Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek"— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:
1Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek as taught atLouisiana State UniversitySpring 2013Albert WatanabeUnit 11: The Imperfect Tense
2Intermediate Greek This class (someday, Month ##, 2013) AGE Unit 11: The Imperfect TenseSo far, all verbs have been in primary tenses, meaning that the tenses refer to action in the present or future.This unit introduces a secondary tense (a tense that refers to past), the imperfect tense.
3Intermediate Greek Building a Greek verb The Master List of Endings Posted in Moodle is a “Master List of Greek Verb Endings” where you can see the overall scheme of verb endings. Here you can see that you have learned the three sets of primary endings (-μι, -ω or -μαι).Here you can also see the full sets of secondary endings.On the second sheet (= back side) are the other moods, of which you have already learned the infinitive.
4Intermediate GreekA Greek verb by itself usually communicates FIVE pieces of information:Person: 1st, 2nd, 3rdNumber: singular, pluralTense: present, future, imperfectMood: indicative, infinitiveThe imperfect tense does not occur in the infinitive mood.Voice: active, middleThis unit covers only active verbs.
5Intermediate Greek The imperfect tense of Greek verbs: Fundamentally, the imperfect tense is the present tense shifted back into the past.Verbs in the imperfect tense always have exactly the same stem as they do in the present tense.Two markers combine to indicate the imperfect tense:An augment (ἐ-) precedes the stem.Secondary tenses of Greek verbs use endings slightly different from those of primary tenses. As a secondary tense, the imperfect uses these secondary endings.
6Intermediate Greek Conjugating a Greek verb In Unit 7, you learned that Greek has two conjugations:-μι verbs-ω verbsIn the active voice, these conjugations use somewhat different endings to designate person and number.This is true of both primary and secondary endings.This unit introduces only the active endings of the secondary tenses. The middle endings for both conjugations will be the same (as they are in primary tenses).
7Intermediate Greek Building a Greek verb The secondary endings of -μι verbs are as follows:-ν = I (1st sg) -μεν = we (1st pl)-ς = you (2nd sg) -τε = y’all (2nd pl)- = (s)he, it (3rd sg) -σαν = they (3rd pl)Notice that the 3rd person singular has no ending,so this form simply stopswith the ending of the verb’s present stem.
8Notice that the 1st person singular and 3rd person plural Intermediate GreekBuilding a Greek verbRemember that -ω verbs have a thematic vowel, so the secondary endings appear as follows:-ον = I (1st sg) -ομεν = we (1st pl)-ες = you (2nd sg) -ετε = y’all (2nd pl)-ε = (s)he, it (3rd sg) -ον = they (3rd pl)Notice that the 1st person singular and 3rd person pluralare identical.
9Notice that the 1st person singular and 3rd person plural Intermediate GreekBuilding a Greek verbRemember that -ω verbs have a thematic vowel, so the secondary endings appear as follows:-ον = I (1st sg) -ομεν = we (1st pl)-ες = you (2nd sg) -ετε = y’all (2nd pl)-ε = (s)he, it (3rd sg) -ον = they (3rd pl)Notice that the 1st person singular and 3rd person pluralare identical.
10Intermediate Greek Building a Greek verb δεικ = “show” Remember that, to begin building a Greek verb, start with the “stem.”The stem tells what action the verb describes:δεικ = “show”λυ = “loosen, destroy”λαβ = “take”
11Intermediate Greek Building a Greek verb Recall that some verbs add a marker (often a ν) to the stem that says the verb is in the present tense.A verb always uses the same marker in the imperfect tense that is uses in the present:δεικνυ = “show” (in the present)λυ = “loosen” (no marker in the present)λαμβαν = “take” (in the present)
12Intermediate Greek Building a Greek verb In secondary tenses, however, a Greek verb adds an augment to the beginning of the stem.This augment used to be a separate word (ἐ), which meant that the verb was in the past, and gradually it became a prefix to the verb stem:ἐδεικνυ = “show” (in the imperfect)ἐλυ = “loosen” (in the imperfect)ἐλαμβαν = “take” (in the imperfect)
13The Imperfect Indicative Active of δείκνυμι (GPH p. 157) Intermediate GreekἐδείκνυνἐδείκνυςἐδείκνυἐδείκνυμενἐδείκνυτεἐδείκνυσανBuilding a Greek VerbThe Imperfect Indicative Active of δείκνυμι (GPH p. 157)
14The Imperfect Indicative Active of λύω (GPH p. 70) Intermediate GreekἔλυονἔλυεςἔλυεἐλύομενἐλύετεἔλυονBuilding a Greek VerbThe Imperfect Indicative Active of λύω (GPH p. 70)
15The Imperfect Indicative Active of λαμβάνω Intermediate GreekἐλάμβανονἐλάμβανεςἐλάμβανεἐλαμβάνομενἐλαμβάνετεἐλάμβανονBuilding a Greek VerbThe Imperfect Indicative Active of λαμβάνω
16Intermediate Greek From Unit 2: -μι Verbs δίδωμι give τίθημι put, make ἵστημι standἵημι throwεἰμί beφημί say
17The Imperfect Indicative Active of δίδωμι (GPH p. 124) Intermediate GreekἐδίδουνἐδίδουςἐδίδουNotice that δίδωμι uses -ου- here in the singular rather than -ω-, as it does in the present tense.ἐδίδομενἐδίδοτεἐδίδοσανBuilding a Greek VerbThe Imperfect Indicative Active of δίδωμι (GPH p. 124)
18The Imperfect Indicative Active of τίθημι (GPH p. 146) Intermediate GreekἐτίθηνἐτίθειςἐτίθειNotice that τίθημι uses -ει- here in the singular rather than -η-, as it does in the present tense.ἐτίθεμενἐτίθετεἐτίθεσανBuilding a Greek VerbThe Imperfect Indicative Active of τίθημι (GPH p. 146)
19Intermediate Greek Vowel contractions in the Imperfect Tense If the verb stem begins with a vowel, instead of adding the augment -ε, the initial vowel lengthens (α and ε η, ο ω).Verbs that have vowel contraction in the present tense (Contract verbs, Unit 7) follow the same rules of vowel contraction in the imperfect tense.
20The Imperfect Indicative Active of ἵστημι (GPH p. 135) Intermediate GreekἵστηνἵστηςἵστηThis verb has a long vowel augment, but it does not affect the way it the vowel is written (since long and short ι are written the same).ἵσταμενἵστατεἵστασανBuilding a Greek VerbThe Imperfect Indicative Active of ἵστημι (GPH p. 135)
21The Imperfect Indicative Active of ἵημι Intermediate GreekἵηνἵειςἵειNotice that ἵημι uses -ει- here in the singular rather than -η-, as it does in the present tenseἵεμενἵετεἵεσανThis verb has a long vowel augment, but it does not affect the way it the vowel is written (since long and short ι are written the same).Building a Greek VerbThe Imperfect Indicative Active of ἵημι
22The Imperfect Indicative Active of εἰμί (GPH p. 178) Intermediate Greekἦ or ἦνἦσθαἦνNotice that εἰμί has irregularities in the singular.ἦμενἦτεἦσανBuilding a Greek VerbThe Imperfect Indicative Active of εἰμί (GPH p. 178)
23The Imperfect Indicative Active of φημί (GPH p. 169) Intermediate Greekἔφηνἔφης or ἔφησθαἔφηἔφαμενἔφατεἔφασανBuilding a Greek VerbThe Imperfect Indicative Active of φημί (GPH p. 169)
24Intermediate Greek From Unit 7: Contract Verbs The rules of vowel contraction operate in verbs when the stem ends in one of the vowels α, ε or ο.In these cases, this final vowel of the stem contracts with the thematic vowel of “-ω verbs.”
25The Imperfect Indicative Active of αἱρέω Intermediate Greek(ἐ-αἵρεον ) ᾕρουν(ἐ-αἵρεες ) ᾕρεις(ἐ-αἵρεε ) ᾕρειThis verb has a long vowel augment.(ἐ-αἱρέομεν ) ᾑροῦμεν(ἐ-αἱρέετε ) ᾑρεῖτε(ἐ-αἵρεον ) ᾕρουνBuilding a Greek VerbThe Imperfect Indicative Active of αἱρέω
26The Imperfect Indicative Active of ἐρωτάω Intermediate Greek(ἐ-ερώταον ) ἠρώτων(ἐ-ερώταες ) ἠρώτας(ἐ-ερώταε ) ἠρώταThis verb has a long vowel augment.(ἐ-ερωτάομεν ) ἠρωτῶμεν(ἐ-ερωτάετε ) ἠρωτᾶτε(ἐ-ερώταον ) ἠρώτωνBuilding a Greek VerbThe Imperfect Indicative Active of ἐρωτάω
27The Imperfect Indicative Active of δηλόω GPH p. 119) Intermediate Greek(ἐδήλοον ) ἐδήλουν(ἐδήλοες ) ἐδήλους(ἐδήλοε ) ἐδήλου(ἐδηλόομεν ) ἐδηλοῦμεν(ἐδηλόετε ) ἐδηλοῦτε(ἐδήλοον ) ἐδήλουνBuilding a Greek VerbThe Imperfect Indicative Active of δηλόω GPH p. 119)
28Intermediate Greek Understanding the Imperfect Tense Fundamentally, the imperfect tense is the present tense shifted back into the past.The present tense indicates that an action is currently taking place.The imperfect tense indicates that an action was taking place.Think of it as a bit of video of an action from the past.
29Intermediate Greek Translating the Imperfect Tense Traditionally, therefore, the imperfect is translated using was/were + -ing forms. For example:ἐδίδουν = “I was giving”ἐδίδοσαν = “they were giving”In some contexts, a simple past in English sounds better, even if the traditional translation also works (“they gave every day” rather than “they were giving every day”).Sometimes other translations will make better sense in a particular context (for example, “they used to give,” “they kept giving”).
30Intermediate GreekVOCABULARY: Although a Greek verb can morph into many different forms, it is listed in a dictionary (Greek “lexicon”) under just one form.As you have seen, verbs are listed in their 1st person, singular, present, indicative, active form, with a -μι or -ω ending, depending on the conjugation of the verb.Nothing about the imperfect tense affects how a Greek verb is listed. The imperfect forms are not normally listed (even as a principal part), so you need to be able to recognize the present tense of a verb when you see it in the imperfect tense.
31Intermediate Greek VOCABULARY Verbs with prefixes in the imperfect tense.Keep in mind that the augment attaches to the beginning of the verb’s stem.Even if the verb is a compound with a prefix, the augment is normally added directly to the stem:ἐδίδοσαν = “they were giving”παρα + ἐδίδοσαν = παρεδίδοσαν = “they were delivering”
32Intermediate Greek Next class (someday, Month ##, 2013) Classical readingBiblical reading