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2.Modulation  it is subdivided 9)Rethinking of intervals and limits: changes that have to do with time and space. E.g I’ll see you in a fortnight= δεκαπενθήμερο.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "2.Modulation  it is subdivided 9)Rethinking of intervals and limits: changes that have to do with time and space. E.g I’ll see you in a fortnight= δεκαπενθήμερο."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 2.Modulation  it is subdivided 9)Rethinking of intervals and limits: changes that have to do with time and space. E.g I’ll see you in a fortnight= δεκαπενθήμερο ή δεκαπέντε ημέρες / No vacancies= πλήρες  there is a change in the point of view. 10)Change of symbol: e.g. I eat like ha horse= τρώω σα γουρούνι. The word «γουρούνι» is equivalent of idiom but with another image. /The pot is calling the kettle back= είπε ο γάιδαρος τον πετεινό κεφάλα. / You go in a snail’s pace/ It’s raining cats and dogs 11)Cases where we change the register e.g. eyedoctor  orphanologist/ It’s a bloody time= High register:επιτέλους, Low register:καιρός ήταν, High register:νυχτώσαμε, High register:μας γκάστρωσες/ I’ll drive you home= θα σε πάω με τ’ αμάξι Oblique Translation

2 3.Equivalence  with idioms as well as terms. When we have from the source to the target text  the use of completely different or structural for the production of “equivalent” texts. We need to have an equivalent effect (=ισοδύναμο αποτέλεσμα ) in the text. Equivalence is the most difficult method. e.g. Out of sight, out of mind= μάτια που δεν βλέπονται. Different idioms / A leopard doesn’t change its spots= ο λύκος κι αν εγέρασε…/ BUT: I work like a dog= δουλεύω σα σκυλί  it’s literal translation / A forgetful head makes a weary pair of heels= όποιος δεν έχει μυαλό έχει πόδια  equivalence / I have a company that needs labour= εργατικό δυναμικό: labour=equivalence as far as terms are concerned. 4.Adaption  (cultural substitution in Mona Baker) e.g. mince pies is translated as μελομακάρονα. This method goes for tradition, sport etc. It is also useful for titles in films e.g. “The reader”  «Σφραγισμένα χείλη» It is the method used in cases where the type of situation (concept) referred to is unknown in the TL. E.g. «Χρόνια πολλά», «Να σας ζήσει» Oblique Translation

3 Servitude VS Option • Servitude: obligatory changes • Option: options for the translator shows their ability of transferring messages from one language to another • Important steps in the translation process 1)Identify the units of translation 2)Examine the ST evaluating the descriptive, affective intellectual content of units 3)Reconstruct the meta-linguistic context of the message 4)Evaluate the stylistic effects 5)Produce and revise the T.T.

4 J. C. Catford: A linguistic theory of translation • Shift: a change which takes place when we move from one text to another • Catford was influenced by Halliday • Variety of levels (grammatical and lexical) and ranks • Catford talked about: – Formal correspondence  word for word translation. Any TL category which is said to occupy as nearly as possible the same place in the economy of the TL as the given SL category occupies in the SL e.g. apple= μήλο in all texts – Textual equivalence  free translation, sense for sense translation. It is equivalence between pairs of texts. Any text or portion of text which is observed on a particular occasion to be the equivalent of a SL text or portion of text. E.g. in a particular text I have the name “G.Brown” and I refer to him as a president in the specific text not in all texts.

5 Halliday: Level shifts and category shifs According to Halliday: • Category refers to elements of structure and class (part of speech: clauses, sentences, morphemes) • A. Level shifts VS B. Category shifts  – A. Level shifts:grammatical to lexical e.g. quit drinking= σταμάτα το ποτό/ There is nothing better than being honest= δεν υπάρχει τίποτα καλύτερο απ’ τη ειλικρίνεια. In order to express a continuous aspect we put a lexical item. e.g. Διδάσκω τώρα= I’m teaching (the aspect is clear in English) / Upon arival, he…=όταν έφτασε…(subordinate structure) Common level shifts are: gerunds and aspects

6 – B. Category shifts: 1)Structure Shifts  when we change the syntax in the target text e.g. I like jazz= Μου αρέσει η τζαζ 2)Class shifts  changes e.g. when an adjective becomes a noun, like transposition e.g. None can deny that he’s a prominent(adj) scientist= κανείς δε μπορεί να αρνηθεί την υπεροχή(noun) αυτού του επιστήμονα/ I’m seeing my dentist in the afternoon= έχω κανονίσει να δω τον οδοντίατρο…  level shift B U T: θα δω τον οδοντίατρο μου…  there is no shift at all. Overlap  when a gerund becomes a noun, it’s a level shift or a class shift. 3)Unit or rank  unit or rank shift overlaps with structure shift e.g. What do you do? I’m a female teacher= τι κάνεις; Είμαι δασκάλα  rank or unit shift. Shifts where the translation equivalent is at a diferent rank to that of the SL Rank refers to the linguistic units of sentence, clause, group and words (NP, VP, PP, AP, etc.) 4)Intra system shifts  e.g. “advice” is singular in English. They are shifts that take place when the SL and the TL posses almost identical-corresponding systems but where the translation involves a slight variation, a non-corresponding term within the system e.g. “Love is rare”= η αγάπη../ He has a broken leg= έσπασε το πόδι του  το “a” γίνεται “το”/ He has a headache= έχει πονοκέφαλο/ I saw her go (there is no “to go”)= την είδα ΝΑ φεύγει. Structure shift in active to passive and vice versa overlaps with intra-system shift. Halliday: Level shifts and category shifs


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