Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "Διαπολιτισμική Επικοινωνία (Επικοινωνία σε Διεθνή Περιβάλλοντα)"— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:
1 Διαπολιτισμική Επικοινωνία (Επικοινωνία σε Διεθνή Περιβάλλοντα)
2 Διαπολιτισμική Επικοινωνία Πολυ-πολιτισμικόΕργατικόΔυναμικόΠαγκοσμιοποι-ημένη ΑγοράIntercultural communication is the process of sending and receiving messages between people whose cultural background leads them to interpret verbal and nonverbal signs differently. Two trends contributing to the rapidly increasing importance of intercultural communication in the workplace are market globalization and the multicultural workforce.
3 Η Παγκοσμιοποιημένη Αγορά ΕυκαιρίεςΠροκλήσειςΔυνατότητα ΑνάπτυξηςΝέο Πελατειακό ΚοινόΕξάπλωση σε Νέες Αγορ.Νέες Πηγές Εργ. Δυναμ.Ευκαιρίες ΕργασίαςΉθη και ΈθιμαΙσοτιμία ΣυναλλάγματοςΗθικά ΠρότυπαΔεξιότητες Εργ. Δυναμ.Πολιτική και ΠρακτικέςMarket globalization is the increasing tendency of the world to act as one market. Technological advances in travel and telecommunications are the driving force behind market globalization.Thousands of U.S. businesses depend on exports for significant portions of their revenues. In the global marketplace, most natural boundaries and national borders are no longer the impassible barriers they once were. Even small companies in remote locations can sell and support their products on a global scale, thanks to , the Internet, and worldwide delivery services.Selling goods and services in foreign markets can generate increased sales, produce operational efficiencies, expose companies to new technologies, and provide greater consumer choices. But venturing abroad also exposes companies to many new challenges. For instance, each country has unique ways of doing business, which must be learned: Laws, customs, consumer preferences, ethical standards, labor skills, and political and economic stability vary from country to country, and all can affect a firm's international prospects. Furthermore, volatile currencies, international trade relationships, and the threat of terrorism can make global expansion a risky proposition.
4 Πλεονεκτήματα Ανομοιογενούς (Πολυεθνικού) Εργατικού Δυναμικού ΔιαφοροποιημένεςΑγορέςΕυρύτερεςΠροοπτικέςΜεγαλύτερο ΕύροςΤαλέντουCultural diversity is the second trend contributing to the importance of intercultural communication. It affects how business messages are conceived, planned, sent, received, and interpreted in the workplace.The U.S. workforce is partly composed of immigrants (new arrivals from Europe, Canada, Latin America, India, Africa, and Asia) and people from various ethnic backgrounds (such as African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Asian Americans), all of whom bring their own language and culture to the workplace. As a result, today’s multicultural workforce is made up of more and more people who differ in race, gender, age, culture, family structure, religion, and educational background.Diverse workforces bring a broader range of viewpoints and ideas, they help companies understand and identify with diverse markets, and they enable companies to tap into the broadest possible pool of talent.
5 Προκλήσεις της Διαπολιτισμικής Επικοινωνίας Νοήματα ΛέξεωνΧρήση ΧειρονομιώνΑντίληψη Χώρουκαι ΧρόνουCultural diversity affects how business messages are conceived, planned, sent, received, and interpreted in the workplace. Today’s increasingly diverse workforce brings with it a wide range of skills, traditions, backgrounds, experiences, outlooks, and attitudes toward work—all of which can affect employee behavior on the job.The interaction of culture and communication is so pervasive that separating the two is virtually impossible. The way you communicate—from the language you speak and the nonverbal signals you send to the way you perceive other people—is influenced by the culture in which you were raised. The meaning of words, the significance of gestures, the importance of time and space, the rules of human relationships—these and many other aspects of communication are defined by culture. To a large degree, your culture influences the way you think, which naturally affects the way you communicate as both a sender and a receiver.Κανόνες Που Διέπουντις Σχέσεις
6 Ενίσχυση Διαπολιτισμικής Ευαισθησίας (σε Θέματα Κουλτούρας) Κατανόηση της Έννοιας της ΚουλτούραςΥπερπήδηση του ΕθνοκεντρισμούΑποφυγή ΣτεροτύπωνΑναγνώριση Πολιτσμικών Διαφοροποιήσεων
7 Η Έννοια της Κουλτούρας ΣύμβολαΣυμπεριφορέςΚοινό Σύστημα ΑξιώνΠροτεραιότητεςΑξίεςΝόρμεςΣυμπεριφοράFor the purposes of communication, culture can be defined as a shared system of symbols, beliefs, attitudes, values, expectations, and norms for behavior. In other words, your cultural background influences the way you prioritize what is important in life, helps define your attitude toward what is appropriate in any given situation, and establishes rules of behavior.Actually, you belong to several cultures. The most obvious is the culture you share with all the people who live in your own country. In addition, you belong to other cultural groups, including an ethnic group, probably a religious group, and perhaps a profession that has its own special language and customs.All members of a culture have similar assumptions about how people should think, behave, and communicate, and they all tend to act on those assumptions in much the same way.ΚανόνεςΠεποιθήσειςΠροσδοκίες
8 Εδραιωμένες Κουλτούρες ΥποθέσειςΑυτόματεςΣυνοχικέςΟλοκλη-ρωμένεςΣκέψηΣυμπεριφοράSometimes you are explicitly told which behaviors are acceptable; at other times you learn by observing which values work best in a particular group. This double-edged format for learning ensures that culture is passed on from person to person and from generation to generation. It also ensures that, as stated earlier, you are often unaware of the influence of your own culture, acting and reacting automatically.In addition to being automatic, established cultures tend to be coherent; that is, they are fairly logical and consistent throughout. For instance, the notion of progress is deeply embedded in the culture of the United States.Cultures also tend to be complete; that is, they provide most of their members with most of the answers to life's big questions. This idea of completeness dulls or even suppresses curiosity about life in other cultures. Therefore, such completeness can complicate communication with other cultures.Επικοινωνία
9 Αρνητική Διαπολιτισμική Συμπεριφορά ΕθνοκεντρισμόςΞενοφοβίαΣτεροτυπίαThe very nature of culture being automatic, coherent, and complete can lead the members of one culture to form negative attitudes about—and rigid, oversimplified views of—other cultures.Ethnocentrism is the tendency to judge all other groups according to your own group’s standards, behaviors, and customs. When making such comparisons, people too often decide that their group is superior. An even more extreme reaction is xenophobia, a fear of strangers and foreigners. Clearly, businesspeople who take these views will not interpret messages from other cultures correctly, nor are they likely to send successful messages, either.Distorted views of other cultures or groups also result from stereotyping, assigning a wide range of generalized attributes to an individual on the basis of membership in a particular culture or social group, without considering the individual's unique characteristics. Whereas ethnocentrism and xenophobia represent negative views of everyone in a particular group, stereotyping is more a matter of oversimplifying and failing to acknowledge individuality.
10 Πολιτισμικός Πλουραλισμός Αποδοχή ΔιακρίσεωνΑποφυγή ΥποθέσεωνTo show respect for other people and to communicate effectively in business, adopt a more positive viewpoint: cultural pluralism is the practice of accepting multiple cultures on their own terms.Acknowledge and accept distinctions. Don’t ignore differences between another person’s culture and your own.Avoid assumptions. Don’t assume that others will act the same way you do, that they will operate from the same assumptions, or that they will use language and symbols the same way you do.Avoid judgments. When people act differently, don’t conclude that they are in error, that their way is invalid, or that their customs are inferior to your own.Αποφυγή Κατακρίσεων
11 Ποικιλίες Πολιτισμών Περιεκτικοί Κοινωνικοί Ηλικιακοί Νομικοί και ΗθικοίΆτυποιΦυλετικοίWhen you write to or speak with someone from another culture, you encode your message using the assumptions of your own culture. However, members of your audience decode your message according to the assumptions of their culture, so your meaning may be misunderstood. The greater the difference between cultures, the greater the chance for misunderstanding.You can improve your intercultural sensitivity and expedite cross-cultural communication by recognizing and accommodating four main types of cultural differences: contextual, ethical, social, nonverbal, age, and gender.
12 Περιεχόμενο Πολιτισμών Περιε-κτικοίΕπιφα-νειακοίΠολιτική Λήψης ΑποφάσεωνΤεχνικές ΕπίλυσηςΠροβλημάτωνΕίδη ΔιαπραγματεύσεωνPeople assign meaning to a message according to cultural context: physical cues, environmental stimuli, and implicit understanding that convey meaning between two members of the same culture. However, cultures around the world vary widely in the role that context plays in communication.In a high-context culture, people rely less on verbal communication and more on the context of nonverbal actions and environmental setting to convey meaning. In a low-context culture, people rely more on verbal communication and less on contextual cues.In lower-context cultures, people tend to focus on the results of the decisions they face, a reflection of the cultural emphasis on logic and progress. In comparison, higher-context cultures emphasize the means or the method by which the decision will be made.Cultures differ in their tolerance for disagreement when solving problems. Low-context businesspeople typically enjoy confrontation and debate, but high-context businesspersons shun such tactics.Members of low-context cultures see their negotiating goals in economic terms. To high-context negotiators, immediate economic gains are secondary to establishing and maintaining long-term relationships.
13 Νόμινη και Ηθική Συμπεριφορά Αναζήτηση ΚοινούΕδάφουςΠεριορισμόςΚατακρίσεωνΣεβασμός Προςτις ΔιαφορέςΕιλικρινή ΜηνύματαCultural context also influences legal and ethical behavior. For example, because low-context cultures value the written word, written agreements are binding. High-context cultures put less emphasis on the written word and consider personal pledges more important than contracts. They also tend to view law with flexibility; low-context cultures value the letter of the law.As you conduct business around the world, you’ll find that legal systems differ from culture to culture. These differences can be particularly important if your firm must communicate about a legal dispute in another country.When communicating across cultures, keep your messages ethical by applying four basic principles:Actively seek mutual ground.Send and receive messages without judgment.Send messages that are honest.Show respect for cultural differences.
14 Διαφορές Κοινωνικής Συμπεριφοράς Ευγενικοί ΤρόποιΕργασία καιΕπιτυχίαΑντίληψητου ΧρόνουΡόλοι καιΚατάστασηThe nature of social behavior varies among cultures, sometimes dramatically. These behaviors are guided by rules. Some rules are formal and specifically articulated; some are informal, learned over time. The combination of both types of rules influences the overall behavior of everyone in a society, or at least most of the people most of the time. In addition to the factors already discussed, social rules can vary from culture to culture in the following areas:The predominant U.S. view is that money solves many problems, that material comfort (earned by individual effort) is a sign of superiority, and that people who work hard are better than those who don’t. However, many societies condemn materialism, and some prize a more carefree lifestyle.Culture dictates the roles people play, including who communicates with whom, what they communicate, and in what way. Culture also dictates how people show respect and signify rank.What is polite in one culture may be considered rude in another. Therefore, the concept of good manners varies widely from culture to culture.Conducting business entails schedules, deadlines, and appointments, but these matters are regarded differently from culture to culture.
15 Άτυπες Διαφορές Χαιρετισμοί και Αγγίγματα Προσωπικός Χώρος From colors to facial expression, nonverbal elements add yet another layer of richness and complexity to intercultural communication. When you have the opportunity to interact with people in another culture, the best advice is to study the culture in advance, then observe the way people behave in the following areas:Greetings. Do people shake hands, bow, kiss lightly (on one side of the face or both)?Touching. Do people touch each other on the arm to emphasize a point or slap each other the back to show congratulation? Or do they refrain from touching altogether?Personal space. When people are conversing, do they stand closer together or farther away than you are accustomed to?Facial expressions. Do people shake their heads to indicate "no" and nod them to indicate "yes"? This is what people are accustomed to in the United States, but it's not universal.Εκφράσεις Προσώ-που (Γκριμάτσες)
16 Άτυπες Διαφορές Eye Contact Στάση Επισημότητα Eye contact. Do people make frequent eye contact or avoid it? Frequent eye contact is often taken as a sign of honesty and openness in the United States, but in other cultures it can be a sign of aggressiveness or lack of respect.Posture. Do people slouch and relax in the office and in public, or do they sit up straight?Formality. In general, does the culture seem more or less formal than yours?Επισημότητα
17 Ηλικιακές Διαφορές Κουλτούρα που Απευθύνεται σε Νέους Κουλτούρα που ΜεγαλύτερουςThe United States celebrates youth in general and successful young businesspeople in particular. Youth is associated with strength, energy, possibilities, and freedom, whereas age is too often associated with declining powers and a loss of respect and authority. As a result, younger employees in U.S. companies often communicate with older colleagues as peers or equals, even to the point of openly disagreeing with them.However, in cultures that value age and seniority, longevity earns respect and increasing power and freedom. For instance, in many Asian societies, the oldest employees hold the most powerful jobs, the most impressive titles, and the greatest degree of freedom and decision-making authority. If a younger employee disagrees with one of these senior executives, the discussion is never conducted in public. The notion of "saving face," of avoiding public embarrassment, is too strong.Communicating between a youth-oriented culture and a seniority-oriented culture can require flexibility on both sides.
18 Επιρροές στην Επικοινωνία Φυλετικές ΔιαφορέςΕπιρροές στην ΕπικοινωνίαΙεραρχία στηνΕργασίαΣτυλ ΕπίλυσηςΠροβλημάτωνΣτυλ ΛήψηςΑποφάσεωνIn the United States today, women find a much wider range of business opportunities than existed just a few decades ago. However, such opportunity is not the case in more tradition-oriented societies, where men tend to hold most or all of the positions of authority, and women are expected to play a more subservient role.Men and women tend to have slightly different communication styles. Although the following broad generalizations might not apply in every case, understanding them can serve as a useful starting point for improving communication with the opposite sex:Workplace hierarchy influences communication. Most businesses in most countries have been dominated by men for years; therefore, women face the challenge of finding a place for themselves within this hierarchy.Decision-making styles influence communication. Men tend to value decisiveness over relationships, and their communication therefore emphasizes content—facts and figures, tasks, and results. In contrast, women tend to emphasize collaboration and the maintenance of positive business relationships, and their communication efforts generally reflect this concern.Most men place great value on their ability to solve problems. They have been conditioned to judge themselves by their ability to fix things. This conditioning can lead to misunderstandings when a woman voices frustration over a problem at work and a male colleague jumps in with a potential solution. The woman may not have been asking her colleague for a solution, but merely trying to share her feelings. She may find her colleague’s response to be controlling, misguided, even insulting.
19 Βελτίωση των Δεξιοτήτων Σας στην Διαπολιτισμική Επικοινωνία Να Μελετάτε Πολιτισμούς και ΓλώσσεςΝα Σέβεστε τους Τρόπους ΕπικοινωνίαςΝα Μιλάτε και να Γράφετε ΞεκάθαραΝα Είστε Προσεκτικός ΑκροατήςΝα Χρησιμοποιείτε Διερμηνείς και ΜεταφραστέςΝα Βοηθάτε Άλλους να Προσαρμοστούν στην Κουλτούρα ΣαςThe better you are at intercultural communication, the more successful you'll be in today's business environment. However, communicating successfully from one culture to another requires a variety of skills. You can improve your intercultural skills throughout your entire career. Begin now by studying other cultures and languages, respecting preferences for communication styles, learning to write and speak clearly, listening carefully, knowing when to use interpreters and translators, and helping others adapt to your culture.
20 Μελετώντας (Άλλους) Πολιτισμούς Κοινωνικά ΈθιμαΈνδυση και Διατρο-φικές ΣυνήθειεςΠολιτικά ΠρότυπαLearning all you can about a particular culture will help you send and receive intercultural messages effectively. Unfortunately, a thorough knowledge of another culture and its language—or languages—can take years to acquire. Fortunately, you don't need to learn about the whole world all at once. Many companies appoint specialists for specific countries or regions, giving you a chance to focus on fewer cultures at a time.Social CustomsHow do people react to strangers? Are they friendly? Hostile? Reserved?How do people greet each other? Should you bow? Nod? Shake hands?How do you express appreciation for an invitation to lunch, dinner, or someone’s home? Should you bring a gift? Send flowers? Write a thank-you note?Are any phrases, facial expressions, or hand gestures considered rude?How do you attract the attention of a waiter? Do you tip the waiter?When is it rude to refuse an invitation? How do you refuse politely?What topics may or may not be discussed in a social setting? In a business setting?Clothing and FoodWhat occasions require special clothing?What colors are associated with mourning? Love? Joy?Are some types of clothing considered taboo for one gender or the other?How many times a day do people eat?How are hands or utensils used when eating?Where is the seat of honor at a table?Political PatternsHow stable is the political situation?Does the political situation affect businesses in and out of the country?What are the traditional government institutions?Is it appropriate to talk politics in social or business situations?
21 Μελετώντας (Άλλους) Πολιτισμούς Θρησκεία καιΛαϊκές ΠεποιθήσειςΕπιχειρήσειςκαι ΟικονομίαΗθική, Αξίεςκαι ΝόμοιReligion and Folk BeliefsTo which religious groups do people belong?Which places, objects, actions, and events are sacred?Is there a tolerance for minority religions?How do religious holidays affect business and government activities?Does religion require or prohibit eating specific foods? At specific times?Business and EconomicsIs the society homogeneous or heterogeneous?What languages are spoken?What are the primary resources and principal products?Are businesses generally large? Family controlled? Government controlled?Is it appropriate to do business by telephone? By fax? By ?What are the generally accepted working hours?How do people view scheduled appointments?Are people expected to socialize before conducting business?Ethics, Values, and LawsIs money or a gift expected in exchange for arranging business transactions?Do people value competitiveness or cooperation?What are the attitudes toward work? Toward money?Is politeness more important than factual honesty?
22 Εκμάθηση Γλωσσών Διευκολύνει την Επικοινωνία Αναπτύσσει τις Γλωσσικές ΔεξιότητεςChooseWords CarefullyWith so many businesses stretched across national borders, successful employees commonly possess multilingual skills. Some countries have emphasized language diversity more than others over the years.Even if your colleagues or customers in another country do speak your language, it's worth the time and energy to learn common phrases in theirs.Don't assume that two countries speaking the same language speak it the same way.
23 Σεβασμός Προς τους Πολιτισμούς Προτιμήσεις στην ΕπικοινωνίαΒαθμόςΕπισημότηταςΠροφορικός ήΓραπτός ΛόγοςΕπίπεδοΕυθύτηταςCommunication style—including the level of directness, the degree of formality, preferences for written versus spoken communication, and other factors—varies widely from culture to culture. Knowing what your communication partners expect can help you adapt to their particular style. Watching an learning is the best way to improve your skills; however, you can infer some generalities from what you already know about a culture.
24 Καθαρη Συγγραφή Χρήση Απλής Γλώσσας Παροχή Ματαβατικών Παραγράφων Παράθεση Αριθμώνκαι ΗμερομηνιώνΣυντομία στην Γραφή(“Το λακωνίζειν εστί φιλοσοφείν”)Χρήση ΚατάλληλωνΠροσφωνήσεωνΑποφυγή Αργκώ, Επαγγελ-ματικών Όρων και ΧιούμορIn addition to learning the preferred style of your communication partners, you can help ensure successful messages by taking extra care with your writing. When sending written communication to businesspeople from another culture, familiarize yourself with their written communication preferences and adapt your approach, style, and tone to meet their expectations. To help you prepare effective written communications for multicultural audiences, follow these recommendations:Use simple, clear language.Be brief.Use transitional elements.Address international correspondence properly.Cite numbers and dates carefully.Avoid slang, idiomatic phrases, and business jargon.Avoid humor and other references to popular culture.
25 Καθαρή Ομιλία Μιλάτε Καθαρά Επαναλάβετε αν Χρειάζεται Αναζητάτε ΑντίδρασηΜην Είστε ΣυγκαταβατικοίΕπιβεβαιώνετε Όταν ΣυμφωνείτεWhether you're traveling to another country or teaming up with someone who is visiting or immigrating to your country, chances are good that sometime in your career you'll need to converse with people whose native language is different from yours. In addition to the advice provided in the preceding section on writing clearly, these guidelines will help you be more effective with intercultural conversations:Speak slowly and clearly.Don't rephrase until it's necessary.Look for—and ask for—feedback.Don’t talk down to the other person.Double check to clarify what has been said and decided.
26 Προσεκτική Ακρόαση Πρότυπα Ομιλίας Εκδήλωση Σεβασμού Αναζήτηση Ανάδρασης(Feedback)Languages vary considerably in the significance of tone, pitch, speed, and volume.With some practice, you can start to get a sense of vocal patterns. The key is simply to accept what you hear first, without jumping to conclusions about meaning or motivation. Let other people finish what they have to say. If you interrupt, you may miss something important. You’ll also show a lack of respect. If you do not understand a comment, ask the person to repeat it. Any momentary awkwardness you might feel in asking for extra help is less important than the risk of unsuccessful communication.ΤόνοςΑπόχρωσηΤαχύτηταΈνταση
27 Μεταφραστές ή Διερμηνείς ΑνθρώπινοιΛογισμικάΔιερμηνείαΜετάφρασηΠολιτισμικόΠεριεχόμενοΛέξεις και ΦράσειςYou may encounter business situations that require using an interpreter (for spoken communication) or a translator (for written communications). In addition, most customers expect to be addressed in their native language, particularly concerning advertising, warranties, repair/maintenance manuals, and product labels. These documents require the services of a translator.An experienced translator can analyze a message, understand its meaning in the cultural context, consider how to convey the meaning in another language, and then use verbal and nonverbal signals to encode or decode the message for someone from another culture.The time and cost required for professional translation has encouraged the development of machine translation, any form of computerized intelligence used to translate one language to another. Although none of these tools promises translation quality on a par with human translators, they can be quite useful with individual words and short phrases, and they can give you the overall gist of a messageΆτυπα ΣτοιχείαΟυσία Μηνύματος
28 Βοηθώντας Άλλους να Προσαρμοστούν Ομιλία καιΑκρόασηΓραφή καιΟμιλίαΣυνδιασκέψειςΣυζητήσειςΑυτοπροσώπωςΙστοσελίδες Εσω-τερικού ΔικτύουΕ-mail καιΆμεσα ΜηνύματαNow that you have a good appreciation for the complexity of getting your message across to someone in another culture, you can also appreciate the challenge faced by people from other cultures when they try to communicate with you.Remember that speaking and listening are usually much harder in a second language than writing and reading. Oral communication requires participants to process sound in addition to meaning, and it doesn’t provide any time to go back and reread or rewrite. So instead of asking a foreign colleague to provide information in a conference call, you could set up an intranet site where the person can file a written report. Similarly, using instant messaging and is often easier for colleagues with different native languages than participating in live conversations. An added plus with many of these technologies is overcoming the barrier of time zones. You can simply carry on a written conversation online, rather than participating in phone calls early in the morning or late at night.Whatever assistance you can provide will be greatly appreciated. Smart businesspeople recognize the value of intercultural communication skills. Moreover, chances are that while you’re helping others you'll learn something about other cultures, too.