Today’s attractions: “Τα αγαθά κόποις κτώνται” (No pain – No gain) Quick review of tricky diphthongs double consonants sounds Basic grammar (notes on articles, nouns, pronouns, verbs: to be, have) Saying what nationality you are and where you are from and whether you are on holidays or business (‘Nationalities’ activity) Using the numbers 0 – 100 (‘International song competition’ activity – ‘dice’ activity) ‘Talking about your Family’ activity Watch a short movie about Greece
Differences between Greek- English Consistency between spelling & pronunciation of the Greek letters. Contrary to popular belief Greek is not a difficult language to speak, particularly at the beginners level. Unlike English, the same letter or combination of letters, is pronounced in exactly the same way wherever it occurs. Let’s prove it! Consistency between spelling & pronunciation of the Greek letters. Contrary to popular belief Greek is not a difficult language to speak, particularly at the beginners level. Unlike English, the same letter or combination of letters, is pronounced in exactly the same way wherever it occurs. Let’s prove it!
Two letter vowels (diphthongs) Letter Upper & lower case Name of letter Greek Transliteration LetterSoundExamples as in : ΑΙ, αι άλφα – γιώτα álfa-yótae set ΕΙ, ει έψιλον-γιώταépsilon-yóta ι/e machine/ these ΟΙ, οι όμικρον - γιώταómikron-Yótai/e machine/ these ΥΙ, υι ύψιλον-γιώταípsilon-yótai/e machine/ these ΟΥ, ου όμικρον-ύψιλονómikron-ípsilonu/oo put/soon
Two letter vowels (diphthongs) Letter Upper & lower case Name of letter Greek Transliteration LetterSoundExamples as in : ΑΥ, αυ άλφα – ύψιλον álfa- ípsilon af, θ,κ,ξ after, π,σ,φ,χ,ψ ΑΥ, αυ άλφα – ύψιλον álfa- ípsilon avβ,γ,δ, avenue ζ,λ,μ,ν,ρ ΕΥ, ευ έψιλον-ύψιλονépsilon-ípsilonefθ,κ,ξ effort π,σ,φ,χ,ψ ΕΥ, ευ έψιλον-ύψιλονépsilon-ípsilonev β,γ,δ, ever ζ,λ,μ,ν,ρ
Double-vowels are pronounced separately if: A diaeresis diacritic (i.e.: “¨”) falls upon the second of the two adjacent vowels (i.e.: γαϊδάρου “donkey” [gen.]). An accent falls upon the first of the two adjacent vowels (i.e.: γάιδαρος “donkey [nom]). However, if the accent falls upon the second of the two adjacent vowels then a diaeresis is needed in order for the vowels to be pronounced separately! (i.e.: καΐκι [wooden boat, ketch]).
Try to pronounce the following tricky words Greek word MeaningTransliteration χαϊδεύωcaress θεϊκόςdivine πλάιaside διυλιστήριο refinery refinery ευνοϊκός ευνοϊκός favorable favorable μυϊκός μυϊκός muscular muscular νεράιδαfairy
Try to pronounce the following tricky words Greek word MeaningTransliteration άυλος bodiless/ immaterial bodiless/ immaterial Αϊ- Γιάννης Saint John πλαϊνόςadjacent πραϋντικός lenitive lenitive Πομπηία ξεϋφαίνω ξεϋφαίνω unwind (a reel of thread) unwind (a reel of thread) κοροϊδεύω string along
Two-letters consonants (one sound) Letter Upper & lower case Name of letter Greek Transliteration LetterSoundExamples as in : γγΓάμα-γάμαgháma-gháma ng, England γχ γάμα – χι gháma – hinh inherent τσταυ-σίγμαtáf-sígmats sets τζταυ-ζήταtáf-zítadz adze
Two-letters consonants (double sounds) Letter Upper & lower case Name of letter Greek Transliteration LetterSoundExamples as in : γκ (γκρεμός Αγκάθι) Γάμα-κάπαgháma-kápag/ng go/ England Μπ (Μπαούλο Αμπέλι) μι – πι mi – pib/mpBoy/ amber amber ντ (ντύνω πέντε) νι-ταυni-táfd/nd day/ end
Try to guess the meaning You've learned the entire Greek alphabet, plus the double vowels and double consonants. At this point, you should be able to read any Greek word that you see. Try your hand at it. These words are called cognates, which means that they are words that sound like words you already know in English. Hint: some of them are names of cities and countries. Greek word Meaning? πρακτική μεθοδολογία Κάιρο αρχαιολογία τηλεπάθεια
Nouns In English as in Greek a noun is a word that names a person, thing or concept (e.g. άντρας [man], βασίλισσα [queen], ελπίδα (hope)) Every Greek noun belongs to one of the following gender classes: masculine, feminine or neutral. These do not correspond to the division between male, female and inanimate.
Some Examples Masculineάνθρωποςράφτηςκύκλος persontailorcircle Feminineμητέραελευθερίαστέγη motherfreedomroof Neutralμολύβιλεπτόκορίτσι pencilminutegirl
How on Earth we can guess the gender of a given Greek noun? Some tips: All masculine nouns (nominative/singular) ends in “ς” Almost all feminine nouns end in either “α or η” Most neuter nouns end in “ο, ι, or μα” Of course, there are exceptions, and there are those words ending in “ος”, which can be any gender.
Try to guess both the meaning & gender of the following nouns Greek word MeaningGender δημοκρατία θεραπεία φυσική ούζο ούζο ηλεκτρισμός τηλέφωνο μύθος
Luckily for us, nouns don't exist in isolation. In Greek, as in English, you'll almost always find a noun in company with an article... But before diving into definite/indefinite article we must discuss number & case since in Greek articles are declined for gender, number and case (Oh dear!) In Greek, number is always indicated in the inflection of noun phrases. Almost all nouns, pronouns and determiners have one set of case forms for the singular and another for the plural (exceptions: indeclinable nouns of foreign origin [i.e.: μπάρμαν, ελίτ, πάρτι] & all the letters of the names of the letters of the Greek alphabet)
Case English Grammar Terminology Greek Grammar Terminology Greek name Subject Nominative case Ονομαστική Possessive Genitive case Γενική Object Accusative case Αιτιατική AddressingVocativeΚλητική
Case continued.. Thus, for each of the two numbers each noun has a set of endings which indicates the syntactical function of the case in the clause Ready for a big Surprise? We do this in English, too: It only happens with pronouns, and you probably never even notice it until someone points out how they change their form when their usage changes: She went to the store. The clerk greeted her and handed over a small package. The new camera was hers at last!
Differences between Greek- English The normal order of a sentence in Greek is like that in English: subject, verb, object. There is no special tendency as in Latin to put the verb at the end. However, Greek can vary the word order for purposes of emphasis or euphony much more freely than in English. For example: Ο Χρήστος κυνηγάει τη Μαρία but also Tη Μαρία κυνηγάει ο Χρήστος. (Christos chases Mary). Ο Χρήστος κυνηγάει τη Μαρία but also Tη Μαρία κυνηγάει ο Χρήστος. (Christos chases Mary). Thus, when you translate from Greek you have to concentrate on the case of the noun (as illustrated by its inflectional ending) rather than its order within the sentence.
The forms of the definite article SingularPlural MFNMFN Nominativeοητοοιοιτα Accusativeτοντη(ν)*τοτουςτιςτα Genitiveτουτηςτουτωντωντων * Has a ν ending when the word immediately following begins with a vowel or with any of the following consonants/consonant combinations: κ, π, τ,γκ, μπ, ντ, ξ, ψ
The forms of the indefinite article MasculineFeminineNeutral Nominativeέναςμιαένα Accusativeένα(ν)*μια(ν)*ένα Genitiveενόςμιαςενός The forms of the indefinite article are identical to those of the numeral one, except of the feminine (μια) which are pronounced as one syllable, while those of the numeral can be pronounced as two-syllable word (μία) *The final n is not obligatory and may be used before words beginning with a vowel or any of the consonants: κ, π, τ, ξ or ψ or consonant combinations: γκ, μπ, ντ
Differences between Greek- English The definite article is used much more often in Greek than in English. The most important of its special uses are before nouns used in an abstract or general sense (e.g., η αγάπη = love). before proper names (e.g., ο Άγγελος = Angelos) or names of places, avenues, streets, squares and geographical divisions (e.g., η Αθήνα = Athens) as well as days of the week, months and every noun that is capitalized (e.g. ο Αύγουστος = August, η Δευτέρα = Monday) before titles or names of professions followed by a person's name (e.g., ο κύριος Δήμου = Mr. ΤΗίmou) Before nouns accompanied by a demonstrative (this, that) (αυτό το σπίτι = this house), (εκείνο το αγόρι = that boy) (αυτό το σπίτι = this house), (εκείνο το αγόρι = that boy) The indefinite article is the same as the numeral "one" in Greek, but translated as "a" in English.
Personal Pronouns Personal pronouns (I, you, he, they) are used to refer to the three grammatical persons and are also part of the English verbs since they define who is doing or receiving the action. Even though Greek has equivalent corresponding words they are normally left out and mostly used only for emphasis (i.e.: Εσύ, τι κάνεις εδώ; You [and nobody else!], what are you doing here;)
Emphatic Pronouns The emphatic pronouns inflect for number & case; in addition the third person inflect for gender too! The following personal pronouns are for the nominative case PersonSingularPlural FirstεγώIεμείςwe Secondεσύyouεσείςyou Third M αυτόςheαυτοίthey Fαυτήsheαυτές Nαυτόitαυτά
Differences between Greek- English While in English the personal pronoun is always used together with the verb in order to distinguish the person that it is referring to, in Greek this is not necessary. The ending of the verb itself differs from the first person to the second and so on, and this indicates whether the speaker is referring to himself or herself, or to another person or persons: Sg.1είμαι I am 2είσαι you are 3είναι (s)he/it is Pl.1είμαστε we are 2είστε you are 2είσαστε 3είναι they are
13δεκατρία30τριάντα 14δεκατέσσερα33 Τριάντα τρία 15δεκαπέντε40Σαράντα 16δεκαέξι44 Σαράντα τέσσερα 17Δεκαεπτά/δεκαεφτά50Πενήντα 18Δεκαοκτώ/δεκαοχτώ60Εξήντα 19Δεκαεννιά70Εβδομήντα 20είκοσι80Ογδόντα 21 Είκοσι ένα 90Ενενήντα 22 Είκοσι δύο 100Εκατό(ν) Greek Numbers 13-100
First-conjugation verbs Are those that, in their active present tense, have the stress on the last syllable of the stem (i.e.: γράφω “I write”, διαβάζω “I read”) Sg.1 έχω I have 2 έχεις you 3 έχει (s)he/it Pl.1 έχουμε we 2 έχετε you 3 έχουν they