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C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 22.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 22."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 22

2 Shelmerdine Chapter 22 1.Present middle/passive participles (1 st principal part) 2.Aorist and future middle participles (2 nd and 3 rd principal part) 3.Aorist and future passive participles (6 th principal part) 4.The genitive absolute 5.Further comparison of adjectives in -τερος, - τατος

3 Shelmerdine Chapter 22 1.Present middle/passive participles (1 st principal part) 2.Aorist and future middle participles (2 nd and 3 rd principal part) 3.Aorist and future passive participles (6 th principal part) 4.The genitive absolute 5.Further comparison of adjectives in -τερος, - τατος

4 Shelmerdine Chapter 22 1.Present middle/passive participles (1 st principal part) All participles in the middle voice have the marker - μεν -. All participles in the middle voice use –ος –η –ον endings. Thus to form the present middle participle, to the present stem, add –όμενος –ομένη –όμενον  λυόμενος λυομένη λυόμενον

5 Shelmerdine Chapter 22 1.Present middle/passive participles (1 st principal part) 2.Aorist and future middle participles (2 nd and 3 rd principal part) 3.Aorist and future passive participles (6 th principal part) 4.The genitive absolute 5.Further comparison of adjectives in -τερος, - τατος

6 Shelmerdine Chapter Aorist and future middle participles (2 nd and 3 rd principal part) All participles in the middle voice have the marker - μεν -. All participles in the middle voice use –ος –η –ον endings. Thus to form the future middle participle, to the future stem, add –όμενος –ομένη –όμενον  λυσόμενος λυσομένη λυσόμενον

7 Shelmerdine Chapter Aorist and future middle participles (2 nd and 3 rd principal part) All participles in the middle voice have the marker - μεν -. All participles in the middle voice use –ος –η –ον endings. Thus to form the 1 st (weak) aorist middle participle, to the aorist stem, add –άμενος –αμένη –άμενον  λυσάμενος λυσαμένη λυσάμενον

8 Shelmerdine Chapter Aorist and future middle participles (2 nd and 3 rd principal part) All participles in the middle voice have the marker - μεν -. All participles in the middle voice use –ος –η –ον endings. Thus to form the 2 nd (strong) aorist middle participle, to the aorist middle stem, add –ομένος –ομένη –ομένον  λιπομένος λιπομένη λιπομένον Note that the accent remains fixed on the - μεν - marker.

9 Shelmerdine Chapter 22 1.Present middle/passive participles (1 st principal part) 2.Aorist and future middle participles (2 nd and 3 rd principal part) 3.Aorist and future passive participles (6 th principal part) 4.The genitive absolute 5.Further comparison of adjectives in -τερος, - τατος

10 Shelmerdine Chapter Aorist and future passive participles (6 th principal part) The aorist passive participle is somewhat different. To the aorist passive stem, add -είς –εῖσα –έν (nominative singular endings) -ε- replaces - ο - in all the masculine/neuter, -ει- replaces - ου - in all the feminine but otherwise identical to the present active.  λυθεῖς λυθεῖσα λυθέν κτλ. Remember, only the indicative has an augment, so the participle has no augment.

11 Shelmerdine Chapter Aorist and future passive participles (6 th principal part) The future passive participle returns to the pattern for the middle voice All participles in the middle voice have the marker - μεν -. All participles in the middle voice use –ος –η –ον endings. Thus to form the future passive participle, to the future passive stem, add –όμενος –ομένη –όμενον  λυθησόμενος λυθησομένη λυθησόμενον

12 Shelmerdine Chapter 22 Summary of active participles –Present: present stem + – ων – ουσα – ον –Future: future stem + – ων – ουσα – ον –Aorist: 1 st (weak) aorist stem + – ας – ασα – αν 2 nd (strong) aorist stem + – ών – οῦσα – όν

13 Shelmerdine Chapter 22 Summary of middle participles –Present: present stem + –όμενος –ομένη –όμενον –Future: future stem + –όμενος –ομένη –όμενον –Aorist: 1 st (weak) aorist stem + –άμενος –αμένη –άμενον 2 nd (strong) aorist stem + –ομένος –ομένη –ομένον

14 Shelmerdine Chapter 22 Summary of passive participles –Present: present stem + –όμενος –ομένη –όμενον –Future: future passive stem + –όμενος –ομένη –όμενον –Aorist: aorist passive stem + –είς –εῖσα –έν

15 Shelmerdine Chapter 22 1.Present middle/passive participles (1 st principal part) 2.Aorist and future middle participles (2 nd and 3 rd principal part) 3.Aorist and future passive participles (6 th principal part) 4.The genitive absolute 5.Further comparison of adjectives in -τερος, - τατος

16 Shelmerdine Chapter The genitive absolute You have seen how often Greek chains verbs together by making one or more of the verbs participles. Participles always modify their subjects, so a participle modifies whatever noun is its subject. If the subject-noun is not part of a sentence already, however, the problem arises: what case should the noun and participle be?

17 Shelmerdine Chapter The genitive absolute In this situation, there is sort of a default setting. If the subject-noun of the participle is not part of the main sentence, then both this noun and the participle by default go into the genitive case, called the genitive absolute (< Latin absolutus “cast off”). Translate the clause like any other circumstantial participle, but ignore the fact that it is genitive.

18 Shelmerdine Chapter The genitive absolute For example: –ἀφίκοντο μὲν οἱ πολέμιοι, ἐκ δὲ τῆς πόλεως ἐλείπομεν. The enemy arrived, but we were already leaving the city. –ἀφικομένων τῶν πολεμίων ἐκ τῆς πόλεως ἐλείπομεν. When the enemy arrived, we were already leaving the city.

19 Shelmerdine Chapter 22 1.Present middle/passive participles (1 st principal part) 2.Aorist and future middle participles (2 nd and 3 rd principal part) 3.Aorist and future passive participles (6 th principal part) 4.The genitive absolute 5.Further comparison of adjectives in -τερος, - τατος

20 Shelmerdine Chapter Further comparison of adjectives in -τερος, - τατος Recall from Chapter 16.2 that “Comparison” of adjectives refers to forming the different degrees of adjectives –Positive degree is the regular form of the adjective σοφός -ή -όν “wise” –Comparative degree means the adjective has more of its quality than someone or something else σοφώτερος -α -ον “wiser” –Superlative degree means the adjective has the most of its quality σοφώτατος -η -ον “wisest”

21 Shelmerdine Chapter Further comparison of adjectives in -τερος, - τατος Recall from Chapter 16.2 that an ο or ω appears between the stem of the adjective and the τερ/τατ marker of change in degree. Generally speaking, the length of this vowel is opposite that of the preceding vowel. μωρότερος -α -ον σοφώτερος -α -ον Since the comparative marker -τερ- ends in ρ, the feminine singular regularly will use α in place of η (like φίλιος -α -ον ). long shortshort long

22 Shelmerdine Chapter Further comparison of adjectives in -τερος, - τατος In Chapter 20, you learned some types of adjectives which use third declension endings. –βαρύς βαρεῖα βαρύ “heavy” –σόφρων –ον “prudent” –εὐγενής –ές “well-born” In each case, the neuter nominative singular shows the stem of the adjective: –βαρύ- –σόφρον- –εὐγενέσ-

23 Shelmerdine Chapter Further comparison of adjectives in -τερος, - τατος Most 3 rd declension adjectives add the usual -τερος, - τατος endings to form the comparative and superlative. –εὐγενής –ές “well-born” –εὐγενέσ- (stem) –  εὐγενέστερος –α –ον “more well-born” –  εὐγενέστατος –η –ον “most well-born” –βαρύς βαρεῖα βαρύ “heavy” –βαρύ- (stem) –  βαρύτερος –α –ον “heavier” –  βαρύτατος –η –ον “heaviest”

24 Shelmerdine Chapter Further comparison of adjectives in -τερος, - τατος 3 rd declension adjectives with stems in - ον add -εσ- before the usual -τερος, - τατος endings. –σόφρων –ον “prudent” –σόφρον- (stem) –  σοφρονέστερος –α –ον “more prudent” –  σοφρονέστατος –η –ον “most prudent”

25 Shelmerdine Chapter 22 for tomorrow (Thursday, February 17, 2011): Quiz: Write out the middle participle endings (-μενος, -μενη, -μενον, κτλ.) Prepare “The Ingenuity of Cyrus” for class.

26 Babylon Persia Greece

27 Iraq Iran Greece

28 Babylon

29 “Cyrus Cylinder” (Cyrus conquers Babylon) (538 B.C.)

30 Tomb of Cyrus the Great ruled Persia c. 557–530 B.C.

31 Shelmerdine Chapter 22 οἱ δὲ Βαβυλώνιοι, νικηθέντες ὑπὸ τῶν Περσῶν μάχῃ ἔξω τῶν τειχῶν, εἰς τὴν πόλιν ἀπεχώρησαν. ὁ δὲ Κῦρος μάλιστα ἠπόρει· τοῖς γὰρ βαβυλωνίοις ἦν σῖτος ἐτῶν δὴ πολλῶν. εἴτε δὴ οὖν ἄλλος αὐτῷ ἀποροῦντι συνεβούλευσεν, εἴτε καὶ αὐτὸς ἔμαθε καλὴν βουλήν, ἐποίει ὧδε·

32 Shelmerdine Chapter 22 οἱ δὲ Βαβυλώνιοι, νικηθέντες ὑπὸ τῶν Περσῶν μάχῃ ἔξω τῶν τειχῶν, εἰς τὴν πόλιν ἀπεχώρησαν. ὁ δὲ Κῦρος μάλιστα ἠπόρει· τοῖς γὰρ βαβυλωνίοις ἦν σῖτος ἐτῶν δὴ πολλῶν. εἴτε δὴ οὖν ἄλλος αὐτῷ ἀποροῦντι συνεβούλευσεν, εἴτε καὶ αὐτὸς ἔμαθε καλὴν βουλήν, ἐποίει ὧδε·

33 Shelmerdine Chapter 22 τάξας τὴν στρατιὰν πᾶσαν ἐξ ἐμβολῆς τοῦ Εὐφράτου καλουμένου ποταμοῦ, ᾗ εἰς τὴν πόλιν εἰσβάλλει, καὶ ὄπισθεν αὖθις τῆς πόλεως τάξας ἑτέρους, ᾗ ἐκβαίνει ἐκ τῆς πόλεως ὁ πόταμος, ἐκέλευσε τὸν στρατόν, ἐπεὶ ὄψονται τὸ ῥεῖθρον διαβατὸν ὄν, εἰσβαίνειν αὐτῷ εἰς τὴν πόλιν.

34 Shelmerdine Chapter 22 τάξας τὴν στρατιὰν πᾶσαν ἐξ ἐμβολῆς τοῦ Εὐφράτου καλουμένου ποταμοῦ, ᾗ εἰς τὴν πόλιν εἰσβάλλει, καὶ ὄπισθεν αὖθις τῆς πόλεως τάξας ἑτέρους, ᾗ ἐκβαίνει ἐκ τῆς πόλεως ὁ πόταμος, ἐκέλευσε τὸν στρατόν, ἐπεὶ ὄψονται τὸ ῥεῖθρον διαβατὸν ὄν, εἰσβαίνειν αὐτῷ εἰς τὴν πόλιν.

35 Euphrates

36 Shelmerdine Chapter 22 ἔπειτα δὲ ὁ Κῦρος ἤγαγε τοὺς λοιποὺς τῶν ἀνδρῶν πρὸς τὴν λίμνην, ἣν ἡ τῶν Βαβυλωνίων βασίλεα ἔπραξεν ἐν τῷ πρὶν χρόνῳ ἐγγὺς τοῦ ποταμοῦ. ὁ δὲ Κῦρος τὸν ποταμὸν διώρυχι εἰσαγαγὼν εἰς τὴν λίμνην οὖσαν ἕλος, τὸ ἀρχαῖον ῥεῖθρον διαβατὸν εἶναι ἐποίησεν. καὶ τοῦ ὑδάτος ἀποφυγόντος, οἱ Πέρσαι οἱ ταχθέντες ἔξω τῆς πόλεως κατὰ τὸ ῥεῖθρον οἶοί τ’ ἦσαν εἰσβαίνειν εἰς τὴν πόλιν.

37 Shelmerdine Chapter 22 ἔπειτα δὲ ὁ Κῦρος ἤγαγε τοὺς λοιποὺς τῶν ἀνδρῶν πρὸς τὴν λίμνην, ἣν ἡ τῶν Βαβυλωνίων βασίλεα ἔπραξεν ἐν τῷ πρὶν χρόνῳ ἐγγὺς τοῦ ποταμοῦ. ὁ δὲ Κῦρος τὸν ποταμὸν διώρυχι εἰσαγαγὼν εἰς τὴν λίμνην οὖσαν ἕλος, τὸ ἀρχαῖον ῥεῖθρον διαβατὸν εἶναι ἐποίησεν. καὶ τοῦ ὑδάτος ἀποφυγόντος, οἱ Πέρσαι οἱ ταχθέντες ἔξω τῆς πόλεως κατὰ τὸ ῥεῖθρον οἶοί τ’ ἦσαν εἰσβαίνειν εἰς τὴν πόλιν.

38 Shelmerdine Chapter 22 εἰ μὲν ἔμαθον οἱ Βαβυλώνιοι τὸ ἐκ τοῦ Κύρου ποιούμενον, ὁρῶντες τοὺς Πέρσας εἰσβαίνοντας κατέλυσαν ἂν αὐτούς. νῦν δὲ οὐκ εἶδον· ὑπὸ γὰρ μεγέθους τῆς πόλεως, πολὺν χρόνον τὸν θάνατον τὸν τῶν περὶ τὰ ἔσχατα οἰκούντων οἱ ἐν τῷ μέσῳ οὐκ ἔμάθον, ἀλλὰ (τύχῃ γὰρ ἑορτὴ ἦν) ἐχόρευον καὶ ἐν εὐπαθείαις ἦσαν. καὶ Βαβυλὼν οὕτω τότε πρῶτον ᾑρέθη.

39 Shelmerdine Chapter 22 εἰ μὲν ἔμαθον οἱ Βαβυλόνιοι τὸ ἐκ τοῦ Κύρου ποιούμενον, ὁρῶντες τοὺς Πέρσας εἰσβαίνοντας κατέλυσαν ἂν αὐτούς. νῦν δὲ οὐκ εἶδον· ὑπὸ γὰρ μεγέθους τῆς πόλεως, πολὺν χρόνον τὸν θάνατον τὸν τῶν περὶ τὰ ἔσχατα οἰκούντων οἱ ἐν τῷ μέσῳ οὐκ ἔμαθον, ἀλλὰ (τύχῃ γὰρ ἑορτὴ ἦν) ἐχόρευον καὶ ἐν εὐπαθείαις ἦσαν, καὶ Βαβυλὼν οὕτω τότε πρῶτον ᾑρέθη.

40 Shelmerdine Chapter 22 for next class (Monday, February 21, 2011): Quiz: parsing Continue reading.

41 Shelmerdine Chapter 22 1 καὶ ἦλθεν εἷς ἐκ τῶν ἑπτὰ ἀγγέλων τῶν ἐχόντων τὰς ἑπτὰ φιάλας, καὶ ἐλάλησεν μετ᾽ ἐμοῦ λέγων, Δεῦρο, δείξω σοι τὸ κρίμα τῆς πόρνης τῆς μεγάλης τῆς καθημένης ἐπὶ ὑδάτων πολλῶν, 2 μεθ᾽ ἧς ἐπόρνευσαν οἱ βασιλεῖς τῆς γῆς, καὶ ἐμεθύσθησαν οἱ κατοικοῦντες τὴν γῆν ἐκ τοῦ οἴνου τῆς πορνείας αὐτῆς. δείξω (1st sg fut indic act) < δείκνυμι show δεῦρο here εἷς (nom sg masc) one ἑπτά seven ἦλθε (3rd sg aor.indic act) came κάθημαι sit κατοικέω inhabit κρίμα –ατος τό judgment, verdict λαλέω talk, say μεθύω drink, be drunk οἴνος –ου ὁ wine πορνεία –ας ἡ whoring πορνεύω whore πόρνη –ης ἡ whore φιάλη –ης ἡ bowl

42 Shelmerdine Chapter 22 3 καὶ ἀπήνεγκέν με εἰς ἔρημον ἐν πνεύματι. καὶ εἶδον γυναῖκα καθημένην ἐπὶ θηρίον κόκκινον, γέμοντα ὀνόματα βλασφημίας, ἔχων κεφαλὰς ἑπτὰ καὶ κέρατα δέκα. ἀποφέρω ἀποίσω ἀπήνεγκον carry away βλασφημία –ας ἡ blasphemy γέμω be full of εἶδον (1 st sg aor indic act) < ὁράω ἔρημος –ου ὁ desert θηρίον –ου τό beast κάθημαι sit κέρας –ατος τό horn, wing κεφαλή -ῆς ἡ head κόκκινος –η –ον red, scarlet πνεῦμα –ατος τό breath, spirit

43 Shelmerdine Chapter 22 4 καὶ ἡ γυνὴ ἦν περιβεβλημένη πορφυροῦν καὶ κόκκινον, καὶ κεχρυσωμένη χρυσίῳ καὶ λίθῳ τιμίῳ καὶ μαργαρίταις, ἔχουσα ποτήριον χρυσοῦν ἐν τῇ χειρὶ αὐτῆς γέμον βδελυγμάτων καὶ τὰ ἀκάθαρτα τῆς πορνείας αὐτῆς, ἀκάθαρτος -ον unclean βδέλυγμα –ατος τό something vile γέμω be full of κόκκινος –η –ον red, scarlet μαργαρίτης –ου ὁ pearl περιβάλλω put on πορφυροῦς –ᾶ -οῦν purple πορνεία –ας ἡ whoring ποτήριον –ου τό drinking cup τίμιος –α –ον precious χείρ χειρός ἡ hand χρυσίον –ου τό gold χρυσόω be (covered with) gold

44 Shelmerdine Chapter 22 5 καὶ ἐπὶ τὸ μέτωπον αὐτῆς ὄνομα γεγραμμένον, μυστήριον, Βαβυλὼν ἡ μεγάλη, ἡ μήτηρ τῶν πορνῶν καὶ τῶν βδελυγμάτων τῆς γῆς. 6 καὶ εἶδον τὴν γυναῖκα μεθύουσαν ἐκ τοῦ αἵματος τῶν ἁγίων καὶ ἐκ τοῦ αἵματος τῶν μαρτύρων Ἰησοῦ. καὶ ἐθαύμασα ἰδὼν αὐτὴν θαῦμα μέγα. ἅγιος –α –ον holy αἷμα –ατος τό blood βδέλυγμα –ατος τό something vile εἶδον (1 st sg aor indic act) < ὁράω θαῦμα –ατος τό awesome sight ἰδών (mas. nom. sg aor.part. act) < ὁράω μάρτυς –τυρος ὁ witness, martyr μεθύω drink, be drunk μέτωπον –ου τό forehead μυστήριον –ου τό mystery πόρνη –ης ἡ whore


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