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Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 7 part 4: contract verbs 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 7 part 4: contract verbs 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major"— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 7 part 4: contract verbs 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major

2 Ancient Greek for Everyone This class AGE Unit 7 part 4: contract verbs • This final part of Unit 7 introduces Greek verbs that have contractions between their stems and their personal endings.

3 Ancient Greek for Everyone from Unit 1: Saying two vowels in a row • Speakers of Classical Greek did not like to say two vowel sounds in a row. • Consequently, if two vowels came together, they tended to – merge them into one (called a “diphthong,” Greek for “double sound”) – or contract them. • Specifically: – A vowel + ι or υ forms a diphthong. – α, ε and ο contract with each other.

4 Ancient Greek for Everyone α, ε and ο + α contract: • α + α = ᾱ • ε + α = η • ο + α = ω

5 Ancient Greek for Everyone α, ε and ο + ε contract: • α + ε = ᾱ • ε + ε = ει • ο + ε = ου

6 Ancient Greek for Everyone α, ε and ο + ο contract: • α + ο = ω • ε + ο = ου • ο + ο = ου

7 Ancient Greek for Everyone Contract Verbs • The rules of vowel contraction operate in verbs when the stem ends in one of the vowels α, ε or ο. • In these cases, this final vowel of the stem contracts with the thematic vowel of “- ω verbs.” • Since “- μι verbs” do not have this thematic vowel, they do not need to contract.

8 Ancient Greek for Everyone Contract Verbs • The most common type of contraction in verbs involves - ε, where the contractions are: – ε + ω  ω – ε + ει  ει – ε + ο  ου – ε + ε  ει – ε + ου  ου • Notice that when - ε contracts with a long vowel sound, the long sound simply swallows the - ε.

9 Ancient Greek for Everyone from Unit 7 part 1: Building a Greek verb • To indicate person and number, - ω verbs need distinct endings, which are as follows: • - ω = I (1 st person singular) - ομεν = we (1 st person plural) • - εις = you (2 nd person singular) - ετε = y’all (2 nd person plural) • - ει = (s)he, it (3 rd person sing) - ουσι = they (3 rd person plural)

10 Ancient Greek for Everyone • (λαλέω  ) λαλῶ – I talk. • (λαλέεις  ) λαλεῖς – You talk. • (λαλέει  ) λαλεῖ – (S)he/it talks. • (λαλέομεν  ) λαλοῦμεν – We talk. • (λαλέετε  ) λαλεῖτε – Y’all talk. • (λαλέουσι  ) λαλοῦσι – They talk. Building a Greek Verb The Present Indicative Active of λαλέω

11 Ancient Greek for Everyone • The ending – ειν signals that an - ω verb is in the infinitive. • (λαλέειν  ) λαλεῖν – “talk” in the infinitive mood (mode) • This form is the present, infinitive, active.

12 Ancient Greek for Everyone • From Unit 2: Placing the accent: – On most Greek words, the “recessive” rule determines the placement of the accent. This means: – If the last syllable of the word contains a single short vowel, the accent “recedes” two syllables: – δίδοτε – It can recede only to the last short vowel sound of this syllable (never to the first part), so the accent appears as an acute (“/”): – ἄνθρωπος, δώσετε (= δοόσετε )

13 Ancient Greek for Everyone • From Unit 2: Placing the accent: – On most Greek words, the “recessive” rule determines the placement of the accent. This means: – If the word has only two syllables and the last syllable of the word contains a single short vowel, the accent “recedes” to the first syllable: – δότε – or the first part of a long vowel sound: – δῶρον (= δόορον )

14 Ancient Greek for Everyone • From Unit 2: Placing the accent: – On most Greek words, the “recessive” rule determines the placement of the accent. This means: – If the last syllable of the word contains a long vowel sound, the accent “recedes” only one syllable: – διδότω. – It can recede only to the second part of this syllable, so the accent always appears as an acute (“/”): – παραδώσω (= παραδοόσω = παραδοόσοο )

15 Ancient Greek for Everyone VOCABULARY • Α contract verb will be listed in its uncontracted form. For example: λαλέω talk ἐρωτάω ask δηλόω show As the principal parts indicate in the following slides, in a contract verb, normally the vowel lengthens ( α and ε  η, ο  ω ) in the future tense.

16 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 Vocabulary: Classical • ἀδικέω - ήσω commit injustice • αἱρέω, - ήσω take, grasp – ἀναιρέω raise up; kill, destroy – ἀφαιρέω take from, take away • αἰτέω - ήσω beg, ask • βοηθέω - ήσω help • δοκέω, δόξω seem • ἐθέλω, ἐθελήσω want • εὑρίσκω, εὑρήσω find • ζητέω - ήσω seek

17 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 Vocabulary: Classical • κατηγορέω - ήσω accuse • κινέω - ήσω move • κρατέω - ήσω rule over • λαλέω - ήσω talk, babble • μέλλω, μελλήσω intend, be about to • μιμνήσκω, μνήσω remind

18 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 Vocabulary: Classical • οἰκέω - ήσω dwell • ὁμολογέω - ήσω agree • ποιέω - ήσω do, make • πολεμέω - ήσω make war • φοβέω - ήσω frighten • φρονέω - ήσω think • χαίρω, χαιρήσω be happy, say hello

19 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) • αἰτέω - ήσω beg, ask • ἀκολουθέω - ήσω follow • ἀσθενέω - ήσω be sick, be weak • βλασφημέω - ήσω blaspheme • δέω, δήσω bind • διακονέω - ήσω serve • δοκέω, δόξω seem • εὐλογέω - ήσω bless, praise • εὑρίσκω, εὑρήσω find • εὐχαριστέω - ήσω give thanks

20 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) • ζητέω - ήσω seek • θέλω, θελήσω want • θεωρέω - ήσω watch, observe • κατοικέω - ήσω inhabit, settle • κρατέω - ήσω rule over • λαλέω - ήσω talk • μαρτυρέω - ήσω witness • μέλλω, μελλήσω intend, be about to • μετανοέω - ήσω repent • μισέω - ήσω hate

21 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) • οἰκοδομέω - ήσω build • περιπατέω - ήσω walk, live • ποιέω - ήσω do, make • προσκυνέω - ήσω worship • τηρέω - ήσω guard • φωνέω - ήσω call out, summon • χαίρω, χαιρήσω rejoice

22 Ancient Greek for Everyone Contract Verbs • The next most common type of contraction in verbs involves - α, where the contractions are: – α + ω  ω – α + ει  ᾳ – α + ο  ω – α + ε  ᾱ – α + ου  ω

23 Ancient Greek for Everyone • (ἐρωτάω  ) ἐρωτῶ – I ask. • (ἐρωτάεις  ) ἐρωτᾷς – You ask. • (ἐρωτάει  ) ἐρωτᾷ – (S)he/it asks. • ( ἐρωτάομεν  ) ἐρωτῶμεν – We ask. • (ἐρωτάετε  ) ἐρωτᾶτε – Y’all ask. • ( ἐρωτάουσι  ) ἐρωτῶσι – They ask. Building a Greek Verb The Present Indicative Active of ἐρωτάω

24 Ancient Greek for Everyone • The ending – ειν signals that an - ω verb is in the infinitive. • (ἐρωτάειν  ) ἐρωτᾶν – “ask” in the infinitive mood (mode) • This form is the present, infinitive, active.

25 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 Vocabulary: Classical • δράω, δράσω do • ἐάω, ἐάσω allow • ἐρωτάω - ήσω ask • ζάω, ζήσω live • νικάω - ήσω conquer, defeat • ὁρμάω - ήσω urge, hurry • πειράω, πειράσω try, attempt • τελευτάω - άσω finish, die • τιμάω - ήσω honor • τολμάω - ήσω dare

26 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) • ἀγαπάω - ήσω love • γεννάω - ήσω give birth to • ἐρωτάω - ήσω ask • ἐπερωτάω ask for • ζάω, ζήσω live • πλανάω - ήσω mislead

27 Ancient Greek for Everyone Contract Verbs • The least common type of contraction in verbs involves - ο, where the contractions are: – ο + ω  ω – ο + ει  οι – ο + ο  ου – ο + ε  ου – ο + ου  ου

28 Ancient Greek for Everyone • (δηλόω  ) δηλῶ – I show. • (δηλόεις  ) δηλοῖς – You show. • (δηλόει  ) δηλοῖ – (S)he/it shows. • (δηλόομεν  ) δηλοῦμεν – We show. • (δηλόετε  ) δηλοῦτε – Y’all show. • ( δηλόουσι  ) δηλοῦσι – They show. Building a Greek Verb The Present Indicative Active of δηλόω

29 Ancient Greek for Everyone • The ending – ειν signals that an - ω verb is in the infinitive. • (δηλόειν  ) δηλοῦν – “show” in the infinitive mood (mode) • This form is the present, infinitive, active.

30 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 Vocabulary: Classical • ἀξιόω - ώσω consider worthy, valuable • δηλόω - ώσω show

31 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) • δηλόω - ώσω show • δικαιόω - ώσω justify • πληρόω - ώσω show, fulfill • σταυρόω - ώσω crucify • φανερόω - ώσω reveal

32 Ancient Greek for Everyone Contract Futures • Recall that Greek verbs add – σ to their stems to form the future tense. • Some verbs have stems that end in a liquid (- λ, - ν, - ρ ) and Greek does not allow a liquid + – σ. • In these cases, the – σ degrades to an - ε, which contracts just as it does in present contract verbs. • In a vocabulary entry, the future is listed in its contracted form.

33 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 Vocabulary: Classical • ἀγγέλλω, ἀγγελῶ report, tell • αἴρω, ἀρῶ raise • ἀποκτείνω, -κτενῶ kill • ἀπόλλυμι, ἀπολῶ kill, destroy • βάλλω, βαλῶ throw • διαφθείρω, -φθερῶ destroy • κρίνω, κρινῶ judge, decide, determine • μένω, μενῶ remain, stay • τέμνω, τεμῶ cut • φαίνω, φανῶ make appear

34 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 Vocabulary: Classical A few other verbs also have contract futures. • ἐλαύνω, ἐλῶ march – This future is an - α contract. • καλέω, καλῶ call • κομίζω, κομιῶ provide for • λέγω, ἐρῶ say, tell – Classical Greek uses both ἐρῶ and λέξω (see Unit 7.3) as the future of λέγω. • νομίζω, νομιῶ believe

35 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) • αἴρω, ἀρῶ raise • ἀπαγγέλλω -αγγελῶ report, tell – παραγγέλλω command, order • ἀποκτείνω, -κτενῶ kill • ἀπόλλυμι, ἀπολῶ kill, destroy • ἀποστέλλω, -στελῶ send away • βάλλω, βαλῶ throw – ἐκβάλλω throw

36 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) • ἐγείρω, ἐγερῶ raise up • κρίνω, κρινῶ judge, decide, determine • μένω, μενῶ remain, stay • σπείρω, σπερῶ sow • φαίνω, φανῶ make appear

37 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament) A few other verbs also have contract futures. • ἐγγίζω, ἐγγιῶ come near • ἐλπίζω, ἐλπιῶ hope for • ἐυαγγελίζω, ἐυαγγελιῶ bring good news, preach • καθαρίζω, καθαριῶ cleanse • καλέω καλῶ call – παρακαλέω beg, encourage • λέγω, ἐρῶ say, tell – Biblical Greek uses only ἐρῶ (never λέξω ) as the future of λέγω.

38 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 part 4 Vocabulary: Core • ἀγγέλλω, ἀγγελῶ report, tell • αἴρω, ἀρῶ raise • αἰτέω - ήσω beg, ask • ἀποκτείνω, -κτενῶ kill • ἀπόλλυμι, ἀπολῶ kill, destroy • βάλλω, βαλῶ throw • δηλόω - ώσω show • δοκέω, δόξω seem

39 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 part 4 Vocabulary: Core • ( ἐ ) θέλω, ἐθελήσω want • ἐρωτάω - ήσω ask • εὑρίσκω, εὑρήσω find • ζάω, ζήσω live • ζητέω - ήσω seek • καλέω καλῶ call • κρατέω - ήσω rule over • κρίνω, κρινῶ judge, decide, determine

40 Ancient Greek for Everyone Unit 7 part 4 Vocabulary: Core • λαλέω - ήσω talk, babble • λέγω, ἐρῶ say, tell • μέλλω, μελλήσω intend, be about to • μένω, μενῶ remain, stay • ποιέω - ήσω do, make • φαίνω, φανῶ make appear • χαίρω, χαιρήσω be happy, say hello


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