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Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek as taught at Louisiana State University Spring 2013 Albert Watanabe Unit 13: The.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek as taught at Louisiana State University Spring 2013 Albert Watanabe Unit 13: The."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek as taught at Louisiana State University Spring 2013 Albert Watanabe Unit 13: The Aorist Tense

2 Elementary Greek This class (someday, Month ##, 2013) AGE Unit 13: The Aorist Tense • Unit 11 introduced a secondary tense (a tense that refers to past), the imperfect tense. • This unit introduces the most common secondary tense, the aorist tense.

3 Elementary Greek Building a Greek verb • The Master List of Endings – Posted in Moodle is a “Master List of Greek Verb Endings” where you can see the overall scheme of verb endings. Here you can see the three sets of primary endings (- μι, - ω or - μαι ) and also the full sets of secondary endings. – On the second sheet (= back side) are the other moods, of which you have already learned the infinitive.

4 Elementary Greek • A Greek verb by itself usually communicates FIVE pieces of information: – Person: 1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd – Number: singular, plural – Tense: present, future, imperfect, aorist – Mood: indicative, infinitive – Voice: active, middle • This unit covers only active forms.

5 Elementary Greek • The aorist tense of Greek verbs: – Fundamentally, the aorist tense communicates a single discreet action. – In practice, it is impossible to use the aorist in the present, because the action described is in the past by the time a speaker or writer communicates it. – Accordingly, the aorist is a secondary tense.

6 Elementary Greek • The aorist tense of Greek verbs: – Both the imperfect and aorist tenses describe actions in the past. They differ in what is called “aspect.” • The aorist conveys a single, discreet action. This is the more common, default tense for referring to action in the past. • The imperfect conveys activity that was more than a single action in some way. – For example: • “I walked.” Aorist: think of a single image of the speaker in the act of walking. • “I was walking.” Imperfect: think of an ongoing video of the speaker walking.

7 Elementary Greek • The aorist tense of Greek verbs: – In form, both the aorist and imperfect are secondary tenses, so • an augment ( ἐ -) precedes the stem in the indicative mood, and • they use secondary endings. – The stem, however, is almost always different for the two tenses. Therefore, it is essential to identify the stem correctly in order to know the tense of the verb and what action the verb conveys.

8 Elementary Greek Building a Greek verb – The verb stems of the aorist and imperfect tenses are almost always different. – Verbs in the imperfect tense always have exactly the same stem as they do in the present tense. – The stem of a verb in the aorist tense will be different in one of two ways: • The verb adds the aorist marker - σα - to the stem (known as the “1 st aorist” or “weak aorist”) or • The verb uses just the stem of the verb itself with no specific marker (known as the “2 nd aorist” or “strong aorist”).

9 Elementary Greek Building a Greek verb • The “1 st aorist” or “weak aorist” adds the aorist marker - σα - to the stem of the verb: • Recall the secondary endings of - μι verbs: - ν = I (1 st sg) - μεν = we (1 st pl) - ς = you (2 nd sg) - τε = y’all (2 nd pl) - = (s)he, it (3 rd sg) - σαν = they (3 rd pl) • The aorist marker - σα - merges with the above endings.

10 Elementary Greek Building a Greek verb 1 st (weak) aorist indicative endings: • - σα -  - σα I (1 st sg) - σα μεν = - σαμεν we (1 st pl) • - σα ς = - σας you (2 nd sg) - σα τε = - σατε y’all (2 nd pl) • - σα -  - σε = (s)he, it (3 rd sg) - σα -/- σαν  - σαν = they (3 rd pl) 1 st (weak) aorist indicative = augment + verb stem + above endings

11 Elementary Greek Building a Greek verb • Remember that, to begin building a Greek verb, start with the “stem.” • The stem tells what action the verb describes: δεικ = “show” λυ = “loosen, destroy”

12 Elementary Greek Building a Greek verb • In secondary tenses, a Greek verb adds an augment to the beginning of the stem. • This augment used to be a separate word ( ἐ ), which meant that the verb was in the past, and gradually it became a prefix to the verb stem: – ἐλυ = “loosen” (secondary indicative) – ἐδεικ = “show” (secondary indicative)

13 Elementary Greek • ἔλυσα • ἔλυσας • ἔλυσε • ἐλύσαμεν • ἐλύσατε • ἔλυσαν Building a Greek Verb The Aorist Indicative Active of λύω (GPH p. 78)

14 Elementary Greek • ἔδειξα • ἔδειξας • ἔδειξε • ἐδείξαμεν • ἐδείξατε • ἔδειξαν Building a Greek Verb The Aorist Indicative Active of δείκνυμι ( κ + σ = ξ )

15 Elementary Greek • VOCABULARY: Although a Greek verb can morph into many different forms, it is listed in a dictionary (Greek “lexicon”) under just one form. • As you have seen, verbs are alphabetized by their 1 st person, singular, present, indicative, active form, with a - μι or - ω ending, depending on the conjugation of the verb. • The next “principal part” is the 1 st person, singular, future, indicative, active. • The third “principal part,” and the final one for which you are responsible in this course, is the 1 st person, singular, aorist, indicative, active.

16 Elementary Greek • Although advanced vocabulary lists and lexica give six principal parts for Greek verbs, you are responsible for only these first three. For most reading purposes at the beginning and intermediate levels, these three are sufficient. • A separate Power Point collects and presents all the verbs and their principal parts. – The Classical Vocabulary collects together the principal parts of all the verbs in the Dickinson College Commentaries vocabulary list. – The New Testament Vocabulary collects together the principal parts of all the verbs which appear 30+ times in the NT.

17 Elementary Greek Conjugating a Greek verb • In Unit 7, you learned that Greek has two conjugations: – - μι verbs – - ω verbs • Both types of verbs form the 1 st (weak) aorist in the same way (augment + stem + - σα -, etc.). Notice that - ω verbs drop their thematic vowel in this process. • When verbs form the 2 nd (strong) aorist, - ω verbs retain their thematic vowel - μι verbs add endings directly to their stem.

18 Elementary Greek Building a Greek verb • Remember that - ω verbs have a thematic vowel, so the secondary endings appear as follows: • - ον = I (1 st sg) - ομεν = we (1 st pl) • - ες = you (2 nd sg) - ετε = y’all (2 nd pl) • - ε = (s)he, it (3 rd sg) - ον = they (3 rd pl) Notice that the 1 st person singular and 3 rd person plural are identical.

19 Elementary Greek Building a Greek verb • Remember that - ω verbs have a thematic vowel, so the secondary endings appear as follows: • - ον = I (1 st sg) - ομεν = we (1 st pl) • - ες = you (2 nd sg) - ετε = y’all (2 nd pl) • - ε = (s)he, it (3 rd sg) - ον = they (3 rd pl) Notice that the 1 st person singular and 3 rd person plural are identical.

20 Elementary Greek Building a Greek verb • The “2 nd aorist” or “strong aorist” uses just the stem of the verb itself with no specific marker. • Remember that, to begin building a Greek verb, start with the “stem.” • The stem tells what action the verb describes: λαβ = “take” • In secondary tenses, however, a Greek verb adds an augment to the beginning of the stem. ἐλαβ = “take” (secondary indicative)

21 Elementary Greek • ἔλαβον • ἔλαβες • ἔλαβε • ἐλάβομεν • ἐλάβετε • ἔλαβον Building a Greek Verb The Aorist Indicative Active of λαμβάνω

22 Elementary Greek Building a Greek verb • The secondary endings of - μι verbs are as follows: • - ν = I (1 st sg) - μεν = we (1 st pl) • - ς = you (2 nd sg) - τε = y’all (2 nd pl) • - = (s)he, it (3 rd sg) - σαν = they (3 rd pl) Notice that the 3 rd person singular has no ending, so this form simply stops with the ending of the verb’s present stem.

23 Elementary Greek Conjugating a Greek verb Note these two verbs, which both expand their stems in the present tense, are deponent in the future tense, and are regular - μι verbs in the aorist. • βη -  βαίνω, βήσομαι, ἔβην walk, come, go • γνω -  γιγνώσκω, γνώσομαι ἔγνων know, learn, think Note this verb, which is deponent in the present and future tenses, and a regular - μι verb in the aorist. • ἁλ -  ἁλίσκομαι, ἁλώσομαι ἑάλων be captive

24 Elementary Greek • ἔβην • ἔβης • ἔβη • ἔβημεν • ἔβητε • ἔβησαν Building a Greek Verb The Aorist Indicative Active of βαίνω

25 Elementary Greek • ἔγνων • ἔγνως • ἔγνω • ἔγνωμεν • ἔγνωτε • ἔγνωσαν Building a Greek Verb The Aorist Indicative Active of γιγνώσκω (GPH p. 162)

26 Elementary Greek • ἑάλων • ἑάλως • ἑάλω • ἑάλωμεν • ἑάλωτε • ἑάλωσαν Building a Greek Verb The Aorist Indicative Active of ἁλίσκομαι

27 Elementary Greek Unit 2 - μι verbs: Most - μι verbs have a 1 st (weak) aorist. The verb εἰμί has no aorist at all. These four - μι verbs have 2 nd (strong) aorists: • δω -  δίδωμι, δώσω, ἔδωκα give • ἥ -  ἵημι, ἥσω, ἧκα throw • στη -  ἵστημι, στήσω, ἔστησα/ἔστην stand • θη -  τίθημι, θήσω, ἔθηκα put, make

28 Elementary Greek • ἔδωκα • ἔδωκας • ἔδωκε Notice that, in the singular, δίδωμι uses - ω -, as it does in the present tense, and also adds a - κα - marker. • ἔδομεν • ἔδοτε • ἔδοσαν Building a Greek Verb The Aorist Indicative Active of δίδωμι (GPH p. 129)

29 Elementary Greek • ἔθηκα • ἔθηκας • ἔθηκε Notice that, in the singular, τίθημι uses - η -, as it does in the present tense, and also adds a - κα - marker. • ἔθεμεν • ἔθετε • ἔθεσαν Building a Greek Verb The Aorist Indicative Active of τίθημι (GPH p. 151)

30 Elementary Greek • ἔστην • ἔστης • ἔστη Notice that ἵστημι uses its long vowel - η - in both the singular and plural forms. • ἔστημεν • ἔστητε • ἔστησαν Building a Greek Verb The Aorist Indicative Active of ἵστημι (GPH p. 140)

31 Elementary Greek • ἧκα • ἧκας • ἧκε Notice that, in the singular, ἵημι uses η -, as it does in the present tense, and also adds a - κα - marker. • εἷμεν • εἷτε • εἷσαν Notice that ἵημι uses ει - here in the plural. Building a Greek Verb The Aorist Indicative Active of ἵημι

32 Elementary Greek The aorist tense of Greek verbs: When a verb has both types of aorist, the 1 st (weak) is transitive (setting up an accusative object) and the 2 nd (strong) is intransitive (as if in the Middle Voice). • στη -  ἵστημι, στήσω, ἔστησα/ἔστην stand – ἔστησα “I stood (something) up.” – ἔστην “I stood up.” • φυ -  φύω, φύσω, ἔφυσα / ἔφυν produce, grow – ἔφυσα “I grew (something).” – ἔφυν “I grew.”

33 Elementary Greek The aorist tense of Greek verbs: • There is another version of the aorist tense as well. • This version always conjugates like a regular - μι verb. • To mark this version, the marker - θη - is added to the end of the verb’s stem, before the ending. If adding - θη - is too hard to pronounce, only - η - is added. • This version is known as the “aorist passive.”

34 Elementary Greek • ἐλύθην • ἐλύθης • ἐλύθη • ἐλύθημεν • ἐλύθητε • ἐλύθησαν Building a Greek Verb The Aorist Indicative Passive of λύω (GPH p. 88)

35 Elementary Greek The aorist tense of Greek verbs: • To mark this version, the marker - θη - is added to the end of the verb’s stem, before the ending. If adding - θη - is too hard to pronounce, only - η - is added. • Advanced vocabulary lists provide six principal parts for Greek verbs, and the “aorist passive” is the sixth of these parts. A Greek lexicon will also regularly indicate the aorist passive forms of a verb. • You are responsible only for the first three parts in this course, however. • Generally speaking, the aorist passive is easy to recognize and parse because of its distinctive - θη - marker and regular personal endings.

36 Elementary Greek • A Greek verb by itself usually communicates FIVE pieces of information: – Voice: This indicates the role the subject plays in the action. – Greek can distinguish three roles (voices): – Passive: The subject receives the consequence of the action • We are run by a computer. • We are stopped by a police officer. • The drinks are bought by me.

37 Elementary Greek The aorist tense of Greek verbs: • Although this form is known as the “aorist passive,” it in fact evolved in meaning over the centuries. • Ιn the earliest Greek, the form is almost always intransitive (as if in the Middle Voice): – δεινὼ δέ οἱ ὄσσε φάανθεν “…and her eyes appeared awesome.” (Iliad 1.200)

38 Elementary Greek The aorist tense of Greek verbs: • By the time of Koine and Biblical Greek, these same forms are used frequently in passive constructions. – Active: ζωὴν αἰώνιον ἔδωκεν ἡμῖν ὁ θεός. • “God gave us eternal life.” - 1 John 5:11 – Passive: ὁ νόμος διὰ Μωϋσέως ἐδόθη. • “The law was given through Moses.” - John 1:17 • Intransitive uses continue as well, however: – Καὶ ἐπορεύθησαν ἕκαστος εἰς τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ, – Ἰησοῦς δὲ ἐπορεύθη εἰς τὸ Ὄρος τῶν Ἐλαιῶν. • “And each went to his own home, but Jesus went to the Mount of Olives” Jn 7:53-8:1

39 Elementary Greek The aorist tense of Greek verbs: • Finally, like the present tense, the aorist occurs in the infinitive mood. • The augment to secondary tenses always means that the action actually took place in the past. Consequently, only the indicative mood uses the augment, since it is the only mood that specifies actual historical action. • Therefore the aorist infinitive never has the augment.

40 Elementary Greek • A Greek verb by itself usually communicates FIVE pieces of information: – Person: 1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd – Number: singular, plural – Tense: present, future, imperfect, aorist – Mood: indicative, infinitive – Voice: active, middle • This unit covers only active forms.

41 Elementary Greek The aorist tense of Greek verbs: – The “1 st aorist” or “weak aorist” uses the ending – σαι for the infinitive: • λῦσαι • δεῖξαι ( κ + σ = ξ )

42 Elementary Greek The aorist tense of Greek verbs: – The “2 nd aorist” or “strong aorist” uses the same infinitive endings as the present tense: – The – ω verb conjugation uses – εῖν : • λαβεῖν • The accent is fixed and unchanging on this form. – The – μι verb conjugation uses – ναι : • γνῶναι, βῆναι, δοῦναι, θεῖναι, ἱστάναι, εἷναι, φύναι, λυθῆναι • The accent is fixed on the penult (the syllable before the ending) on this form.

43 Elementary Greek The aorist tense of Greek verbs: – In the infinitive mood, both the present and aorist tenses refer to action in general, without indicating the historical reality of it. They differ in what is called “aspect.” • The present conveys activity that ongoing in some way. • The aorist conveys a single, discreet action. – For example: • βούλομαι βαίνειν. “I want to go walking.” Present: think of an ongoing video of the speaker walking. • βούλομαι βῆναι. “I want to walk.” Aorist: think of a single image of the speaker walking.

44 Elementary Greek • Next class (someday, Month ##, 2013) – Hercules reading – Classical reading – Biblical reading


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