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Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 10: Greek Pronouns concluded 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 10: Greek Pronouns concluded 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major"— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 10: Greek Pronouns concluded 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major

2 Ancient Greek for Everyone This class AGE Unit 10: Pronouns concluded In Unit 5, you learned a handful of pronouns that declined either like the definite article or like 3 rd declension nouns. This unit completes the pronouns, covering those that mix the two types and/or have individual irregularities. These words may well seem familiar, as they have been glossed frequently in the readings up to this point.

3 Ancient Greek for Everyone Review from Unit 5: Introduction to Pronouns Pronouns in Greek for the most part work very much as they do in English, in that they replace nouns. Since Greek nouns are distinguished by gender, number and case, it is logical that pronouns replace them by these same qualities. That is, a pronoun substitutes for a noun by replacing it in a form that is the same in gender, number and case.

4 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns The 1 st person pronoun (I/mine/me, we/ours/us): The unaccented singular forms of the genitive, dative and accusative pronouns are enclitic and less emphatic, but otherwise the two forms have the same meaning. singular ἐγώ ἐμοῦ, μου ἐμοί, μοι ἐμέ, με plural ἡμεῖς ἡμῶν ἡμῖν ἡμᾶς

5 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns The 2 nd person pronoun (you/yours): The unaccented singular forms of the genitive, dative and accusative pronouns are enclitic and less emphatic, but otherwise the two forms have the same meaning. singular σύ σοῦ, σου σοί, σοι σέ, σε plural ὑμεῖς ὑμῶν ὑμῖν ὑμᾶς

6 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns The nominative forms are often redundant (since normally the personal ending of the verb tells you the subject), so they appear for emphasis or are used shorthand for a complete statement: – ἐθέλω μένειν. καὶ σύ; “I want to stay. And you?” – ἐγὼ ἐθέλω πορεύεσθαι. “Well, I want to keep marching.”

7 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns In Unit 5, you learned the pronoun αὐτός αὐτή αὐτό, which is the Greek equivalent of several English pronouns: he/his/him, she/hers/her, it/its and they/their/them. English combines the personal pronoun and the word “self” to form reflexive pronouns: “You love yourself.” “We love ourselves.” Greek forms reflexive pronouns in much the same way, using the personal pronoun and adding the corresponding form of αὐτός αὐτή αὐτό. NOTE: Greek does NOT use this combination for emphasis, as English can, e.g., “I will deliver it only to you yourself.”

8 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns The reflexive 1 st person pronoun (myself, ourselves): Note: Most often Greek combines the singular forms into one word but does not combine them in the plural. singular (no nominative) ἐμαυτοῦ ἐμαυτῷ/ῇ ἐμαυτόν/ήν plural (no nominative) ἡμῶν αὐτῶν ἡμῖν αὐτοῖς/αὐταῖς ἡμᾶς αὐτούς/αὐτάς

9 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns The reflexive 2 nd person pronouns (yourself, yourselves): Note: Most often Greek combines the singular forms into one word but does not combine them in the plural. singular (no nominative) σεαυτοῦ σεαυτῷ/ῇ σεαυτόν/ήν plural (no nominative) ὑμῶν αὐτῶν ὑμῖν αὐτοῖς/αὐταῖς ὑμᾶς αὐτούς/αὐτάς

10 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns The reflexive 3 rd person pronouns (himself, herself, itself, themselves): Note: Greek uses the archaic 3 rd person pronoun ἑ as the first unit here. singular (no nominative) ἑαυτοῦ ἑαυτῷ/ῇ ἑαυτόν/ήν plural (no nominative) ἑαυτῶν ἑαυτοῖς/ἑαυταῖς ἑαυτούς/ἑαυτάς

11 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns The reflexive 3 rd person pronouns (himself, herself, itself, themselves): Note: Greek can contract this pronoun, with the result that only the rough breathing distinguishes it from the regular pronoun. singular (no nominative) αὑτοῦ αὑτῷ/ῇ αὑτόν/ήν plural (no nominative) αὑτῶν αὑτοῖς/αὑταῖς αὑτούς/αὑτάς

12 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns Greek has a distinct pronoun that corresponds to the phrase “each other.” It is called the reciprocal pronoun. Example: οἱ Ἕλληνες ἀλλήλοις μάχονται. “The Greeks are fighting with each other.” plural (no nominative) ἀλλήλων ἀλλήλοις/αις ἀλλήλους/ας

13 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns In Unit 5, you learned the demonstrative pronouns ἐκεῖνος ἐκείνη ἐκεῖνο (that/those) and ὅδε ἥδε τόδε (this/these). This Unit completes the set of demonstrative pronouns with the pronoun οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο (this/these). The endings of this pronoun are familiar ones from the definite article (i.e., those of the 1 st and 2 nd declension), but pay close attention to the changes in the stem. This is an extremely common word, and in most forms, if you do not recognize it, you are unlikely to be able to look it up, since it appears in vocabulary lists only under the masculine nominative singular form οὗτος.

14 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο this/these Singular Plural Nom. οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο οὗτοι αὗται ταῦτα Gen. τούτου ταύτης τούτου τούτων Dat. τούτῳ ταύτῃ τούτῳ τούτοις ταύταις τούτοις Acc. τοῦτον ταύτην τοῦτο τούτους ταύτας ταῦτα

15 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns – Notice that the English definitions for ὅδε ἥδε τόδε and οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο are the same (this/these). – While they can translate the same in English, generally speaking, οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο points backwards ὅδε ἥδε τόδε points forwards – For example: τοῦτο λέγω. I am telling you this (what I just said). λέγω τόδε. I am telling you this (what I am about to say).

16 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns – Like other demonstrative pronouns, οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο can substitute for, or be added to, a noun (but it never appears in the attributive position). – For example: οἱ ἄρχοντες διδόασι τὴν ἐλπίδα τοῖς παισίν. The rulers give hope to their children. οὗτοι διδόασι τὴν ἐλπίδα τοῖς παισὶ τούτοις. These (men) give hope to these children.

17 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns – Adding the prefix τοι - makes οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο refer to the quality of someone or something (this type, this kind or this sort). Singular Plural Nom. τοιοῦτος τοιαύτη τοιοῦτο τοιοῦτοι τοιαῦται τοιαῦτα Gen. τοιούτου τοιαύτης τοιούτου τοιούτων Dat. τοιούτῳ τοιαύτῃ τοιούτῳ τοιούτοις τοιαύταις τοιούτοις Acc. τοιοῦτον τοιαύτην τοιοῦτο τοιούτους τοιαύτας τοιαῦτα

18 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns – Adding the prefix τοσ - makes οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο refer to the quantity of someone or something (this amount). Singular Plural Nom. τοσοῦτος τοσαύτη τοσοῦτο τοσοῦτοι τοσαῦται τοσαῦτα Gen. τοσούτου τοσαύτης τοσούτου τοσούτων Dat. τοσούτῳ τοσαύτῃ τοσούτῳ τοσούτοις τοσαύταις τοσούτοις Acc. τοσοῦτον τοσαύτην τοσοῦτο τοσούτους τοσαύτας τοσαῦτα

19 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns The remaining pronouns share a pattern: They use 3 rd declension endings in the masculine and neuter. In their feminine forms, however, they change their stem and use 1 st declension endings.

20 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns These first two pronouns have the stem παντ -, so, just as for nouns, when the endings involve adding a sigma to the stem (nom. sing. = - ς, dat. plu. = - σι ), the final - ντ disappears from the end of the stem. Since - τ cannot end a Greek word, in the neuter nominative/accusative singular, the - τ drops off. In the feminine, these pronouns always use the short - ᾰ in the nominative and accusative singular.

21 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns πᾶς πᾶσα πᾶν all, every, whole Singular Plural Nom. πᾶς πᾶσα πᾶν πάντες πᾶσαι πάντα Gen. παντός πάσης παντός πάντων πασῶν πάντων Dat. παντί πάσῃ παντί πᾶσι πάσαις πᾶσι Acc. πάντα πᾶσαν πᾶν πάντας πάσας πάντα

22 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns As an adjective, πᾶς πᾶσα πᾶν translates differently depending on its position and article: attributive: “whole” ἡ πᾶσα χώρα the whole country predicate: “all” πᾶσαι αἱ χῶραι all the countries no article (singular): “every” πᾶσα χώρα every country

23 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns There is also a strengthened form, ἅπας ἅπασα ἅπαν, that means roughly “all together,” which declines and functions the same as the core forms. Singular Plural Nom. ἅπας ἅπασα ἅπαν ἅπαντες ἅπασαι ἅπαντα Gen. ἅπαντος ἁπάσης ἅπαντος ἁπάντων ἁπασῶν ἁπάντων Dat. ἅπαντι ἁπάσῃ ἅπαντι ἅπασι ἁπάσαις ἅπασι Acc. ἅπαντα ἅπασαν ἅπαν ἅπαντας ἁπάσας ἅπαντα

24 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns The word for “one” can function as a pronoun or an adjective. It has the stem ἐν -, so the masculine nominative singular drops the - ς and lengthens the stem (compensatory lengthening). In the feminine, the word uses a totally different stem, μι -, with a short - ᾰ in the nominative and accusative singular. For logical reasons, this word has only singular forms.

25 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns εἷς μία ἕν one Singular Nom. εἷς μία ἕν Gen. ἑνός μιᾶς ἑνός Dat. ἑνί μιᾷ ἑνί Acc. ἕνα μίαν ἕν

26 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns An important compound of εἷς μία ἕν adds the prefixes οὐ and δε to mean “no one” or “nothing.” Plural forms are rare, but regular when they occur. Any time that Greek uses μή instead of οὐ for “not,” μή also replaces οὐ in this pronoun. There is no difference in meaning.

27 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns οὐδείς οὐδεμία οὐδέν no one, nothing Singular Nom. οὐδείς οὐδεμία οὐδέν Gen. οὐδενός οὐδεμιᾶς οὐδενός Dat. οὐδενί οὐδεμιᾷ οὐδενί Acc. οὐδένα οὐδεμίαν οὐδέν

28 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns μηδείς μηδεμία μηδέν no one, nothing Singular Nom. μηδείς μηδεμία μηδέν Gen. μηδενός μηδεμιᾶς μηδενός Dat. μηδενί μηδεμιᾷ μηδενί Acc. μηδένα μηδεμίαν μηδέν

29 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns concluded All the pronouns from Unit 5 and Unit 10 are summarized together on a single sheet titled “Greek Nouns Adjectives Pronouns master list of endings.”


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