Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "Βελτιστοποίηση της Απόδοσής σας Μέσα σε Μια Ομάδα"— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:
1Επικοινωνία σε Ομάδες και Τελειοποίηση της Ακρόασης και της Άτυπης Επικοινωνίας
2Βελτιστοποίηση της Απόδοσής σας Μέσα σε Μια Ομάδα ΕπίσημαΑνεπίσημαΜόνιμες ΕπιτροπέςΟμάδες Εργασίας και Επί-λυσης ΠροβλημάτωνΣχεδιασμός ΣτρατηγικήςΑναθεώρηση ΑποτελεσμάτωνΧειρισμός ΘεμάτωνΕπίλυση ΠροβλημάτωνΣυγκεκριμένος ΧειρισμόςΕνθάρρυνση ΣυμμετοχήςA team is a unit of two or more people who share a mission and the responsibility for working to achieve their goal.Organizations establish several different types of teams, and each type may communicate a little differently. Companies can create formal teams that become part of the organization’s structure, or they can establish informal teams, which aren’t part of the formal organization but are formed to solve a problem, work on a specific activity, or encourage employee participation. Some teams stay together for years; others may meet their goals in just a few days and then disband.Problem-solving teams and task forces are informal teams that assemble to resolve specific issues and then disband once their goal has been accomplished.Committees are formal teams that usually have a long life span and can become a permanent part of the organizational structure. Committees typically deal with regularly recurring tasks. For example, an executive committee may meet monthly to plan strategy and review results, and a grievance committee may be formed as a permanent resource for handling employee complaints and concerns.You and your fellow team members must be able to communicate effectively with each other and with people outside your team: sharing information with team members, listening carefully to their inputs, and crafting messages that reflect the team's collective ideas and opinions.
3Σύνοψη Ομάδων Πλεονεκτήματα Μειονεκτήματα Ευρύτερη Πληροφόρηση Ευρύ Φάσμα ΓνώσεωνΔιαφοροποίηση ΆποψηςΑποδοχή των ΛύσεωνΕπίπεδα ΑπόδοσηςΟμαδική ΣκέψηΠίεση ΣυνομηλίκωνΚρυφοί ΣκοποίΛουφαδόροι (Free riders)Υψηλό ΚόστοςTeam decision making can benefit an organization by delivering the following benefits:Increased information and knowledge. By aggregating the resources of several individuals, teams bring more information to the decision process.Increased diversity of views. Team members bring a variety of perspectives to the decision process.Increased acceptance of solutions. Those who participate in decision making are more likely to support the decision and encourage others to accept it.Higher performance levels. Working in teams can unleash vast amounts of creativity and energy in workers who share a sense of purpose and mutual accountability.Teamwork also has a number of disadvantages:A team may develop groupthink, the willingness of individual members to set aside their personal opinions and go along with the rest of the team members, even if they are wrong.Some team members may have a hidden agenda—private motives that affect the group’s interaction.Other team members may be free riders—those who don’t contribute their fair share to the group’s activities because they aren’t held individually accountable for their work.Still another drawback to teamwork is the high cost of coordinating group activities. Aligning schedules, arranging meetings, and coordinating a project can eat up a lot of time and money.
4Επιοινωνία Μέσα Σε Ομάδες Επιλογή ΜελώνΚοινοί ΣτόχοιΧρόνος ΔεσίματοςΚαθορισμός ΕυθυνώνThe interactions and processes that take place in a team are called group dynamics. Some teams are more effective than others simply because the dynamics of the group facilitate member input and the resolution of differences. To keep things moving forward, productive teams also tend to develop rules that are conducive to business. Often these rules are unstated; they just become standard group practice, or norms—informal standards of conduct that members share and that guide member behavior.When a team has a strong identity, the members observe team rules religiously: They’re upset by any deviation and feel a great deal of pressure to conform. This loyalty can be positive, giving members a strong commitment to one another and highly motivating them to see that the team succeeds. However, an overly strong identity could lead to negative conditions such as groupthink.
5Επικοινωνία Μέσα Σε Ομάδες Ορισμός ΔιαδικασιώνΕπιλογή Μεθόδωνκαι ΜέσωνΑποφυγή ΟμαδικήςΣυγγραφήςΤακτικός ΈλεγχοςΠροόδουThe interactions and processes that take place in a team are called group dynamics. Some teams are more effective than others simply because the dynamics of the group facilitate member input and the resolution of differences. To keep things moving forward, productive teams also tend to develop rules that are conducive to business. Often these rules are unstated; they just become standard group practice, or norms—informal standards of conduct that members share and that guide member behavior.When a team has a strong identity, the members observe team rules religiously: They’re upset by any deviation and feel a great deal of pressure to conform. This loyalty can be positive, giving members a strong commitment to one another and highly motivating them to see that the team succeeds. However, an overly strong identity could lead to negative conditions such as groupthink.
6Δυναμικές Ομάδες Κανόνες Άγραφοι Νόμοι (Νόρμες) Ταυτότητα The interactions and processes that take place in a team are called group dynamics. Some teams are more effective than others simply because the dynamics of the group facilitate member input and the resolution of differences. To keep things moving forward, productive teams also tend to develop rules that are conducive to business. Often these rules are unstated; they just become standard group practice, or norms—informal standards of conduct that members share and that guide member behavior.When a team has a strong identity, the members observe team rules religiously: They’re upset by any deviation and feel a great deal of pressure to conform. This loyalty can be positive, giving members a strong commitment to one another and highly motivating them to see that the team succeeds. However, an overly strong identity could lead to negative conditions such as groupthink.Ταυτότητα
7Ανάληψη Ρόλων Μέσα στην Ομάδα Αυτοπροσδι-οριζόμενοιΣυντήρησηΟμάδαςΚατανομήΕργασιώνΈλεγχος καιΚατεύθυνσηΑποχωρήσειςΑναζήτηση ΠροσοχήςΕνθάρρυνσηΕναρμόνισηΔιακινδύνευσηΠρωτοβουλίες καιΣυντονισμόςΑναζήτησηΠληροφοριώνΚαθορισμόςΔιαδικασιώνMembers of a team can play various roles, which fall into three categories.The following are self-oriented roles:Controlling or dominating others.Withdrawing from the group by becoming silent or refusing to work.Attention seeking and demanding recognition.Diverting discussions to topics of personal interest.The following are group-maintenance roles:Encouraging others with verbal and nonverbal support.Harmonizing or reconciling differences via mediation or humor.Compromising on a point in order to reach a mutually agreeable decision.The following are task-facilitating roles:Initiating a line of inquiry.Seeking or giving information relevant to the group.Coordinating relationships, clarifying issues, summarizing activity.Suggesting goal-oriented, decision-making procedures.The roles that individuals assume often depend on whether they joined the group voluntarily or involuntarily and their status in that group. Until roles and status have stabilized, a team may have trouble accomplishing its goals.
8Λήψη Αποφάσεων Μέσα σε Ομάδες ΠροσανατολισμόςΣυγκρούσεις“Ιδεοκαταιγίδα”ΑνάδυσηΕνίσχυσηWhenever teams tackle a decision-making tasks, they typically pass through five phases:Orientation. Team members socialize, establish their roles, and begin to define their task or purpose.Conflict. Team members begin to discuss their positions and become more assertive in establishing their roles. If members have been carefully selected to represent a variety of viewpoints and expertise, disagreements are a natural part of this phase.Brainstorm. Team members air all the options and discuss the pros and cons fully. At the end of this phase, members begin to settle on a single solution to the problem.Emergence. Team members reach a decision. Consensus is reached when the team finds a solution that is acceptable enough for all members to support (even if they have reservations). This consensus happens only after members have had an opportunity to communicate their positions and feel that they have been listened to.Reinforcement. Group feeling is rebuilt and the solution is summarized. Members receive their assignments for carrying out the group’s decision, and they make arrangements for following up on those assignments.
9Συγκρούσεις Μέσα σε Ομάδες Ελλειπείς ΠόροιΕυθύνες ΕργασίαςΦτωχή ΕπικοινωνίαΣτάσεις και ΑξίεςΦιλοδοξίαΑντικρουόμενοι ΣτόχοιConflict is a natural part of any team experience. When handled poorly, conflict can lead to the group’s failure. However, the right approach to conflict can push the team to better performance.Teams and individuals may believe they are competing for scarce or declining resources, such as money, information, and supplies.Team members may disagree about who is responsible for a specific task (usually the result of poorly defined responsibilities and job boundaries).Poor communication can lead to misunderstandings and withholding information can undermine trust.Basic differences in values, attitudes, and personalities may lead to arguments.Power struggles may result when one party questions the authority of another or when people or teams with limited authority attempt to increase their power or exert more influence.Conflict can also arise because individuals or teams are pursuing different goals.
10Είδη Συγκρούσεων Εποικοδομητικές Καταστροφικές Εκθέτουν Προβλήματα Τονώνουν τηΣυμμετοχήΓεννούν ΙδέεςΚαταστροφικέςΣτραγγίζουν τηνΕνέργειαΡίχνουν το ΗθικόΔιαιρούν την ΟμάδαConflict can be both constructive and destructive. Conflict is constructive if it forces important issues into the open, increases involvement of team members, and generates creative solutions. Conflict is destructive if it diverts energy from more important issues, destroys the morale of teams or individual team members, or polarizes or divides the team.
11Επίλυση Συγκρούσεων Πρόληψη Ευ Αγωνίζεσθαι Έρευνα Επικοινωνία One of the first steps to finding a win-win solution is to preserve the “you” attitude by considering the other person’s needs and searching for mutually satisfactory solutions or compromises. The following seven measures that can help team members successfully resolve conflict:Proaction. Deal with minor conflict before it becomes major conflict.Communication. Get those directly involved in the conflict to participate in resolving it.Openness. Get feelings out in the open; then deal with the main issues.Research. Seek factual reasons for the problem before seeking solutions.Flexibility. Don’t let anyone lock into a position before considering other solutions.Fair play. Don’t avoid a fair solution by hiding behind the rules.Alliance. Get parties to fight together against an “outside force” instead of against each other.ΣυμμαχίεςΕλαστικότηταΕιλικρίνεια
12Πώς Να Υπερπηδήσετε την Αντίσταση Εκδήλωσε ΚατανόησηΞεσκέπασε τηνΑντίστασηΑξιολόγησε τιςΕνστάσειςΣυγκράτησε τηνΑντιλογίαPart of dealing with conflict is learning how to persuade other people to accept your point of view. In a business situation, reason usually prevails. However, you sometimes encounter people who react emotionally. When you face irrational resistance, try to remain calm and detached so that you can avoid destructive confrontations and present your position in a convincing manner.Express understanding. Most people are ashamed of reacting emotionally in business situations. Help the other person relax and talk about his or her anxiety so that you have a chance to offer reassurance.Make people aware of their resistance. When people are noncommittal and silent, they may be tuning you out without even knowing why. Continuing with your argument is futile. Deal directly with the resistance, without being accusing.Evaluate others’ objections fairly. Focus on what the person is expressing, both the words and the feelings. Get the person to open up so that you can understand the basis for the resistance.Hold your arguments until the other person is ready for them. Getting your point across depends as much on the other person’s frame of mind as it does on your arguments. You can’t assume that a strong argument will speak for itself. Address the other person’s emotional needs first.
13Συμπεριφορά στον Χώρο Εργασίας Εμφάνιση καιΚαλλωπισμόςΓνήσιο, ΈνθερμοΧαμόγελοΔεξιότητες στην Τηλε-φωνική ΕπικοινωνίαWhen people call your place of business, they want to quickly and easily reach someone who can help them. To be as effective as possible when receiving calls, observe the following helpful tips:Answer promptly and with a smile. Answer within two or three rings, and smile so that you sound friendly and positive.Identify yourself. Announce the company name, the department, and your own name in a friendly and professional manner.Establish the needs of your caller. Immediately ask, “How may I help you?” If you know the caller’s name, use it. Don’t interrupt with pointless questions.Be positive. If you can, answer callers’ questions promptly and efficiently; if you can’t help, tell them what you can do for them.Take complete, accurate messages. Confirm names, telephone and fax numbers, addresses, and dates. Always take a return number, even if the caller says it isn’t necessary. And don’t forget to write neatly so that your message can be deciphered.Explain what you are doing. If you absolutely must put a caller on hold briefly or transfer the call, explain what you are doing and why. If it’s necessary to hunt for information or to take another call, offer to call back.
14Κοινωνική Συμπεριφορά ΠρώτεςΕντυπώσειςΠροσωπικέςΣυστάσειςFrom business lunches to industry conferences, you represent your company when you're out in public, so make sure your appearance and actions are appropriate to the situation. First impressions last a long time, so get to know the customs of the culture when you meet new people.When introducing yourself, include a brief description of your role in the company. When introducing two other people, speak both their first and last names clearly, and then try to offer some information (perhaps a shared professional interest) to help these two people ease into a conversation.Business is often conducted over meals, and knowing the basics of dining etiquette will make you more effective in these situations. Choose foods that are easy to eat; you don't want to wrestle with a lobster while trying to carry on a conversation. Leave business papers under your chair until entrée plates have been removed.Misuse of mobile phones in restaurants and other public places is a common etiquette blunder. When you use your cell phone in public, you send the message that people around you aren't as important as your call and that you don't respect your caller's privacy.Business meals are a forum for business, period. Don't get on your soapbox about politics, religion, or any other topic likely to stir up emotions. Some light chatter and questions about personal interests is fine, but don't get too personal. Don't complain about work, avoid profanity, and be careful with humor.Καλοί ΤρόποιΓευματίσματοςΛανθασμένηΧρήση ΚινητώνΤηλεφώνων κ.ά.ΑκατάλληλαΘέματαΣυζύτησης
15Παραγωγικές Συναντήσεις ΠροετοιμασίαΑποτελεσμα-τικότηταMeetings are a primary communication venue for today's businesses, whether they take place in formal conference rooms or on the Internet in virtual meetings. Well-run meetings can help you solve problems, develop ideas, and identify opportunities. Much of your workplace communication will take occur in small-group meetings; therefore, your ability to contribute to the company and to be recognized for those contributions will depend on your meeting participation skills.Unfortunately, many meetings are unproductive. The three most frequently reported problems with meetings are getting off the subject, not having an agenda, and running too long. You’ll help your company make better use of meetings by preparing carefully, conducting meetings efficiently, and using meeting technologies wisely.Τεχνολογία
16Προετοιμασία Για Τις Συναντήσεις ΣκοπόςΣυμμετέχοντεςΠροετοιμασίαΓια ΤιςΣυναντήσειςThe key to productive meetings is careful planning of purpose, participants, location, and agenda.Most meetings have either an informational or a decision-making purpose. Informational meetings allow participants to share information and perhaps coordinate action. Decision-making meetings involve persuasion, analysis, and problem solving.Try to invite only participants whose presence is essential. The more people who attend, the more comments and confusion you’re likely to get, and the longer the whole thing will take. But even as you try to limit participation, be sure to include key decision makers and those who can contribute. Holding a meeting is pointless if the people with necessary information aren’t there.Decide on the time when you’ll hold the meeting, and reserve the facility. For work sessions, morning meetings are usually more productive than afternoon sessions. Also, consider the seating arrangements. Are rows of chairs suitable, or do you need a conference table? Plus, give some attention to details such as room temperature, lighting, ventilation, acoustics, and refreshments. You might also consider calling a meeting in cyberspace.The success of any meeting depends on the preparation of the participants. An agenda will aid this process by putting the meeting plan into a permanent, written form. Distribute the agenda to participants several days before the meeting so that they will know what to expect and can come prepared.Τόπος καιΧρόνοςΑυτοσκοπός
17Ηγεσία και Συμμετοχή Μήν Ξεφεύγεις απ’το Θέμα Ακολούθησε τους Κανόνες Ενθάρρυνε τη ΣυμμετοχήΝα Συμμετέχεις ΕνεργάΑποτελεσματικός ΕπίλογοςEveryone in a meeting shares the responsibility for keeping the meeting productive and making it successful. If you're the designated leader of a meeting, however, you have an extra degree of responsibility and accountability. To ensure productive meetings, be sure to do the following:Keep the meeting on track. The leader is responsible for keeping the meeting moving along and pacing the presentation and discussion according to the agenda. However, the leader must allow enough time for all the main ideas to be heard, and give people a chance to raise related issues.Follow agreed-upon rules. One way a leader can improve the productivity of a meeting is by using parliamentary procedure, a time-tested method for planning and running effective meetings. The basic principles of parliamentary procedure can help teams to transact business efficiently, protect individual rights, maintain order, preserve a spirit of harmony, and accomplish team and organizational goals.Encourage participation. Some participants are too quiet and others are too talkative. The best meetings are those in which everyone participates, so a leader must not let one or two people dominate the meeting while others doodle on their notepads.Participate actively. If you’re a meeting participant, try to contribute to both the subject of the meeting and the smooth interaction of the participants. Speak up if you have something useful to say, but don’t monopolize the discussion.Close effectively. At the end of the meeting, the leader should summarize the discussion or list the actions to be taken and specify who will take them and when. Wrapping things up ensures that all participants agree on the outcome and gives people a chance to clear up any misunderstandings.
18Επαφή με την Τεχνολογία Εικονικές ΟμάδεςΕικονικέςΣυναντήσεις“Λογισμικό”ΟμάδαςThe rise of workplace technologies has spurred the emergence of virtual teams, whose members work in different locations and interact electronically through virtual meetings. People may work together for months or years and never meet face to face. At times, technology replaces meetings entirely, such as when team members use or instant messaging to interact over the course of several hours or days, rather than meet online or over the phone at a specific time.As with most new technologies, electronic meeting tools are evolving rapidly, and the lines separating these tools have become blurred. For example, instant messaging and videoconferencing are both stand-alone capabilities; both are also common features in groupware, an umbrella term for systems that let people communicate, share files, present materials, and work on documents simultaneously. Whatever the network, you'll connect with colleagues and customers using technologies such as and instant messaging, shared workspaces, and virtual meetings.Before you and your colleagues can interact electronically, a network must be established. Expect to encounter some combination of wired and wireless networking that uses both the public Internet and private corporate networks (intranets). Whatever the network may be, you will connect to others using technologies as and instant messaging, shared workspaces, and virtual meetings.Δίκτυα
19Τα e-mail Στον Χώρο Εργασίας ΠλεονεκτήματαΜειονεκτήματαΣυνεργασία σεProjects (ΑνατεθιμέναΜέρη Εργασίας)ΚαθυστέρησηΔιαβίβασηςΠληροφοριώνΚοινή ΧρήσηΜή ΠραγματικόςΧρόνοςBy giving employees a fast, inexpensive way to communicate, and IM enhance information sharing and project collaboration. is less effective for real-time communication because it forces you to check for incoming messages, which can be delayed for several seconds or even longer as they pass through the system.
20Άμεσα Μηνύματα (Ι.Μ.) στο Χώρο Εργασίας ΣτοιχειώδειςΣυζητήσειςΑντίληψηΠαρουσίαςΑπομακρυσμένηΕικόναΔυνατότητεςΜαγνητο-σκόπησηςInstant messaging is a recent entry into the corporate communication scene, but it is catching on rapidly. Indeed, IM may soon surpass as the more commonly used tool for communicating with business associates and customers. Various business IM systems offer a range of capabilities, including basic chat, presence awareness (the ability to quickly see who's at their desks and available to IM), remote display of documents, video capabilities, remote control of other computers, newsfeeds from blogs and websites, and bot capability. All of these capabilities can supplement both one-on-one conversations and group meetings, and can even replace meetings.ΤηλεχειρισμόςΗ/ΥΑνανέωσηΕιδήσεων
21Πλεονεκτήματα Άμεσων Μηνυμάτων (Ι.Μ.) ΓρήγορηΑπάντησηΜειωμένοΚόστοςΠτυχέςΣυζήτησηςΕυρείαΔιαθεσιμότηταThe benefits of IM in meetings (and in the workplace in general) include its rapid response to urgent messages, lower cost than both phone calls and , ability to mimic conversation more closely than , and availability on a wide range of devices from PCs to phones to PDAs.
22Μειονεκτήματα Άμεσων Μηνυμάτων (Ι.Μ.) Τεχνικά ΖητήματαΑσφάλεια καιΙδιωτικάΘέματαΑναγνώρισηΧρήστηΑρχείοΜηνυμάτωνΜή ΣυμβατάΣυστήματαThe drawbacks include both technical and behavioral issues. The primary technical issues are security (one quarter of all U.S. corporations have blocked employee access to consumer IM systems because of worries that sensitive communications might be intercepted by outsiders), user authentication (making sure that online correspondents are really who they appear to be), the inability to log messages for later review and archiving, and incompatibility between competing IM systems.
23Μειονεκτήματα Άμεσων Μηνυμάτων (Ι.Μ.) Ζητήματα ΣυμπεριφοράςΔιακοπέςΕργασία Σε Α-ντιπαράθεσηΜε την Προσω-πική ΖωήΜένονταςΕκτός τουΚύκλουΧαμένοςΧρόνοςAlthough developers will eventually solve all these problems, the human side of IM will be an ongoing concern. To use IM effectively for meetings, all users need to pay attention to some important behavioral issues: the potential for constant interruptions, the ease of accidentally mixing personal and business messages, the risk of being out of the loop (if a hot discussion or impromptu meeting flares up when you're away from your PC or other IM device), and the vast potential for wasted time. On top of all that, you're at the mercy of other people's typing abilities, which can make IM agonizingly slow
24Αποτελεσματική Επικοι- νωνία Μέσω Ι.Μ. ΑποφύγετεΤα ΠροσωπικάΜηνύματαΠρόγραμμαΧρήσης τουΙ.Μ.ΠροστασίαΕμπιστευτικώνΠληροφοριώνRegardless of the system you're using, you can make IM more efficient and effective for both meetings and general communication by following these tips:Unless a meeting is scheduled, make yourself unavailable when you need to focus on other work.If you're not on a secure system, don't send confidential information.Be extremely careful about sending personal messages—they have a tendency to pop up on other people's computers at embarrassing moments.
25Αποτελεσματική Επικοι- νωνία Μέσω Ι.Μ. ΕκπαίδευσηΌλου τουΠροσωπικούΑποφύγετετις ΑυθόρμητεςΣυνατήσειςΜακροσκελή καιΠολύπλοκαΜηνύματαDon't use IM for important but impromptu meetings if you can't verify that everyone concerned will be available.Unless your system is set up for it, don't use IM for lengthy, complex messages; is better for those.If IM has become the primary communication channel in your company, particularly for important meetings, make sure everyone is comfortable with the technology and both capable and willing to use it.
26Αποτελεσματική Επικοι- νωνία Μέσω Ι.Μ. Φίλτρα γιαΑνεπιθύμητα(Spam)ΜηνύματαΑπογύγετετις ΠολλαπλέςΣυζητήσειςΕλαχιστοποιήστετην Χρήση τηςΑργκώTry to avoid carrying on multiple IM conversations at once to minimize the chance of sending messages to the wrong people.Don't assume that whatever IM slang you might use in personal communications is appropriate for business messages; your colleagues may not be familiar or comfortable with it.If your IM system has filters for spim, the IM version of spam, make sure they're active and up to date.
27Κοινόχρηστοι Χώροι Εργασίας Το Εικονικό ΓραφείοΠόροι καιΠληροφορίεςΠροσαρτημένηΝοημοσύνηΈλεγχοςΕπανάληψηςShared workspaces are "virtual offices" that give everyone on a team access to the same set of resources and information: databases, calendars, project plans, pertinent IM and exchanges, shared reference materials, and team-created documents.Most systems also have built-in intelligence to control which team members can read, edit, and save specific files. Revision control goes one step further; it allows only one person at a time to check on a given file or document and records all the changes that person makes. This feature prevents two people from independently editing the same report at the same time, thus avoiding the messy situation in which a team would end up with two versions of the same document. Many systems also include the presence awareness offered by IM systems so that you can tell instantly which team members are online and available to chat or to attend an impromptu meeting.Αντίληψη Παρουσίας
28Εικονικές Συναντήσεις Άμεσα ΜηνύματαΤηλεδιάσκεψηΒιντεοδιάσκψηVirtual meeting technologies cover a wide range of tools that let team members in different locations interact at the same time without the hassle, risk, and cost of travel. IM chat sessions and telephone conference calls are the simplest forms of virtual meetings.Videoconferencing combines audio communication with live video, letting team members see each other, demonstrate products, and transmit other visual information. Videoconferencing is available in two systems. Room systems require specialized conference room facilities but offer large-screen displays and the ability to accommodate more participants. Desktop systems typically use a webcam attached to each participant's PC, with the video displayed on the computer monitor and audio provided either over the Internet or a standard phone connection.The most sophisticated web-based meeting systems combine the best of IM, shared workspaces, and videoconferencing with other tools such as virtual whiteboards that let teams collaborate in real time. Attendees can log on from a desktop or laptop PC, PDA, or even a web-enabled cell phone from almost anywhere in the world. The latest twist in online meetings are darknets: small, invitation-only networks that are highly secure, thus allowing the exchange of highly confidential information.Συστήματα Βασισμέναστο Διαδίκτυο
29Βελτιώνοντας τις Δεξιότητες της Ακρόασης Ενισχύει τις ΣχέσειςΕπιταχύνει την Παράδοση ΠροϊόντωνΤονίζει τις ΕυκαιρίεςΥποστηρίζει τη Διαφοροποίηση του Εργατικού ΔυναμικούΧτίζει Θεμέλια για ΕμπιστοσύνηΤονώνει την ΑπόδοσηThe importance of listening is self-evident: if a receiver won't or can't listen, the speaker's message simply won't get through. Some 80 percent of top executives say that listening is the most important skill needed to get things done in the workplace.Effective listening strengthens organizational relationships, enhances product delivery, alerts the organization to opportunities for innovation, and allows the organization to manage growing diversity both in the workforce and in the customers it serves. Effective listening is vital to the process of building trust not only between organizations but also between individuals. Throughout your own career, effective listening will give you a competitive edge, enhancing your performance and thus the influence you have within your company.
30Κατηγορίες Ακρόασης Περιεχομένου Κρίσης Έμφασης The types of listening differ not only in purpose but also in the amount of feedback or interaction that occurs. You can improve relationships and productivity by matching your listening style to the speaker’s purpose.The goal of content listening is to understand and retain the speaker’s message. You may ask questions, but basically information flows from the speaker to you. It doesn’t matter that you agree or disagree, approve or disapprove—only that you understand.The goal of critical listening is to understand and evaluate the meaning of the speaker’s message on several levels: the logic of the argument, the strength of the evidence, the validity of the conclusions, the implications of the message for you and your organization, the speaker’s intentions and motives, and the omission of any important or relevant points. Critical listening generally involves interaction as you try to uncover the speaker’s point of view and credibility.The goal of empathic listening is to understand the speaker’s feelings, needs, and wants so that you can appreciate his or her point of view, regardless of whether you share that perspective. By listening in an empathic way, you help the individual vent the emotions that prevent a dispassionate approach to the subject. Avoid the temptation to give advice. Try not to judge the individual’s feelings. Just let the other person talk.
31Η Διαδικασία της Ακρόασης ΜήνυμαΛήψηΔιερμηνείαΕνθύμησηBy understanding the process of listening, you begin to understand why oral messages are so often lost. Listening involves five related activities, which usually occur in sequence: Receiving: Physically hearing the message and taking note of it. Physical reception can be blocked by noise, impaired hearing, or inattention.Interpreting: Assigning meaning to sounds according to your own values, beliefs, ideas, expectations, roles, needs, and personal history. The speaker’s frame of reference may be quite different from yours, so you may need to determine what the speaker really means.Remembering: Storing a message for future reference. As you listen, you retain what you hear by taking notes or by making a mental outline of the speaker’s key points.Evaluating: Applying critical thinking skills to weigh the speaker’s remarks. You separate fact from opinion and evaluate the quality of the evidence.Responding: Reacting once you’ve evaluated the speaker’s message. If you’re communicating one-on-one or in a small group, the initial response generally takes the form of verbal feedback. If you’re one of many in an audience, your initial response may take the form of applause, laughter, or silence. Later on, you may act on what you have heard.ΑπάντησηΑξιολόγησηΑνάδραση(Feedback)
32Φραγμοί στην Ακρόαση Φυσικά Στοιχεία Επιλεκτική Ακοή Στενό Φάσμα ΠροσήλωσηςΠρόωρη ΚρίσηGood listeners look for ways to overcome potential barriers throughout the listening process (see Table 2.2). You are unlikely to have control over some barriers to physical reception, such as conference room acoustics, poor cell phone reception, background music, and so on. However, you can certainly control other barriers, such as interrupting speakers or creating distractions that make it hard for others to pay attention.Selective listening is one of the most common barriers to effective listening. If your mind wanders, you often stay tuned out until you hear a word or phrase that gets your attention once more. Rather than listening part time, make a conscious effort to focus on the speaker, and use the extra time to analyze what you hear, prepare questions you might need to ask, and engage in other relevant thinking.A common barrier to successful interpretation is prejudgment—making up your mind before truly hearing what another person has to say. Similarly, some people listen defensively, always on the lookout for perceived personal attacks. To protect their self-esteem, they distort messages by tuning out anything that doesn’t confirm their view of themselves.Even when your intentions are the best, you can still misinterpret incoming messages if you and the speaker don't share enough language or experience. Lack of common ground is why misinterpretation is so frequent between speakers of different native languages, even when they're trying to speak the same language.Overcoming memory barriers is a slightly easier problem to solve, but it takes some work. One simple rule: Don’t count on your memory. If the information is crucial, record it, write it down, or capture it in some other physical way.Στενό ΚοινόΈδαφοςΦραγμοίΜνήμης
33Άτυπη Επικοινωνία Συμπληρώνει την Λεκτική Επικοινωνία Αποκαλύπτει την ΑλήθειαΔιαβιβάζει Πληροφο-ρίες ΑποτελεσματικάNonverbal communication is the interpersonal process of sending and receiving information, both intentionally and unintentionally, without using written or spoken language. Nonverbal signals play three important roles in communication.The first is complementing verbal language. Nonverbal signals can strengthen a verbal message (when nonverbal signals match words), they can weaken a verbal message (when nonverbal signals don't match words), or they can replace words entirely.The second role for nonverbal signals is revealing truth. People find it much harder to deceive with nonverbal signals.The third role for nonverbal signals is conveying information efficiently. Nonverbal signals can convey both nuance and rich amounts of information in a single instant, as the previous conference room example suggests.
34Κατηγορίες Άτυπης Επικοινωνίας ΠροσωπικήΕμφάνισηΕπαφές καιΑγγίγματαΧώρος καιΧρόνοςΕκφράσειςΠροσώπου(Γκριμάτσες)Χειρονομίες καιΣτάσηΧαρακτηριστικάΦωνήςThe range and variety of nonverbal signals is almost endless, but you can grasp the basics by studying six general categories:Facial Expression. Your face is the primary site for emotions; it reveals both the type and the intensity of your feelings.Gesture and Posture. Your body can express both specific and general messages, some voluntary and some involuntary. Many gestures have a specific and intentional meaning. Other types are unintentional and express a more general message.Vocal Characteristics. Your voice carries both intentional and unintentional messages. The tone and volume and your accent and speaking pace say a lot about who you are, your relationship with the audience, and the emotions underlying your words.Personal appearance. People respond to others on the basis of physical appearance. Because you see yourself as others see you, their expectations can be a self-fulfilling prophecy. Although an individual’s body type and facial features impose limitations, most people are able to control their attractiveness to some degree.Touch. Touching can convey warmth, comfort, and reassurance. Touching behavior is often governed by customs regarding who can touch whom and how. Touching has become controversial because it can be interpreted as sexual harassment.Time and space. Some people demonstrate their importance by making other people wait; others show respect by being on time. People assert their status by occupying the best space. When others stand too close or too far away, we are likely to feel ill at ease.Paying attention to nonverbal cues will make you a better speaker and listener.