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LAN 402 BEGINNING GREEK II Class VI: Adjectival Participles; Perfect Participle and Genitive Absolute.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "LAN 402 BEGINNING GREEK II Class VI: Adjectival Participles; Perfect Participle and Genitive Absolute."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 LAN 402 BEGINNING GREEK II Class VI: Adjectival Participles; Perfect Participle and Genitive Absolute

2 Adj. and Pf. Participles; Genitive Absolute 1.1 Adjectival Participle  English  Participles can do what adjectives do Modify nouns & used substantivally The man eating by the window is my Greek teacher The living have hope  Greek adjectival participle works in similar manner

3 Adj. and Pf. Participles; Genitive Absolute  Greek Adjectival Participle – basics  Attributive or substantive use [not predicate]  key words “while”, “after”, “because” not used  Review of Greek Adjective  See next slide (details on Class III or ch. 9 [p. 64ff.])

4 Adj. and Pf. Participles; Genitive Absolute Summary of Adjectives AdjectiveGk. constructionTranslations Attributive position ὁ ἀ γαθ ὸ ς λόγος OR ὁ λόγος ὁ ἀ γαθ ὸ ς The good word [Predicate position ὁ λόγος ἀ γαθός OR ἀ γαθ ὸ ς ὁ λόγος The word (is) good] Substantive position ἡ ἀ γαθή OR ὁ ἀ γαθός The good (woman) The good (man)

5 Adj. and Pf. Participles; Genitive Absolute Adjectival Participle in Greek  Attributive participle Modifies a noun/pronoun Agree w/ the word in case, number, gender Translate “-ing” or relative clause e.g. “one who is…” ὁ ἄ νθρωπος ὁ λέγων τ ῷ ὀ χλ ῷ ἐ στ ὶ ν ὁ διδάσκαλος μου. The man speaking to the crowd is my teacher  Substantival participle Functions as a noun Translate idiomatically – often w/ relative clause ὁ τ ῷ ὀ χλ ῷ λέγων ἐ στ ὶ ν ὁ διδάσκαλος μου The one who is speaking to the crowd is my teacher

6 Adj. and Pf. Participles; Genitive Absolute προσεύχεσθε ὑ π ὲ ρ τ ῶ ν διωκόντων ὑ μ ᾶ ς Pray for those persecuting you The case: determined by the function in the sentence Number/gender: what/who part. is representing Additional Considerations in Translation  Idiomatic translation Use common sense Use context as a guide If participle is singular use “one”, “he/she”, “that” If participle plural use “they”, “those”

7 Adj. and Pf. Participles; Genitive Absolute  Some examples: τ ῷ θέλοντι σοι κριθ ῆ ναι κα ὶ τ ὸ ν χιτ ῶ να σου λαβε ῖ ν, ἄ φες α ὐ τ ῷ κα ὶ τ ὸ ἱ μάτιον To the one wishing to sue you to take your tunic, let him have your cloak as well (Matt 5:40) μακάριοι ο ἱ πενθο ῦ ντες, ὅ τι α ὐ το ὶ παρακληθήσονται Blessed are they who mourn, for they will be comforted See more examples on p. 271 NOTE: the significance of aspect lessened in attributive participle and even more so in substantival participle

8 Adj. and Pf. Participles; Genitive Absolute Adjectival or Adverbial Participle? 1. What word is the participle modifying, if any? 2. Adverbial [anarthrous]Adjectival [articular] 3. Attributive Substantive 4. Modifying Modifying Functioning [while, after] [who, which] [the one who] 5. Aspect (present: continuous) (aorist: undefined) 6. Voice (active, middle, passive) 7. Meaning (definition of the word)

9 Adj. and Pf. Participles; Genitive Absolute 1.2 Advanced Info – Translating aspect and time  Relative time significance of attributive & adjective pt.  Attributive participle and relative clause: ὁ ἄ ντρωπος ὁ λέγων τ ῷ οχλ ῷ ἐ στ ὶ ν ὁ διδάσκαλός μου. The man who is speaking to the crowd is my teacher ὁ ἄ ντρωπος ὁ ε ἰ π ὼ ν τ ῷ οχλ ῷ ἐ στ ὶ ν ὁ διδάσκαλός μου. The man who spoke to the crowd is my teacher ὁ ἄ ντρωπος ὁ λέγων τ ῷ οχλ ῷ ἦ ν ὁ διδάσκαλός μου. The man who was speaking to the crowd was my teacher ὁ ἄ ντρωπος ὁ ε ἰ π ὼ ν τ ῷ οχλ ῷ ἦ ν ὁ διδάσκαλός μου. The man who had spoken to the crowd was my teacher

10 Adj. and Pf. Participles; Genitive Absolute  Practice:  Parsing and warn-up on p. 115  Homework:  See slide no:18

11 Adj. and Pf. Participles; Genitive Absolute 2.1 Perfect Participle  Greek – formed of pf. stem (act or mid./pass.) Completed action w/ present consequences  Translation – “after having…” + past pf. of the verb E.g. “after having eaten…” Retained reduplication when applicable Very few 2 nd perfect participle (see list on p. 284)

12 Adj. and Pf. Participles; Genitive Absolute  Formation & paradigm of perfect participle (act.) Reduplication+ pf. stem+ tense formative (κ )+ pt. morpheme ( οτ ) + case endings λε+ λυ+ κ+ οτ+ ες  λελυκότες Masc. (3)Fem (1)Neut. (3) Nom. Sg. λελυκώς λελυκυ ῖ α λελυκός Gen. sg. λελυκότοςλελυκυίαςλελυκότος Dat. Sg. λελυκότι λελυκυί ᾳ λελυκότι Acc. Sg. λελυκότα λελυκυ ῖ αν λελυκός Nom. Pl. λελυκότες λελυκυ ῖ αι λελυκότα Gen. pl. λελυκότων λελυκυι ῶ ν λελυκότων Dat. Pl. λελυκόσι(ν)λελυκυίαιςλελυκόσι(ν) Acc. Pl. λελυκόταςλελυκυίαςλελυκότα

13 Adj. and Pf. Participles; Genitive Absolute  Formation and paradigm of pf. participle (mid/pas) Reduplication+ pf. stem+ pt. morpheme ( μεν )+ case endings λε+ λυ+ μενο+ ι  λελυμένοι Masc. (3)Fem (1)Neut. (3) Nom. Sg. λελυμένοςλελυμένηλελυμένον Gen. sg. λελυμένουλελυμένηςλελυμένου Dat. Sg. λελυμέν ῳ λελυμέν ῃ λελυμέν ῳ Acc. Sg. λελυμένονλελυμένηνλελυμένον Nom. Pl. λελυμένοιλελυμέναιλελυμένα Gen. pl. λελυμένων Dat. Pl. λελυμένοιςλελυμέναιςλελυμένοις Acc. Pl. λελυμένουςλελυμέναςλελυμένα

14 Adj. and Pf. Participles; Genitive Absolute 2.2 Genitive Absolute  Grammatical construction that is “isolated” from the rest of the sentence [cf. English nom. absolute] Noun/pronoun and a participle in genitive are not grammatically connected to the rest of the sentence κα ὶ ε ὐ θ ὺ ς ἔ τι α ὐ το ῦ λαλο ῦ ντος παραγίνεται Ἰ ούδας And immediately, while he is still speaking, Judas comes ἐ γένετο δ ὲ το ῦ δαιμονίου ἐ ξελθόντος ἐ λάλησεν ὁ κωφός And it happened that, after the demon had gone out, the mute man spoke

15 Adj. and Pf. Participles; Genitive Absolute  Further considerations and tips of genitive absolute Participle is always anarthrous [no article] α ὐ το ῦ often functions as the “subject” of the sentence Translation is idiomatic  Starting points for translation “while” and “after” or finite verb τα ῦ τα α ὐ το ῦ λαλο ῦ ντος α ὐ το ῖ ς, ἰ δο ὺ ἄ ρχων ε ἷ ς ἔ λθ ὼ ν προσκύνει α ὐ τ ῷ. While he was saying these things to them, behold, a ruler came in and knelt before him το ῦ το δ ὲ α ὐ το ῦ ε ἰ πόντος ἐ γένετο στάσις τ ῶ ν Φαρισαίων κα ὶ Σαδδυκαίων And when he had said this, a dissension arose between the Pharisees and the Sadducees ἤ δη δ ὲ α ὐ το ῦ καταβαίνοντος ο ἱ δο ῦ λοι α ὐ το ῦ ὑ πήντησαν α ὐ τ ῷ As he was going down, his servants met him.

16 Adj. and Pf. Participles; Genitive Absolute 2.3 Periphrastic Construction ( ε ἰ μί + participle)  Greek does not use “helping” verbs (cf. English) normally in pl. 3 [sometimes sg.3], perfect middle/passive Translate it as regular formation of the tense Periphrastic tense construction [ ε ἰ σίν/ ἐ στίν ] Present Present of ε ἰ μί + present participle Imperfect Imperfect of ε ἰ μί +present participle Future Future of ε ἰ μί + present participle Perfect Present of ε ἰ μί +perfect participle Pluperfect Imperfect of ε ἰ μί +perfect participle Future perfect Future of ε ἰ μί +perfect participle

17 Adj. and Pf. Participles; Genitive Absolute 2.4 Some Alternate Translations  In addition to “while”, “because”, “after”…  Instrumental participle – “by” κοπι ῶ μεν ἐ ργαζόμενοι τα ῖ ς ἰ δίαις χερσίν We toil by working with our [own] hands  Consessive participle – “though” ὀ φθαλμο ὺ ς ἔ χοντες ο ὐ βλέπετε Even though you have eyes, you do not see.  Participle translated as regular finite verb ὁ δ ὲ ἀ ποκριθε ὶ ς ε ἶ πεν, γέγραπται ο ὐ κ ἐ π’ ἄ ρτ ῳ μόν ῳ ζήσεται ὁ ἄ νθρωπος But he answered and said, it is written, man will not live on break alone

18 Adj. and Pf. Participles; Genitive Absolute  Practice:  Parsing and warm-up on p. 119  Homework:  No: p. 117 no: 7, 9; p. 121, no: 9-10


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