Adjectives Definition: word used to modify a noun or pronoun. Often answers the question "What kind of ________ is it?" –The red truck sped by us. –What kind of truck? -- red –The good mechanic passed our car.
3 Types of Adjectives Usage Attributive: attributes a characteristic to the noun -- The good book Predicate: Assigns a characteristic to the subject of the sentence -- The book is good. Substantive: the adjective acts as a stand alone noun -- The good die young. These three usages are the tricky part of adjectives. Note the differences well.
Attributive Position (+ Art.) Attributive: the Adj. has the Article – ὁ ἀ γαθ ὸ ς λόγος -- the good word – ὁ λόγος ὁ ἀ γαθός -- the good word – ἐ γώ ε ἰ μ ὶ ὁ ποιμ ὴ ν ὁ καλός –I am the good shepherd (Jn. 10:11).
Predicate Position (No Art.) Predicate position the Adj. has no Article but the noun has a Art. – ἀ γαθ ὸ ς ὁ λόγος -- the word is good. – ὁ λόγος ἀ γαθ ὸ ς -- the word is good. –κα ὶ ὁ ἄ νθρωπος ο ὗ τος δίκαιος –and this man was righteous (Lk. 2:25).
Predicate or Attributive? Sometimes both the noun and the adjective do not have the article in which case context must determine whether it is predicate or attributive –κα ὶ ἀ ν ὴ ρ ἀ γαθ ὸ ς κα ὶ δίκαιος –and a good and righteous man (Lk 23:50)
Substantive Use -- No noun The substantive often has the Article but no accompanying noun –ο ἱ δ ἐ δίκοιοι ε ἰ ς ζω ὴ ν α ἰ ώνιον –and the righteous unto eternal life
The "is" verb PAI -- ε ἰ μί Singular Plural ε ἰ μί I am ἐ σμέν we are ε ἶ you are ἐ στέ you are ἐ στί(ν) he/she/it is ε ἰ σί(ν) they are This verb is very important. Chant these forms.
Example of ε ἰ μί ὅ τι θε ὸ ς ἀ ληθής ἐ στιν. that God is true (Jn 3:33)
Negation of the Indicative – ο ὐ ο ὐ -- before a consonant κα ὶ ο ὐ λαμβάνετέ με κα ὶ ο ὐ λαμβάνετέ με and you do not accept me and you do not accept me ο ὺ κ -- before a smooth breath vowel κα ὶ λέγει, Ο ὐ κ ε ἰ μί κα ὶ λέγει, Ο ὐ κ ε ἰ μί and he said "I am not“ and he said "I am not“ ο ὐ χ -- before a rough breathing vowel ο ὐ χ ὑ με ῖ ς λέγετε ὅ τι ο ὐ χ ὑ με ῖ ς λέγετε ὅ τι do you not say that do you not say that