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1 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major email@example.com Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 10: Greek Pronouns concluded2013 editionWilfred E. Major
2 Ancient Greek for Everyone This classAGE Unit 10: Pronouns concludedIn Unit 5, you learned a handful of pronouns that declined either like the definite article or like 3rd declension nouns.This unit completes the pronouns, covering those that mix the two types and/or have individual irregularities.These words may well seem familiar, as they have been glossed frequently in the readings up to this point.
3 Ancient Greek for Everyone Review from Unit 5: Introduction to PronounsPronouns in Greek for the most part work very much as they do in English, in that they replace nouns.Since Greek nouns are distinguished by gender, number and case, it is logical that pronouns replace them by these same qualities. That is, a pronoun substitutes for a noun by replacing it in a form that is the same in gender, number and case.- Schoolhouse Rock: Grammar Rock: Rufus Xavier Sarsaparilla (Pronouns)Posted in YouTube multiple times
4 Ancient Greek for Everyone PronounsThe 1st person pronoun (I/mine/me, we/ours/us):The unaccented singular forms of the genitive, dative and accusative pronouns are enclitic and less emphatic, but otherwise the two forms have the same meaning.singularἐγώἐμοῦ, μουἐμοί, μοιἐμέ, μεpluralἡμεῖςἡμῶνἡμῖνἡμᾶς
5 Ancient Greek for Everyone PronounsThe 2nd person pronoun (you/yours):The unaccented singular forms of the genitive, dative and accusative pronouns are enclitic and less emphatic, but otherwise the two forms have the same meaning.singularσύσοῦ, σουσοί, σοισέ, σεpluralὑμεῖςὑμῶνὑμῖνὑμᾶς
6 Ancient Greek for Everyone PronounsThe nominative forms are often redundant (since normally the personal ending of the verb tells you the subject), so they appear for emphasis or are used shorthand for a complete statement:ἐθέλω μένειν. καὶ σύ;“I want to stay. And you?”ἐγὼ ἐθέλω πορεύεσθαι.“Well, I want to keep marching.”
7 Ancient Greek for Everyone PronounsIn Unit 5, you learned the pronoun αὐτός αὐτή αὐτό, which is the Greek equivalent of several English pronouns: he/his/him, she/hers/her, it/its and they/their/them.English combines the personal pronoun and the word “self” to form reflexive pronouns: “You love yourself.” “We love ourselves.”Greek forms reflexive pronouns in much the same way, using the personal pronoun and adding the corresponding form of αὐτός αὐτή αὐτό.NOTE: Greek does NOT use this combination for emphasis, as English can, e.g., “I will deliver it only to you yourself.”
8 Ancient Greek for Everyone PronounsThe reflexive 1st person pronoun (myself, ourselves):Note: Most often Greek combines the singular forms into one word but does not combine them in the plural.singular(no nominative)ἐμαυτοῦἐμαυτῷ/ῇἐμαυτόν/ήνplural(no nominative)ἡμῶν αὐτῶνἡμῖν αὐτοῖς/αὐταῖςἡμᾶς αὐτούς/αὐτάς
9 Ancient Greek for Everyone PronounsThe reflexive 2nd person pronouns (yourself, yourselves):Note: Most often Greek combines the singular forms into one word but does not combine them in the plural.singular(no nominative)σεαυτοῦσεαυτῷ/ῇσεαυτόν/ήνplural(no nominative)ὑμῶν αὐτῶνὑμῖν αὐτοῖς/αὐταῖςὑμᾶς αὐτούς/αὐτάς
10 Ancient Greek for Everyone PronounsThe reflexive 3rd person pronouns (himself, herself, itself, themselves):Note: Greek uses the archaic 3rd person pronoun ἑ as the first unit here.singular(no nominative)ἑαυτοῦἑαυτῷ/ῇἑαυτόν/ήνplural(no nominative)ἑαυτῶνἑαυτοῖς/ἑαυταῖςἑαυτούς/ἑαυτάς
11 Ancient Greek for Everyone PronounsThe reflexive 3rd person pronouns (himself, herself, itself, themselves):Note: Greek can contract this pronoun, with the result that only the rough breathing distinguishes it from the regular pronoun.singular(no nominative)αὑτοῦαὑτῷ/ῇαὑτόν/ήνplural(no nominative)αὑτῶναὑτοῖς/αὑταῖςαὑτούς/αὑτάς
12 Ancient Greek for Everyone PronounsGreek has a distinct pronoun that corresponds to the phrase “each other.” It is called the reciprocal pronoun.Example: οἱ Ἕλληνες ἀλλήλοις μάχονται.“The Greeks are fighting with each other.”plural(no nominative)ἀλλήλωνἀλλήλοις/αιςἀλλήλους/ας
13 Ancient Greek for Everyone PronounsIn Unit 5, you learned the demonstrative pronouns ἐκεῖνος ἐκείνη ἐκεῖνο (that/those) and ὅδε ἥδε τόδε (this/these).This Unit completes the set of demonstrative pronouns with the pronoun οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο (this/these).The endings of this pronoun are familiar ones from the definite article (i.e., those of the 1st and 2nd declension), but pay close attention to the changes in the stem.This is an extremely common word, and in most forms, if you do not recognize it, you are unlikely to be able to look it up, since it appears in vocabulary lists only under the masculine nominative singular form οὗτος.
15 Ancient Greek for Everyone PronounsNotice that the English definitions for ὅδε ἥδε τόδε and οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο are the same (this/these).While they can translate the same in English, generally speaking,οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο points backwardsὅδε ἥδε τόδε points forwardsFor example:τοῦτο λέγω.I am telling you this (what I just said).λέγω τόδε.I am telling you this (what I am about to say).
16 Ancient Greek for Everyone PronounsLike other demonstrative pronouns, οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο can substitute for, or be added to, a noun (but it never appears in the attributive position).For example:οἱ ἄρχοντες διδόασι τὴν ἐλπίδα τοῖς παισίν.The rulers give hope to their children.οὗτοι διδόασι τὴν ἐλπίδα τοῖς παισὶ τούτοις.These (men) give hope to these children.
17 Ancient Greek for Everyone PronounsAdding the prefix τοι- makes οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο refer to the quality of someone or something (this type, this kind or this sort).Singular PluralNom. τοιοῦτος τοιαύτη τοιοῦτο τοιοῦτοι τοιαῦται τοιαῦταGen. τοιούτου τοιαύτης τοιούτου τοιούτωνDat. τοιούτῳ τοιαύτῃ τοιούτῳ τοιούτοις τοιαύταις τοιούτοιςAcc. τοιοῦτον τοιαύτην τοιοῦτο τοιούτους τοιαύτας τοιαῦτα
18 Ancient Greek for Everyone PronounsAdding the prefix τοσ- makes οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο refer to the quantity of someone or something (this amount).Singular PluralNom. τοσοῦτος τοσαύτη τοσοῦτο τοσοῦτοι τοσαῦται τοσαῦταGen. τοσούτου τοσαύτης τοσούτου τοσούτωνDat. τοσούτῳ τοσαύτῃ τοσούτῳ τοσούτοις τοσαύταις τοσούτοιςAcc. τοσοῦτον τοσαύτην τοσοῦτο τοσούτους τοσαύτας τοσαῦτα
19 Ancient Greek for Everyone PronounsThe remaining pronouns share a pattern:They use 3rd declension endings in the masculine and neuter.In their feminine forms, however, they change their stem and use 1st declension endings.
20 Ancient Greek for Everyone PronounsThese first two pronouns have the stem παντ-, so, just as for nouns, when the endings involve adding a sigma to the stem (nom. sing. = -ς, dat. plu. = -σι),the final -ντ disappears from the end of the stem.Since -τ cannot end a Greek word, in the neuter nominative/accusative singular, the -τ drops off.In the feminine, these pronouns always use the short -ᾰ in the nominative and accusative singular.
21 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronounsπᾶς πᾶσα πᾶν all, every, wholeSingular PluralNom. πᾶς πᾶσα πᾶν πάντες πᾶσαι πάνταGen. παντός πάσης παντός πάντων πασῶν πάντωνDat. παντί πάσῃ παντί πᾶσι πάσαις πᾶσιAcc. πάντα πᾶσαν πᾶν πάντας πάσας πάντα
22 Ancient Greek for Everyone PronounsAs an adjective, πᾶς πᾶσα πᾶν translates differently depending on its position and article:attributive: “whole”ἡ πᾶσα χώρα the whole countrypredicate: “all”πᾶσαι αἱ χῶραι all the countriesno article (singular): “every”πᾶσα χώρα every country
23 Ancient Greek for Everyone PronounsThere is also a strengthened form, ἅπας ἅπασα ἅπαν, that means roughly “all together,” which declines and functions the same as the core forms.Singular PluralNom. ἅπας ἅπασα ἅπαν ἅπαντες ἅπασαι ἅπανταGen. ἅπαντος ἁπάσης ἅπαντος ἁπάντων ἁπασῶν ἁπάντωνDat. ἅπαντι ἁπάσῃ ἅπαντι ἅπασι ἁπάσαις ἅπασιAcc. ἅπαντα ἅπασαν ἅπαν ἅπαντας ἁπάσας ἅπαντα
24 Ancient Greek for Everyone PronounsThe word for “one” can function as a pronoun or an adjective.It has the stem ἐν-, so the masculine nominative singular drops the -ς and lengthens the stem (compensatory lengthening).In the feminine, the word uses a totally different stem, μι-, with a short -ᾰ in the nominative and accusative singular.For logical reasons, this word has only singular forms.
25 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronounsεἷς μία ἕν oneSingularNom. εἷς μία ἕνGen. ἑνός μιᾶς ἑνόςDat. ἑνί μιᾷ ἑνίAcc. ἕνα μίαν ἕν
26 Ancient Greek for Everyone PronounsAn important compound of εἷς μία ἕν adds the prefixes οὐ and δε to mean “no one” or “nothing.”Plural forms are rare, but regular when they occur.Any time that Greek uses μή instead of οὐ for “not,” μή also replaces οὐ in this pronoun. There is no difference in meaning.
27 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronounsοὐδείς οὐδεμία οὐδέν no one, nothingSingularNom. οὐδείς οὐδεμία οὐδένGen. οὐδενός οὐδεμιᾶς οὐδενόςDat. οὐδενί οὐδεμιᾷ οὐδενίAcc. οὐδένα οὐδεμίαν οὐδέν
28 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronounsμηδείς μηδεμία μηδέν no one, nothingSingularNom. μηδείς μηδεμία μηδένGen. μηδενός μηδεμιᾶς μηδενόςDat. μηδενί μηδεμιᾷ μηδενίAcc. μηδένα μηδεμίαν μηδέν
29 Ancient Greek for Everyone Pronouns concludedAll the pronouns from Unit 5 and Unit 10 are summarized together on a single sheet titled “Greek Nouns Adjectives Pronouns master list of endings.”