἥδε, τόδε this – ὅς, ἥ, ὅ who, which, that – ὅστις, ἥτις, ὅ τι anyone/thing who/which – τις, τι someone, something – τίς, τί who? what? which?


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