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Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek as taught at Louisiana State University Spring 2013 Albert Watanabe Unit 17: Participles.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek as taught at Louisiana State University Spring 2013 Albert Watanabe Unit 17: Participles."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek as taught at Louisiana State University Spring 2013 Albert Watanabe Unit 17: Participles

2 Elementary Greek This class (someday, Month ##, 2013) AGE Unit 17: Participles You have learned verbs in the indicative and infinitive mood. Unit 12 presented adjectives. This unit presents a hybrid of verbs and adjectives, known as the participle.

3 Elementary Greek Verb person number tense mood voice Adjective number gender case Participle number gender case tense mood voice

4 Elementary Greek PARTICIPLE verb stem + participle marker + adjective ending tense of verb meaning of verb number of subject gender of subject case of subject voice of verb mood = participle

5 Elementary Greek Participles Greek participles are both verbs which modify their subjects using adjective endings (instead of using personal endings to indicate their subject) AND adjectives which describe a noun as involved in a verbal action

6 Elementary Greek Participles After the indicative mood, participles are the second most common mood in Greek. In general, nearly a third of Greek verbs appear in participle form.

7 Elementary Greek Participles exist in the 1.Present tense 2.Future tense 3.Aorist tense Participles use the same stem in each tense that the verb uses in the indicative or infinitive moods. Participles exist in both active and middle voices, but they use different markers for each voice.

8 Elementary Greek Participles All participles in the active voice use – the marker - ντ - between the stem and adjective ending – 3 rd declension endings for the masculine and neuter – 1 st declension endings for the feminine (- ᾰ - in the Nominative and Accusative singular)

9 Elementary Greek The present active participle The pattern for present active participles is present stem + ντ + – ς – σα – ν For - ω verbs, the combination with thematic vowel yields – ων – ουσα – ον One of the most common and useful participles is the present active participle of εἰμί “be” The masculine forms will be familiar from the noun ἄρχων, ἄρχοντος ὁ “ruler” in Unit 3. In fact, this word is actually a participle that was used so much it was also used as a noun.

10 Elementary Greek The present active participle present participle active of εἰμί “be” masculine forms singular Nom. ὤν Gen. ὄντος Dat. ὄντι Acc. ὄντα plural Nom. ὄντες Gen. ὄντων Dat. οὖσι Acc. ὄντας nom. sg.: οντς  ονς  ων dat. pl.: οντσι  ονσι  ουσι

11 Elementary Greek The present active participle present participle active of εἰμί “be” feminine forms singular Nom. οὖσα Gen. οὔσης Dat. οὔσῃ Acc. οὖσαν plural Nom. οὖσαι Gen. οὐσῶν Dat. οὔσαις Acc. οὔσας These are the same endings used by δόξα –ης ἡ “glory, judgment, opinion” in Unit 8

12 Elementary Greek The present active participle present participle active of εἰμί “be” neuter forms singular Nom. ὄν Gen. ὄντος Dat. ὄντι Acc. = nom. plural Nom. ὄντα Gen. ὄντων Dat. οὖσι Acc. = nom. nom. sg.: οντ  ον dat. pl.: οντσι  ονσι  ουσι

13 Elementary Greek The present active participle For - ω verbs, simply add ὤν, οὖσα, ὄν as an ending: masculine forms singular Nom. λύων Gen. λύοντος Dat. λύοντι Acc. λύοντα plural Nom. λύοντες Gen. λυόντων Dat. λύουσι Acc. λύοντας

14 Elementary Greek The present active participle For - ω verbs, simply add ὤν, οὖσα, ὄν as an ending: feminine forms singular Nom. λύουσα Gen. λυούσης Dat. λυούσῃ Acc. λύουσαν plural Nom. λύουσαι Gen. λυουσῶν Dat. λυούσαις Acc. λυούσας

15 Elementary Greek The present active participle For - ω verbs, simply add ὤν, οὖσα, ὄν as an ending: neuter forms singular Nom. λῦον Gen. λύοντος Dat. λύοντι Acc. = nom. plural Nom. λύοντα Gen. λυόντων Dat. λύουσι Acc. = nom.

16 Elementary Greek The present active participle Contract verbs follow the normal rules of contraction when forming participles, e.g., φιλέω. Nom. αἱρῶν (αἱρέων) αἱροῦσα (αἱρέουσα) αἱροῦν (αἱρέον) Gen. αἱροῦντος (αἱρέοντος) αἱρούσης (αἱρέουσης) κτλ.

17 Elementary Greek The present active participle Contract verbs follow the normal rules of contraction when forming participles, e.g., τιμάω. Nom. ἐρωτῶν (ἐρωτάων) ἐρωτῶσα (ἐρωτάουσα) ἐρωτῶν (ἐρωτάον) Gen. ἐρωτῶντος (ἐρωτάοντος) ἐρωτώσης (ἐρωτάουσης) κτλ.

18 Elementary Greek The present active participle Contract verbs follow the normal rules of contraction when forming participles, e.g., δηλόω. Nom. δηλῶν (δηλόων) δηλοῦσα (δηλόουσα) δηλοῦν (δηλόον) Gen. δηλοῦντος (δηλόοντος) δηλούσης (δηλοούσης) κτλ.

19 Elementary Greek Present active participles λαβ  λαμβαν-  λαμβάνων, λαμβάνουσα, λάμβανον δείκνυμι  δεικνύς δεικνῦσα δεικνύν δίδωμι  διδούς διδοῦσα διδόν τίθημι  τιθείς τιθεῖσα τιθέν ἵστημι  ἱστάς ἱστᾶσα ἱστάν ἵημι  ἱείς ἱεῖσα ἱέν

20 Elementary Greek The future active participle To form the future active participle, add ων, ουσα, ον to the future stem (= stem + σ ): present: λύων, λύουσα, λῦον future: λύσων, λύσουσα, λῦσον Recall that all verbs are - ω verbs in the future tense.

21 Elementary Greek The aorist active participle To form the aorist active participle, if the verb has a 1 st (weak) aorist: to the verb’s stem, add – σα – + - ντ ς – σα – ν  λύσας λύσασα λῦσαν λύσαντος λυσάσης λύσαντος κτλ. Hint: This is the same pattern as πᾶς πᾶσα πᾶν. Remember: only the indicative has an augment, so the participle has no augment.

22 Elementary Greek The aorist active participle To form the aorist active participle, if the verb has a 2 nd (strong) aorist: to the verb’s stem, add – ών – οῦσα – όν  λαβών, λαβοῦσα, λαβόν λαβόντος λαβούσης λαβόντος κτλ. Note that the accent does not recede to the stem. Remember: only the indicative has an augment, so the participle has no augment.

23 Elementary Greek Aorist active participles λαβ  λαβών, λαβοῦσα, λαβόν δί-δωμι  δούς δοῦσα δόν τί-θημι  θείς θεῖσα θέν ἵ-στημι  στάς στᾶσα στάν ἵ-ημι  εἵς εἷσα ἕν For each of these – μι verbs, the aorist active participle is identical with the present active participle except for the reduplication in the present: ( διδούς/δούς, τιθείς/θείς, ἱστάς/στάς, ἱείς/εἵς ).

24 Elementary Greek Aorist intransitive/passive participle Recall that the marker - θη - means an aorist is intransitive or passive (Unit 13). In the participle, the - η - shortens to - ε - Thus the pattern is: stem + θε + ντ + – ς – σα – ν. The result is - είς – εῖσα – έν (nominative singular endings)  λυθεῖς λυθεῖσα λυθέν λυθέντος λυθείσης λυθέντος κτλ. Remember, only the indicative has an augment, so the participle has no augment.

25 Elementary Greek Aorist intransitive/passive participle The result is - είς – εῖσα – έν (nominative singular endings)  λυθεῖς λυθεῖσα λυθέν λυθέντος λυθείσης λυθέντος κτλ. Hint: this is similar to the present active except - ε - in place of - ο -. Hint: this is identical to the aorist active participle of τίθημι (θείς θεῖσα θέν ). Remember, only the indicative has an augment, so the participle has no augment.

26 Elementary Greek Summary of active participles – Present: present stem + ντ + – ς – σα – ν - ω verbs = present stem + – ων – ουσα – ον – Future: stem + σ + – ων – ουσα – ον – Aorist: 1 st (weak) = stem + σα + ντ + – ς – σα – ν 2 nd (strong) = stem + – ών – οῦσα – όν Passive (intransitive) = stem + θε + ντ + – ς – σα – ν.

27 Elementary Greek Middle participles All participles in the middle voice have the marker - μεν -. All participles in the middle voice use –ος –η –ον endings. In other words, wherever the personal ending (or infinitive ending) would be, substitute: –μενος –μένη –μενον

28 Elementary Greek Middle participles λυόμενος λυομένη λυόμενον (present) λυσόμενος λυσομένη λυσόμενον (future) λυσάμενος λυσαμένη λυσάμενον (aorist) λαβομένος λαβομένη λαβομένον (aorist) Note that the accent remains fixed on the - μεν - marker. δεικνύμενος -η -ον (present) διδόμενος -η –ον (present), δόμενος -η –ον (aorist) τιθέμενος -η -ον (present), θέμενος -η –ον (aorist) ἱστάμενος -η -ον (present) ἱέμενος -η -ον (present), ἕμενος -η –ον (aorist)

29 Elementary Greek As of this Unit, you have encountered all the words and forms on Master List of Greek Nouns Adjectives Pronouns.

30 Elementary Greek Participles Greek participles are both verbs which modify their subjects using adjective endings (instead of using personal endings to indicate their subject) AND adjectives which describe a noun as involved in a verbal action

31 Elementary Greek Participles A participle has two basic functions: Attributive, when a definite article precedes it. In this use, the participle is primarily an adjective. Circumstantial, when no article precedes it. In this use, the participle is primarily a verb.

32 Elementary Greek Participles A participle has two basic functions: Attributive, when a definite article precedes it. In this use, the participle is primarily an adjective. The participle can refer to a specific person or persons doing the action or to the whole class of people who perform this action. οἱ ἄνδρες φεύγουσιν. The men flee. οἱ φεύγοντες ἄνδρες... The men who flee… οὐ τιμῶμεν τοὺς ἐκ τῆς μάχης φεύγοντας. We do not honor men who flee from battle.

33 Elementary Greek Participles A participle has two basic functions: Circumstantial, when no article precedes it. In this use, the participle is primarily a verb. The participle now replaces a verb and a conjunction. Although a participle almost never has its own conjunction, Greek verbs are, as we have seen, always linked, so a conjunction should be supplied in translation.

34 Elementary Greek Participles A participle has two basic functions Circumstantial, when no article precedes it. The participle now replaces a verb and a conjunction. τρέχομεν. λαμβάνομεν τοὺς ἵππους. We are running. We catch the horses. τρέχοντες λαμβάνομεν τοὺς ἵππους. We are running and we catch the horses. When we are running, we catch the horses. Because we are running, we catch the horses. Although we are running, we catch the horses.

35 Elementary Greek Participles A participle has two basic functions Circumstantial, when no article precedes it. The participle now replaces a verb and a conjunction. τρέχοντες λαμβάνομεν τοὺς ἵππους. If we are running, we catch the horses. Since we are running, we catch the horses. While we are running, we catch the horses. As long as we are running, we catch the horses. κτλ.

36 Elementary Greek Participles Make sure you translate the subject of the participle correctly. λαμβάνομεν τρέχοντες τοὺς ἵππους. We catch the horses, while we are running. λαμβάνομεν τρέχοντας τοὺς ἵππους. We catch the horses, while they are running.

37 Elementary Greek Participles The present participle refers to action happening at the same time as the main verb: τρέχοντες λαμβάνομεν τοὺς ἵππους. While we are running, we catch the horses. τρέχοντες ἐλαμβάνομεν τοὺς ἵππους. While we were running, we caught the horses.

38 Elementary Greek Participles The negative for a participle is normally ο ὐ : οὐ τρέχοντες ἐλαμβάνομεν τοὺς ἵππους. Although we were not running, we caught the horses.

39 Elementary Greek Participles For generic attributive participles, however, the negative is μή: λαμβάνομεν τοὺς μὴ τρέχοντας ἵππους. We catch horses that do not run. For circumstantial participles expressing a negative condition, the negative is μή: λαμβάνομεν τοὺς ἵππους μὴ τρέχοντας. We catch horses, if they are not running.

40 Elementary Greek Participles The future active participle refers to action after the main verb: λαμβάνομεν φεύγοντας τοὺς ἵππους. We catch the horses, while they are running away. present participle λαμβάνομεν φεύξοντας τοὺς ἵππους. We catch the horses, while they are about to run away. future participle

41 Elementary Greek Participles In practice, the future active participle often expresses purpose: ἐτρέχομεν διώξοντες τοὺς ἵππους. We were running, when we were about to chase the horses. We were running, in order to chase the horses.

42 Elementary Greek Participles The aorist participle often refers to action prior to another verb. λαβόντες οἱ ἄνθρωποι τοὺς ἵππους, ἤγαγον οἴκαδε. After the men captured the horses, they led them home. Τhe men captured the horses, before they led them home.

43 Elementary Greek The Genitive Absolute You have seen how often Greek chains verbs together by making one or more of the verbs participles. Participles always modify their subjects, so a participle modifies whatever noun is its subject. If the subject-noun is not part of a sentence already, however, the problem arises: what case should the noun and participle be?

44 Elementary Greek The Genitive Absolute In this situation, there is sort of a default setting. If the subject-noun of the participle is not part of the main sentence, then both this noun and the participle by default go into the genitive case, called the Genitive Absolute (< Latin absolutus “cast off”). Translate the clause like any other circumstantial participle, but the Genitive case has no particular meaning in this construction.

45 Elementary Greek The Genitive Absolute For example: ἀφίκοντο μὲν οἱ πολέμιοι, ἐκ δὲ τῆς πόλεως ἐλείπομεν. The enemy arrived, but we were already leaving the city. ἀφικομένων τῶν πολεμίων ἐκ τῆς πόλεως ἐλείπομεν. When the enemy arrived, we were already leaving the city.

46 Elementary Greek Next class (someday, Month ##, 2013) – Classical reading – Biblical reading


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