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Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 8 part 2: 1 st and 2 nd Declension Nouns 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 8 part 2: 1 st and 2 nd Declension Nouns 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major"— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 8 part 2: 1 st and 2 nd Declension Nouns 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major

2 Ancient Greek for Everyone This class: AGE Unit 8 part 2 1 st and 2 nd Declension Greek Nouns In Unit 3, you learned the basics of Greek nouns. This Unit completes the presentation of the common types of nouns. This second part presents the last two classes of Greek nouns.

3 Ancient Greek for Everyone From Unit 3: Review the forms of the definite article : Singular Plural Nominative ὁ ἡ τό οἱ αἱ τά Genitive τοῦ τῆς τοῦ τῶν Dative τῷ τῇ τῷ τοῖς ταῖς τοῖς Accusative τόν τήν τό τούς τάς τά

4 Ancient Greek for Everyone The Declensions of Greek Nouns In formal grammar, Greek nouns are classified by the last sound of their stems, which may in turn contract with the case endings. There are traditionally three of these classes, called “declensions.” All the nouns you have learned so far belong to the “Third Declension.” This section presents the other two Declensions.

5 Ancient Greek for Everyone New: The First Declension This unit adds nouns of the First Declension. Most nouns in this declension are feminine and use the same endings as the feminine definite article.

6 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular Nom. ἡ ψυχή Gen. τῆς ψυχῆς Dat. τῇ ψυχῇ Acc. τὴν ψυχήν Plural Nom. αἱ ψυχαί Gen. τῶν ψυχῶν Dat. ταῖς ψυχαῖς Acc. τὰς ψυχάς Building a Greek Noun ψυχή -ῆς ἡ soul, breath

7 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 2 Vocabulary: Classical ἀνάγκη -ης ἡ necessity ἀρετή -ῆς ἡ excellence ἀρχή -ῆς ἡ beginning, authority, office βουλή -ῆς ἡ council, plan, advice γῆ γῆς ἡ earth γνώμη -ης ἡ idea, intelligence, opinion γραφή -ῆς ἡ drawing, writing, indictment δίκη -ης ἡ justice; legal case εἰρήνη -ης ἡ peace ἐπιστήμη -ης ἡ knowledge

8 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 2 Vocabulary: Classical ἡδονή -ῆς ἡ pleasure, enjoyment κεφαλή -ῆς ἡ head μάχη -ης ἡ battle νίκη -ης ἡ victory τέχνη -ης ἡ art, skill τιμή -ῆς ἡ value, honor τροφή -ῆς ἡ nourishment, food τύχη -ης ἡ luck, fate φωνή -ῆς ἡ sound, voice ψυχή -ῆς ἡ breath, soul

9 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 2 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) ἀρχή -ῆς ἡ beginning, authority, office γῆ γῆς ἡ earth γραφή -ῆς ἡ drawing, writing, indictment διαθήκη -ης ἡ covenant δικαιοσύνη -ης ἡ justice εἰρήνη -ης ἡ peace ἐντολή -ῆς ἡ commandment ζωή -ῆς ἡ life κεφαλή -ῆς ἡ head

10 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 2 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) ὀργή -ῆς ἡ anger παραβολή -ῆς ἡ parable περιτομή -ῆς ἡ circumcision προσευχή -ῆς ἡ prayer τιμή -ῆς ἡ value, honor ὑπομονή -ῆς ἡ perseverance φυλακή -ῆς ἡ prison, guard, night watch φυλή -ῆς ἡ tribe φωνή -ῆς ἡ sound, voice ψυχή -ῆς ἡ breath, soul

11 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 2 Vocabulary: Core ἀρχή -ῆς ἡ beginning, authority, office γῆ γῆς ἡ earth γραφή -ῆς ἡ drawing, writing, indictment εἰρήνη -ης ἡ peace κεφαλή -ῆς ἡ head τιμή -ῆς ἡ value, honor φωνή -ῆς ἡ sound, voice ψυχή -ῆς ἡ breath, soul

12 Ancient Greek for Everyone New: The First Declension This unit adds nouns of the First Declension. In Attic and Koine Greek, when a first declension noun has a stem ending in - ε, - ι or - ρ, the singular forms change the - η - to - ᾱ -. This change has no meaning. It is just a shift in pronunciation (and consequently spelling).

13 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular Nom. ἡ ἡμέρα Gen. τῆς ἡμέρας Dat. τῇ ἡμέρᾳ Acc. τὴν ἡμέραν Plural Nom. αἱ ἡμέραι Gen. τῶν ἡμερῶν Dat. ταῖς ἡμέραις Acc. τὰς ἡμέρας Building a Greek Noun ἡμέρα -ας ἡ day

14 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 2 Vocabulary: Classical αἰτία -ας ἡ cause, origin; accusation διαφορά -ᾶς ἡ difference, disagreement ἡμέρα -ας ἡ day οἰκία -ας ἡ building, house οὐσία -ας ἡ essence, property πολιτεία -ας ἡ constitution, republic στρατιά -ᾶς ἡ army συμφορά -ᾶς ἡ event, situation, disaster σωτηρία -ας ἡ safety χώρα -ας ἡ land, place

15 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 2 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) ἁμαρτία -ας ἡ sin βασιλεία -ας ἡ kingdom γενεά -ᾶς ἡ generation διακονία -ας ἡ ministry ἐκκλησία -ας ἡ church ἐξουσία -ας ἡ authority ἐπαγγελία -ας ἡ promise ἐπιθυμία -ας ἡ desire ἡμέρα -ας ἡ day

16 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 2 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) θύρα -ας ἡ door καρδία -ας ἡ heart μαρτυρία -ας ἡ testimony οἰκία -ας ἡ building, house παρρησία -ας ἡ free speech, public speech σοφία -ας ἡ wisdom σωτηρία -ας ἡ safety χαρά -ᾶς ἡ joy χρεία -ας ἡ need, necessity ὥρα -ας ἡ season, time

17 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 2 Vocabulary: Core ἡμέρα -ας ἡ day οἰκία -ας ἡ building, house σωτηρία -ας ἡ safety, salvation

18 Ancient Greek for Everyone New: The First Declension This unit adds nouns of the First Declension. Some First Declension nouns have - ᾰ - in the Nominative and Accusative singular. Again, when this type of noun has a stem ending in - ε, - ι or - ρ, the singular forms change the - η - to an - ᾱ - (affecting only the Genitive and Dative singular). These changes have no meaning. They are just shifts in pronunciation (and consequently spelling).

19 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular Nom. ἡ δόξα Gen. τῆς δόξης Dat. τῇ δόξῃ Acc. τὴν δόξαν Plural Nom. αἱ δόξαι Gen. τῶν δοξῶν Dat. ταῖς δόξαις Acc. τὰς δόξας Building a Greek Noun δόξα -ας ἡ glory, judgment, opinion

20 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular Nom. ἡ ἀλήθεια Gen. τῆς ἀληθείας Dat. τῇ ἀληθείᾳ Acc. τὴν ἀλήθειαν Plural Nom. αἱ ἀλήθειαι Gen. τῶν ἀληθειῶν Dat. ταῖς ἀληθείαις Acc. τὰς ἀληθείας Building a Greek Noun ἀλήθεια -ας ἡ truth

21 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 2 Vocabulary: Classical ἀλήθεια -ας ἡ truth γλῶττα -ης ἡ tongue, language δόξα -ης ἡ opinion, judgment, glory θάλαττα -ης ἡ sea

22 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 2 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) ἀλήθεια -ας ἡ truth γλῶσσα -ης ἡ tongue, language δόξα -ης ἡ opinion, judgment, glory θάλασσα -ης ἡ sea

23 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 2 Vocabulary: Core ἀλήθεια -ας ἡ truth γλῶ ( ττ ) σσα -ης ἡ tongue, language δόξα -ης ἡ opinion, judgment, glory θάλα ( ττ ) σσα -ης ἡ sea

24 Ancient Greek for Everyone New: The First Declension This unit adds nouns of the First Declension. Most nouns of the First Declension are feminine. If a noun of the First Declension is masculine (which happens if it refers to a specifically male person), two changes occur: – The Nominative singular restores the – ς ending. – The Genitive singular uses the masculine – ου ending.

25 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular Nom. ὁ στρατιώτης Gen. τοῦ στρατιώτου Dat. τῷ στρατιώτῃ Acc. τὸν στρατιώτην Plural Nom. οἱ στρατιῶται Gen. τῶν στρατιωτῶν Dat. τοῖς στρατιώταις Acc. τοὺς στρατιώτας Building a Greek Noun στρατιώτης –ου ὁ soldier

26 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular Nom. ὁ δεσπότης Gen. τοῦ δεσπότου Dat. τῷ δεσπότῃ Acc. τὸν δεσπότην Plural Nom. οἱ δεσπόται Gen. τῶν δεσποτῶν Dat. τοῖς δεσπόταις Acc. τοὺς δεσπότας Building a Greek Noun δεσπότης –ου ὁ master

27 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular Nom. ὁ προφητής Gen. τοῦ προφητοῦ Dat. τῷ προφητῇ Acc. τὸν προφητήν Plural Nom. οἱ προφηταί Gen. τῶν προφητῶν Dat. τοῖς προφηταῖς Acc. τοὺς προφητάς Building a Greek Noun προφητής –οῦ ὁ prophet

28 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 2 Vocabulary: Classical δεσπότης -ου ὁ master ποιητής -οῦ ὁ creator, poet στρατιώτης -ου ὁ soldier

29 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 2 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) μαθητής -οῦ ὁ disciple προφητής -οῦ ὁ prophet

30 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 2 Vocabulary: Core στρατιώτης -ου ὁ soldier – 26 times in the NT

31 Ancient Greek for Everyone New: The First Declension The accent of First Declension nouns: – Some have recessive accent just like verbs ( ἀλήθεια -ας ἡ truth). – Some accent just like the definite article ( τιμή -ῆς ἡ value, honor). – Some keep the accent on the penultimate syllable ( ἡμέρα -ας ἡ day). – In the Genitive plural form, however, the full ending is - αων, but the - α - always contracts, and as a result, First Declension nouns are always accented - ῶν.

32 Ancient Greek for Everyone New: The Second Declension This unit adds nouns of the Second Declension. Nouns in this declension are mostly masculine and use the same endings as the masculine definite article. – The Nominative singular restores the – ς ending. The few feminine nouns in this declension use exactly the same endings (i.e., those of masculine definite article).

33 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular Nom. ὁ λόγος Gen. τοῦ λόγου Dat. τῷ λόγῳ Acc. τὸν λόγον Plural Nom. οἱ λόγοι Gen. τῶν λόγων Dat. τοῖς λόγοις Acc. τοὺς λόγους Building a Greek Noun λόγος –ου ὁ word

34 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 2 Vocabulary: Classical ἀδελφός -οῦ ὁ brother ἄνθρωπος -ου, ὁ/ἡ human being ἀριθμός -οῦ ὁ number βίος -ου ὁ life δῆμος -ου ὁ people δοῦλος -ου ὁ slave ἥλιος -ου ὁ sun θάνατος -ου ὁ death θεός -οῦ ὁ/ἡ god, goddess θυμός -οῦ ὁ soul, spirit ἵππος -ου ὁ horse

35 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 2 Vocabulary: Classical καιρός -οῦ ὁ the right time κίνδυνος -ου ὁ danger κόσμος -ου ὁ order, decoration, world κύκλος -ου ὁ circle κύριος -ου ὁ lord, master λαός -οῦ ὁ the people, folk λίθος -ου ὁ stone λόγος -ου ὁ word, speech; thought, reason, account, reckoning ναός, ναοῦ ὁ temple νῆσος -ου ἡ island

36 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 2 Vocabulary: Classical νόμος -ου ὁ custom, tradition, law νόσος -ου ὁ disease νοῦς, νοῦ ὁ mind ξένος -ου ὁ guest/friend/host; foreigner, stranger ὁδός -οῦ ἡ road οἶκος -ου ὁ house, home, family οὐρανός -οῦ ὁ sky, heaven ὀφθαλμός -οῦ ὁ eye πόλεμος -ου ὁ war

37 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 2 Vocabulary: Classical πόνος -ου ὁ work, stress, trouble, pain ποταμός -οῦ ὁ river στρατηγός -οῦ ὁ general στρατός -οῦ ὁ army σύμμαχοι -ων οἱ allies τόπος -ου ὁ place, topic τρόπος -ου ὁ way, turn υἱός -οῦ ὁ son φόβος -ου ὁ panic, fear χρόνος -ου ὁ time

38 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 2 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) ἄγγελος –ου ὁ messenger, angel ἀγρός -οῦ ὁ field, farm ἀδελφός -οῦ ὁ brother ἄνεμος -ου ὁ wind ἄνθρωπος -ου ὁ human being ἀπόστολος -ου ὁ apostle ἄρτος -ου ὁ bread διάβολος -ου ὁ deceiver, slanderer διδάσκολος -ου ὁ teacher δοῦλος -ου ὁ slave

39 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 2 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) ἔρημος -ου ἡ desert ἥλιος -ου ὁ sun θάνατος -ου ὁ death θεός -οῦ ὁ God θρόνος -ου ὁ throne καιρός -οῦ ὁ the right time καρπός -οῦ ὁ fruit κόσμος -ου ὁ world κύριος -ου ὁ Lord

40 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 2 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) λαός -οῦ ὁ people λίθος -ου ὁ stone λόγος -ου ὁ word, speech; thought, reason, account, reckoning ναός, ναοῦ ὁ temple νόμος -ου ὁ custom, tradition, law ὁδός -οῦ ἡ road οἶκος -ου ὁ house, home, family οἶνος -ου ὁ wine οὐρανός -οῦ ὁ sky, heaven ὀφθαλμός -οῦ ὁ eye ὄχλος -ου ὁ crowd, mob

41 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 2 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) τόπος -ου ὁ place, topic υἱός -οῦ ὁ son φόβος -ου ὁ panic, fear χρόνος -ου ὁ time

42 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 2 Vocabulary: Core ἀδελφός -οῦ ὁ brother ἄνθρωπος -ου, ὁ/ἡ human being δοῦλος -ου ὁ slave ἥλιος -ου ὁ sun θάνατος -ου ὁ death θεός -οῦ ὁ/ἡ god, goddess καιρός -οῦ ὁ the right time κύριος -ου ὁ lord, master

43 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 2 Vocabulary: Core λαός -οῦ ὁ the people, folk λίθος -ου ὁ stone λόγος -ου ὁ word, speech; thought, reason, account, reckoning ναός, ναοῦ ὁ temple νόμος -ου ὁ custom, tradition, law ὁδός -οῦ ἡ road οἶκος -ου ὁ house, home, family οὐρανός -οῦ ὁ sky, heaven ὀφθαλμός -οῦ ὁ eye

44 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 2 Vocabulary: Core τόπος -ου ὁ place, topic υἱός -οῦ ὁ son φόβος -ου ὁ panic, fear χρόνος -ου ὁ time

45 Ancient Greek for Everyone From Unit 3: Building a Greek Noun The Neuter Law: two rules apply to all neuter words in Greek. (1) The nominative singular and the accusative singular must be identical. (2) The nominative plural and the accusative plural must both end in a short - α.

46 Ancient Greek for Everyone New: The Second Declension This unit adds nouns of the Second Declension. Nouns in this declension that are neuter obey the Neuter Law: – The nominative and accusative singular both end in - ον. – The nominative and accusative plural end in - α.

47 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular Nom. τὸ ἔργον Gen. τοῦ ἔργου Dat. τῷ ἔργῳ Acc. τὸ ἔργον Plural Nom. τὰ ἔργα Gen. τῶν ἔργων Dat. τοῖς ἔργοις Acc. τὰ ἔργα Building a Greek Noun declension of ἔργον -ου τό deed, work

48 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 2 Vocabulary: Classical ἀργύριον -ου τό money, silver ἔργον -ου τό deed, work ζῷον -ου τό living being, animal ὅπλον -ου τό weapon, tool (mostly pl.) πρόσωπον -ου τό face, mask, person σημεῖον -ου τό sign στάδιον -ου τό (pl. στάδια and στάδιοι ) stadion or stade, Greek unit of measure ~ 185 meters/202 yards/607 feet τέκνον -ου τό child χωρίον -ου τό place, spot, district

49 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 1 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) βιβλίον -ου τό book δαιμόνιον -ου τό demon ἔργον -ου τό deed, work ἐυαγγέλλιον -ου τό good news, gospel θηρίον -ου τό animal, beast ἱερόν -ου τό temple ἱμάτιον -ου τό coat μνημεῖον -ου τό tomb

50 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 1 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) παιδίον -ου τό child πλοῖον -ου τό boat ποτήριον -ου τό cup πρόβατον -ου τό sheep πρόσωπον -ου τό face, mask, person σάββατον -ου τό Sabbath σημεῖον -ου τό sign, miracle τέκνον -ου τό child

51 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 8 part 2 Vocabulary: Core δαιμόνιον -ου τό demon ἔργον -ου τό deed, work παιδίον -ου τό child πρόσωπον -ου τό face, mask, person σημεῖον -ου τό sign τέκνον -ου τό child

52 Ancient Greek for Everyone New: The Second Declension In Classical Attic Greek, it is easy to confuse ναῦς, νεώς ἡ ship νοῦς, νοῦ ὁ mind νεώς, νεώ ὁ temple – This is a rare noun that declines differently in Classical Attic Greek from the way it declines in Koine. – The next slide shows its Classical Attic declension.

53 Ancient Greek for Everyone Singular Nom. ὁ νεώς Gen. τοῦ νεώ Dat. τῷ νεῴ Acc. τὸν νεών Plural Nom. οἱ νεῴ Gen. τῶν νεών Dat. τοῖς νεῴς Acc. τοὺς νεώς Building a Greek Noun νεώς, νεώ ὁ temple (Classical Attic)

54 Ancient Greek for Everyone New: The Second Declension The Classical Greek word ναῦς, νεώς ἡ “ship” occurs only once in the NT (Acts 27:41; πλοῖον is the more common word) but it is easy to confuse with ναός, ναοῦ ὁ “temple” (45 times) or with νοῦς, νοός ὁ “mind” (24 times).


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