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3 rd -4 th Lesson 3 rd -4 th Lesson By Christos N. Hadjichristidis.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "3 rd -4 th Lesson 3 rd -4 th Lesson By Christos N. Hadjichristidis."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 3 rd -4 th Lesson 3 rd -4 th Lesson By Christos N. Hadjichristidis

2 Today’s attractions:  ‘ΑΡΧΗ ΗΜΙΣΥ ΠΑΝΤΟΣ’ (The beginning is half the whole) Aristotle ~350BC  Review of tricky diphthong/double-consonants sounds  Simple grammar ( articles, nouns, pronouns, the verb to be, ….)  Saying what nationality you are and where you are from and whether you are on holidays or business (‘Nationalities’ activity)  Using the numbers 0 – 12 (‘International song competition’ activity)  Watch a short movie about Greece

3 Punctuation Greek mark English mark Full stop (τελεία) ‘. ’ Comma (κόμμα) ‘, ’ Raised point - semicolon (άνω τελεία) ‘ · ’ ‘ ; ’ Colon (διπλή άνω και κάτω τελεία) (διπλή άνω και κάτω τελεία) ‘ : ’ Question mark (ερωτηματικό) ‘ ; ’ ‘ ? ’ Exclamation mark (θαυμαστικό) ‘ ! ’ ‘ ! ’ Parentheses (παρενθέσεις) ‘ ( ) ’

4 Two letter vowels (diphthongs) Letter Upper & lower case Name of letter Greek Transliteration LetterSoundExamples as in : ΑΙ, αι άλφα – γιώτα álfa-yótae set ΕΙ, ει έψιλον-γιώταépsilon-yóta ι/e machine/ these ΟΙ, οι όμικρον-γιώταómikron-yótai/e machine/ these ΟΥ, ου όμικρον-ύψιλονómikron-ípsilonu/oo put/soon

5 Two letter vowels (diphthongs) Letter Upper & lower case Name of letter Greek Transliteration LetterSoundExamples as in : ΑΥ, αυ άλφα – ύψιλον álfa- ípsilon af, θ,κ,ξ after, π,σ,φ,χ,ψ ΑΥ, αυ άλφα – ύψιλον álfa- ípsilon avβ,γ,δ, avenue ζ,λ,μ,ν,ρ ΕΥ, ευ έψιλον-ύψιλονépsilon-ípsilonefθ,κ,ξ effort π,σ,φ,χ,ψ ΕΥ, ευ έψιλον-ύψιλονépsilon-ípsilonev β,γ,δ, ever ζ,λ,μ,ν,ρ

6 Let’s Practice – try to pronounce the following words Greek word MeaningTransliteration ευτυχίαhappiness ευεργέτης benefactor benefactor ευσυνείδητος conscientious - dutiful conscientious - dutiful μοίραfate γουρούνιpig κουμπαράς cash box υιοθετώadopt

7 Double-vowels are pronounced separately if:  A diaeresis diacritic (i.e.: “¨”) falls upon the second of the two adjacent vowels (i.e.: γαϊδάρου “donkey” [gen.]).  An accent falls upon the first of the two adjacent vowels (i.e.: γάιδαρος “donkey [nom]). However, if the accent falls upon the second of the two adjacent vowels then a diaeresis is needed in order for the vowels to be pronounced separately! (i.e.: καΐκι [wooden boat, ketch]).

8 Try to pronounce the following tricky words Greek word MeaningTransliteration χαϊδεύωcaress θεϊκόςdivine πλάιaside διυλιστήριο refinery refinery ευνοϊκός ευνοϊκός favourable favourable μυϊκός μυϊκός muscular muscular νεράιδαfairy

9 Two-letters consonants Letter Upper & lower case Name of letter Greek Transliteration LetterSoundExamples as in : γγΓάμα-γάμαgháma-gháma ng, England γκΓάμα-κάπαgháma-kápag/ng go/ England μπ μι – πι mi – pib/mpBoy/ amber amber ντνι-ταυni-táfd/nd day/ end

10 Two-letters consonants (double sounds) Letter Upper & lower case Name of letter Greek Transliteration LetterSoundExamples as in : γκγάμα-κάπαgháma-kápag/ng go/ England μπ μι – πι mi – pib/mpBoy/ amber amber ντνι-ταυni-táfd/nd day/ end

11 Let’s Practice – try to pronounce the following words Greek word MeaningTransliteration ΑγγλίαEngland γκολφgolf άγκυραanchor άγχοςstress μπράβοbravo λάμπαlamp ντομάταtomato

12 Two same-letter consonants (one letter sound) Letter Upper & lower case Name of letter Greek Transliteration LetterSoundExamples as in : βββήτα-βήταvíta-vítav vet κκ κάπα – κάπα kápa – kápak kept λλλάμδα-λάμδαlámtha-lámthal let μμμι-μιmi-mim met

13 Two same-letter consonants (one letter sound) Letter Upper & lower case Name of letter Greek Transliteration LetterSoundExamples as in : νν νι- νι ni-nin net ππ πι – πι pi -pi p pet ρρ ρο – ρο ro -ro r rent σσσίγμα-σίγμαsígma-sígmas set ττταυ-ταυtáf-táft tent

14 Let’s Practice – try to pronounce the following words Greek word MeaningTransliteration μοντέρνοmodern τζατζίκι yogurt- cucumber dip τσιγάροcigarette ΣάββατοSaturday εκκεντρικόςeccentric μέταλλοmetal πρόγραμμαprogram

15 Try to guess the meaning  You've learned the entire Greek alphabet, plus the double vowels and double consonants. At this point, you should be able to read any Greek word that you see. Try your hand at it. These words are called cognates, which means that they are words that sound like words you already know in English. Hint: some of them are names of cities and countries. Greek word Meaning? Ιταλία λεμόνι μέθοδος Αθήνα ελέφαντας

16 Try to guess the meaning Greek word Meaning? πιάνο περίοδος πρόβλημα τηλεσκόπιο Τόκιο σαλάτα τρένο εκκεντρικός

17 Nouns  In English as in Greek a noun is a word that names a person, thing or concept (e.g. άντρας [man], βασίλισσα [queen], ελπίδα (hope))  Every Greek noun belongs to one of the following gender classes: masculine, feminine or neutral. These do not correspond to the division between male, female and inanimate.

18 Some Examples Masculineάνθρωποςράφτηςκύκλος persontailorcircle Feminineμητέραελευθερίαστέγη motherfreedomroof Neutralμολύβιλεπτόκορίτσι pencilminutegirl

19 How on Earth we can guess the gender of a given Greek noun? Some tips:  All masculine nouns (nominative/singular) ends in “ς”  Almost all feminine nouns end in either “α or η”  Most neuter nouns end in “ο, ι, or μα”  Of course, there are exceptions, and there are those words ending in “ος”, which can be any gender.

20 Luckily for us, nouns don't exist in isolation. In Greek, as in English, you'll almost always find a noun in company with an article... But before diving into definite/indefinite article we must discuss number & case since in Greek articles are declined for gender, number and case (Oh dear!)  In Greek, number is always indicated in the inflection of noun phrases. Almost all nouns, pronouns and determiners have one set of case forms for the singular and another for the plural (exceptions: indeclinable nouns of foreign origin [i.e.: μπάρμαν, ελίτ, πάρτι] & all the letters of the names of the letters of the Greek alphabet)

21 Case English Grammar Terminology Greek Grammar Terminology Greek name Subject Nominative case Ονομαστική Possessive Genitive case Γενική Object Accusative case Αιτιατική AddressingVocativeΚλητική

22 Case continued..  Thus, for each of the two numbers each noun has a set of endings which indicates the syntactical function of the case in the clause  Ready for a big Surprise? We do this in English, too: It only happens with pronouns, and you probably never even notice it until someone points out how they change their form when their usage changes: She went to the store. The clerk greeted her and handed over a small package. The new camera was hers at last!

23 The forms of the definite article SingularPlural MFNMFN Nominativeοητοοιοιτα Accusativeτοντη(ν)*τοτουςτιςτα Genitiveτουτηςτουτωντωντων * Has a ν ending when the word immediately following begins with a vowel or with any of the following consonants/consonant combinations: κ, π, τ,γκ, μπ, ντ, ξ, ψ

24 The forms of the indefinite article Masculin e FeminineNeutral Nominativeέναςμιαένα Accusativeένα(ν)*μια(ν)*ένα Genitiveενόςμιαςενός The forms of the indefinite article are identical to those of the numeral one, except of the feminine (μια) which are pronounced as one syllable, while those of the numeral can be pronounced as two-syllable word (μία) *The final n is not obligatory and may be used before words beginning with a vowel or any of the consonants: κ, π, τ, ξ or ψ

25 Some examples Masculine in –ας (γείτονας – neighbor). Fill in the appropriate definite and indefinite article SingularPlural Nom. γείτονας γείτονες Acc./Voc. γείτονα γείτονες Gen γείτονα γειτόνων

26 Some examples Masculine in –ας. Try to decline the word (μάρτυρας – agent) SingularPlural Nom. Acc./Voc. Gen

27 Some examples Masculine in –ας. Try to decline the word (αγκώνας – elbow). Tip: Nouns stressed in the penultimate syllable have no shift of stress! SingularPlural Nom. Acc./Voc. Gen

28 Some examples Feminine in –α (ελπίδα – hope). Fill in the appropriate definite and indefinite article SingularPlural Nom. ελπίδα ελπίδες Acc./Voc. ελπίδα ελπίδες Gen ελπίδας ελπίδων

29 Some examples Feminine in –α. Try to decline the word (μητέρα – mother). SingularPlural Nom. Acc./Voc. Gen

30 Some examples Feminine in –α. Try to decline the word (κλίμακα – scale). SingularPlural Nom. Acc./Voc. Gen

31 Some examples Neutral in –o (θέατρο - theatre). Fill in the appropriate definite and indefinite article SingularPlural Nom./Acc./Voc. θέατρο θέατρα Gen θεάτρου θεάτρων

32 Some examples Neutral in –o. Decline the noun άλογο (horse) SingularPlural Nom./Acc./Voc. Gen

33 Greek numbers μηδέν meeTHen 1ένα ena 7επτά/εφτά epta /efta 2δύο dheeo 8οκτώ/οχτώ okto/ ohto 3τρία treea 9εννέα/εννία ennea/ ennia 4τέσσεραtessera10δέκαTHeka 5πέντε pende 11ένδεκαenTHeka 6έξι exee 12δώδεκα THoTHeka

34 The verb to be The verb “to be” is irregular, i.e. the pattern of the personal endings is not the same as for any other verb, so it needs to be memorized. The present tense form follows: Sg.1είμαι I am 2είσαι you are 3είναι (s)he/it is Pl.1είμαστε we are 2είστε You are 2είσαστε 3είναι they are

35 Countries & Nationalities CountryNationality EnglishGreekmasculinefeminine GreeceΕλλάδαΈλληναςΕλληνίδα CyprusΚύπροςΚύπριοςΚύπρια EnglandΑγγλίαΆγγλοςΑγγλίδα WalesΟυαλίαΟυαλόςΟυαλή IrelandΙρλανδίαΙρλανδόςΙρλανδέζα AmericaΑμερικήΑμερικανόςΑμερικανίδα AustraliaΑυστραλίαΑυστραλόςΑυστραλέζα ScotlandΣκωτίαΣκωτσέζοςΣκωτσέζα

36 “International Song Competition” Activity  Καλησπέρα σας (or an all purpose greeting). Είμαι από την Ελλάδα. Η βαθμολογία είναι:  Κύπρος – (make a wild guess!)- 12!  Αγγλία – 10  Ιρλανδία – 9  Σκωτία – 7  Αυστραλία – 5  Ουαλία – 4  Αμερική - 0

37 Dialogue practice


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