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Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές --- 1 Eθνικό Μετσόβιο Πολυτεχνείο Μεταπτυχιακό Τμήματος ΗΜ & ΜΥ (Άνοιξη - 2002) Δίκτυα Προστιθέμενης.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές --- 1 Eθνικό Μετσόβιο Πολυτεχνείο Μεταπτυχιακό Τμήματος ΗΜ & ΜΥ (Άνοιξη - 2002) Δίκτυα Προστιθέμενης."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Eθνικό Μετσόβιο Πολυτεχνείο Μεταπτυχιακό Τμήματος ΗΜ & ΜΥ (Άνοιξη ) Δίκτυα Προστιθέμενης Αξίας EDI και Εφαρμογές Ηλεκτρονικού Εμπορίου B2B και Electronic Marketplaces (Ηλεκτρονικές Αγορές)

2 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές BUSINESS MODELS -- Current State Most EC Business today are –An online version of traditional models –An extension of physical businesses that are able to reduce cost and improve customer satisfaction –follow a vertical and rigid supply chain

3 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές BUSINESS MODELS -- Emerging Virtual Companies and markets –a consortium of companies build on each others’ businesses to exploit opportunities Open buyer centric markets –comparison shopping Coalition and outsourcing –e.g. in REAL ESTATE: brokers, banks, escrow (εγγυητές), lawyers (for title inspection) Supply chain ---- SUPPLY WEB

4 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Supply-Chain Management

5 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές VIRTUAL STOREFRONT: sells goods, services on-line (Amazon, Virtual Vineyards, etc.) MARKETPLACE CONCENTRATOR: concentrates information from several providers InsureMarket, DealerNet, etc.) INFORMATION BROKER: provides product, pricing, availability information Auto-by-Tel, PartNet, etc) INTERNET BUSINESS MODELS

6 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές TRANSACTION BROKER: buyers view rates, terms from various sources (E*Trade, Ameritrade) ELECTRONIC CLEARINGHOUSE: auction-like setting, products, prices, change in response to demand (Bid.com, OnSale, etc.) REVERSE AUCTION: buyer sets price, submits to multiple sellers (Priceline.com) INTERNET BUSINESS MODELS

7 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές DIGITAL PRODUCT DELIVERY: sell, download software, other digital products (SonicNet, Build-a-Card, etc.) CONTENT PROVIDER: creates revenue through providing client for a fee, and advertising Tripod, Wall Street Journal, etc.) ON-LINE SERVICE PROVIDER: provides service, support for hardware, software products CyberMedia, Tune Up, etc.) INTERNET BUSINESS MODELS

8 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Company-Centric B2B

9 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Typical Classification Business-to-Business (B2B) Business-to-Public Body (e.g., Government) Business-to-Individual / Consumer (B2C) Individual-to-Public Body

10 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Concepts and Characteristics of B2B EC B2B EC defined –Transaction conducted electronically between business over the networks Internet Extranets Intranets Private networks (e.g., EDI) –Automated trading improves the process

11 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές ΣΥΓΚΡΙΤΙΚΑ ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΑ: Β-to-B vs. B-to-C

12 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Concepts and Characteristics of B2B EC (cont.) –Market size and content Expected to grow from $1.1 trillion in 2003 to $10 trillion by 2005 Percentage of Internet-based B2B from 2.1% in 2000 to 10% in 2005 –Private and public e-marketplace Private—one-to-many mode Public—many-to-many mode

13 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Concepts and Characteristics of B2B EC (cont.) –How is B2B conducted? Directly between buyer and seller Via an online intermediary Along the supply chain With or without intermediaries –Types of transactions Spot buying—determined by dynamic supply and demand Strategic sourcing—long term contracts

14 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές B2B Supply Chain

15 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Concepts and Characteristics of B2B EC (cont.) Supply chain relationships –Interrelated subprocesses and roles Acquisition of materials Processing products and services Moving to distributors Purchase by consumer –Traditional process managed through paper transactions –B2B applications offer competitive advantages for supply chain management (SCM)

16 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Concepts and Characteristics of B2B EC (cont.) Entities of B2B EC –Selling company—marketing management perspective –Buying company—procurement management perspective –Electronic intermediaries—optional third party directory service provider (scope of service may be extended to order fulfillment) –Trading platforms—pricing and negotiation protocol (auctions, reverse auctions)

17 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Concepts and Characteristics of B2B EC (cont.) Entities of B2B EC (cont.) –Payment services— mechanism for transferring money to sellers –Logistics providers— logistics to complete transaction (packaging, storage, delivery) –Network platforms— Internet, VAN, intranet, extranet –Protocols of communication— EDI or XML –Back-end integration— connecting to ERP systems, databases, functional applications

18 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Concepts and Characteristics of B2B EC (cont.) Product Customer Supplier Product process Transportation Inventory Supply chain Competitor Sales and marketing Supply chain process and performance Information processed in B2B

19 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Concepts and Characteristics of B2B EC (cont.) Electronic intermediaries in B2B –Consumers and business may share intermediaries –Businesses may use different intermediaries with different suppliers Benefits of B2B models –Eliminate paper-based systems –Expedite cycle time –Reduce errors –Increase employee productivity –Reduce costs –Increase customer service and partnership management

20 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές B2B Models Company-centric models –Sell-side marketplace (one-to-many) –Buy-side marketplace (many-to-one) Many-to-many marketplaces—the exchange –Buyers and sellers meet to trade Trading communities Trading exchanges Exchanges

21 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές B2B Models (cont.) Other B2B models and services –For the purpose of selling –For the purpose of buying –Value chain integrators –Value chain service providers –Information brokers Vertical vs. horizontal marketplaces –Vertical—one industry or industry section –Horizontal—service or product used in several types of industries

22 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές B2B Models (cont.) Virtual service industries in B2B –Travel and tourism services –Real estate –Electronic payments –Online stock trading –Online financing –Other online services

23 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Sell-Side Marketplace Architecture

24 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Sell-Side Marketplaces:One-to-Many Virtual sellers—Bigboxx.com.hk of Hong Kong –B2B office supply retailer services Large corporate clients Medium corporate clients Small offices –Goal—sell products in various SE Asian countries Offers more than 10,000 items Uses more than 300 suppliers

25 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Sell-Side Marketplaces: One-to-Many (cont.) Virtual sellers—Bigboxx.com.hk of Hong Kong (cont.) –Company portal attractive, easy to use Browse online catalogs Use search engines Payments –Cash or check upon delivery –Automatic payments –Credit card –Purchasing card

26 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Sell-Side Marketplaces: One-to-Many (cont.) Virtual sellers—Bigboxx.com.hk of Hong Kong (cont.) –Delivery Owns trucks and warehouses Delivery scheduled online –Same day (within an hour) –Specifically scheduled time Ordering system integrated with SAP-based back-office system

27 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Sell-Side Marketplaces: One-to-Many (cont.) Virtual sellers—Bigboxx.com.hk of Hong Kong (cont.) –Value-added services Track status of order Check stock availability Promotions Customized prices Group accounts and central approval—for businesses with multiple branches Standing orders automatically activated Large number of reports and data available

28 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Sell-Side Marketplaces: One-to-Many (cont.) Customer service –General Electric 20 million calls/year about appliances Reduced cost of each call from $5 to $0.20 –Milacron, Inc. Site contains 55,000 products –Easy to use –Securely handles selection, purchase, application Technical service—expanded to provide a higher level of service than previously available at the site

29 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Sell-Side Marketplaces: One-to-Many (cont.) Dell Intel IBM Cisco Direct sales from catalogs Configuration and customization Efficient customization for direct sales Business customers Customize products Receive price quote Submit order Successful cases

30 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Sell-Side Marketplaces: One-to-Many (cont.) Direct sales from catalogs –Benefits Reduces costs (to buyers and sellers) and errors during the process Speeds up order cycle Ability to customize products Offer different prices to different customers

31 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Sell-Side Marketplaces: One-to-Many (cont.) Direct sales from catalogs (cont.) –Limitations Channel conflicts with distribution systems High cost when traditional EDI used Large number of business partners is needed to justify system

32 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Selling Side: Auctions and Other Models Forward auctions—quick disposal of items –Revenue generation –Increased page views –Member acquisition and retention—bidding transactions result in additional registered members Selling from own site when: –Large companies that conduct auctions frequently don’t benefit from using intermediaries –E-marketplace already in use, cost of adding auction not too high

33 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Selling Side: Auctions and Other Models (cont.) Using intermediaries when: –No resources required –Own and control auction information –Fast time to market Searching and reporting –Search and report all auction activities –Standard reports available –Additional analysis of complex information

34 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Selling Side: Auctions and Other Models (cont.) Billing and collection –Automatic calculation of shipping weights and charges –Payment— encrypted credit card data –Billing information— easily downloaded into existing systems –Successful if: Sufficient number of loyal customers Products well known Price not major purchasing criteria

35 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Sell-Side Case: CISCO Connection Online (CCO) Benefits— saves the company $363 million per year in: –Technical support –Human resources –Software distribution –Marketing material

36 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Cisco Connection Online (CCO) (cont.) Customer service — Cisco Connection online Online ordering — Internet Product Center builds virtually all products to order Order status — customer tools for finding answers to order status inquiries

37 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Cisco Connection Online (CCO) (cont.) Benefits to Cisco –Reduced operating costs for order taking –Enhanced technical support and customer service –Reduced technical support staff cost –Reduced software distribution costs –Lead times reduced from 4-10 days to 2-3 days

38 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Cisco Connection Online (CCO) (cont.) Benefits to customers –Quick order configuration –Immediate cost determination –Collaboration with Cisco staff

39 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Sell-Side Intermediaries Marshall Industries —(a subsidiary of AvnetMarshall) multinational distributor of electronic components known for its innovative uses of IT and the Web –Products and services MarshallNet Marshall on the Internet (portal) Strategic European Internet Electronic Design Center PartnerNet NetSeminar Education and News Portal

40 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Sell-Side Intermediaries (cont.) Marshall Industries —a subsidiary or AvnetMarshall (cont.) –Survival strategy Continuous improvement programs and innovations Team-based organization, flat hierarchy, decentralized decision making Profit sharing compensation for salespeople

41 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Sell-Side Intermediaries (cont.) Marshall Industries —a subsidiary of AvnetMarshall (cont.) –Survival strategy CRM highly promoted Web-based services create value between suppliers and customers EC initiatives supported by: –Changing internal organization –Changing internal procedures

42 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Sell-Side Intermediaries (cont.) Boeing’s PART –Acts as an intermediary between the airlines and parts’ suppliers –Provides a single point of online access through which airlines and parts’ providers can access the data needed –Goal: provide its customers with one-stop shopping for online parts and maintenance information and ordering capability

43 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Boeing’s PART –Spare parts business using traditional EDI Mechanic tells purchasing department parts are needed, purchase is approved, purchase is made Large airlines connect to Boeing's VAN Boeing finds part and delivers –Debut of PART on the Internet Encourages customers to order parts electronically—cheap, easy, fast 50% of customers using Internet within first year Sell-Side Intermediaries (cont.)

44 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Boeing’s PART –Benefits of PART online Improved customer service Significant operating savings New sales opportunities Customer service online reduced –Phone calls (purchasing, order status etc.) –Data entry Sell-Side Intermediaries (cont.)

45 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Sell-Side Intermediaries (cont.) Boeing’s PART –Portable access to technical drawings/support Boeing On Line Data (BOLD) provides availability to: –Engineering drawings –Manuals –Catalogs –Other technical information Portable Maintenance Aid (PMA)—solves maintenance problems

46 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Sell-Side Intermediaries (cont.) Boeing’s PART –Benefits to Boeing’s customers Increased productivity—less time searching for information Reduced costs—delays at gate reduced because all information is available Increased revenues—faster service provides time savings

47 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Buy Side: One-from-Many, E-Procurement Purchasing agents (buyers) –Direct purchasing Use of material is scheduled Not a shelf item –Indirect purchasing MROs Nonproduction materials Inefficiencies in procurement management of indirect materials

48 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές A Traditional Purchasing Process Flow

49 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Buy Side: One-from-Many, E-Procurement (cont.) Innovative procurement management –Innovative purchasing as strategic approach to increase profit margins –Web facilitation includes: Electronic tendering Volume purchasing Aggregating supplier catalogs at buyer’s site Group purchasing Others

50 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Buy Side: One-from-Many, E-Procurement (cont.) Goals of procurement reengineering –Increase purchasing agent productivity –Lower purchasing prices of items –Improve information flow and management –Minimize maverick (unplanned) buying –Improve payment process –Streamline purchasing process to make it: Simple Fast

51 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Buy Side: One-from-Many, E-Procurement (cont.) Goals of procurement reengineering (cont.) –Reduce administrative processing cost per order –Find new suppliers and vendors to provide faster/cheaper goods and services –Integrate procurement process with budgetary control in an efficient and effective way –Minimize human errors in buying or shipping process

52 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Buy-Side B2BMarketplace Architecture

53 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Buy Side: One-from-Many, E-Procurement (cont.) Direct vs. indirect sourcing –Tools to automate purchasing goods Direct or mission critical –80% of manufacturer’s expenditure –Long-term relationship with vendor of known quality goods –Tight integration with suppliers along supply chain Indirect—use of public exchanges for indirect sourcing

54 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Buy Side: Reverse Auctions Pre-Internet Reverse auction process –Prepare description of product to be produced –Announce project via ads, mail, telephone –Send detailed information to interested vendors –Vendors prepare proposals –Bidders submit document proposals –Proposals evaluated –Problems: Laws Expensive Errors

55 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Buy Side: Reverse Auctions (cont.) Web-based reverse auction process –Buyers prepare bidding project information –Buyers post project on portal –Identify potential suppliers –Invite suppliers to bid –Suppliers download project information –Suppliers submit electronic bid –Reverse auction in real-time, or it can take a few days –Buyers evaluate and award contract

56 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Buy Side: Reverse Auctions (cont.) Web-based reverse auction process –Benefits: Electronic process is faster Administratively much less expensive Enables location of cheapest possible products

57 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Procurement Revolution at GE TPN at GE Lighting Division –Purchasing was inefficient—too many administrative transactions Process for each requisition took 7 days Complex and time-consuming Could only send out bids for 2 or 3 suppliers –Trading Process Network (TPN)—electronic bids Entire process takes 7 days (for suppliers to bid) 2 hours to send information to suppliers Evaluate and award bids same day

58 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Procurement Revolution at GE (cont.) Benefits to GE –Involvement in procurement process Labor declined 30% Material costs declined 5%-20%--wider base of suppliers online –Redeployment 60% of the staff Sourcing department concentrates on strategic activities instead of paperwork, etc.

59 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Procurement Revolution at GE (cont.) Benefits to GE –Time to identify suppliers, prepare a request for bid, negotiate a price, and award the contract Was days Now 9-11 days –Invoices automatically reconciled reflecting modifications –GE procurement departments share information about their best suppliers across the world

60 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Procurement Revolution at GE (cont.) Benefits to buyers –Worldwide supplier partnerships –Current business partners Strengthen relationships Streamline sourcing process –Rapid distribution of information –Transmit electronic drawings to multiple suppliers –Decrease sourcing cycle time –Quick receipt and comparison of pricing bids

61 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Procurement Revolution at GE (cont.) Benefits to suppliers –Increased sales volume –Expanded market reach, finding new buyers –Lowered administration costs for sales and marketing activities –Shortened requisition cycle time –Improved sales staff productivity –Streamlined bidding process

62 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Procurement Revolution at GE (cont.) Deployment strategies –Start EC in one division and slowly go to all divisions –Use the site as public bidding marketplace to generate commission income to GE

63 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Aggregating Catalogs Aggregating suppliers’ catalogs: an internal marketplace –Maverick buying to save time leads to high prices –Aggregating all approved suppliers’ catalogs in one place Reduced number of suppliers –Buyers at multiple corporate locations Fewer and remote suppliers Larger quantity/lower costs

64 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Group Purchasing Group purchasing—orders from several buyers are aggregated –Internal aggregation Economy of scale Reduced transaction processing cost –External aggregation Aggregating demand online Putting together orders from multiple buyers to make large volumes/lower costs

65 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Electronic Bartering Electronic bartering –Exchange of goods or services without the use of money –Exchange a surplus for other need –Bartering exchange Submit surplus to exchange for points Points used to buy what company needs –Benefits: Faster than manually Easier to match

66 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Collaborative Commerce (C-Commerce) Web-based systems used between and among suppliers for: –Communication –Design –Planning –Information sharing –Information discovery

67 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Collaborative Commerce (C-Commerce) (cont.) Webcore construction goes online with its partners

68 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Suppliers Extranet: Hudson Dayton Case

69 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Collaborative Commerce (C-Commerce) (cont.) Reduce design cycle time by connecting suppliers: Adaptec, Inc. –Microchip manufacturer supplying electronic equipment makers Outsources manufacturing tasks Delivery times exceeded their competitors –Solution to the problem Extranet and enterprise-level supply chain integrated software Significantly reduced order-to-product delivery time

70 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Collaborative Commerce (C-Commerce) (cont.) Suppliers Distributors Overseas Factories Customers Reduce product development time by connecting suppliers: Caterpillar, Inc. Heavy machinery manufacturer uses extranet Request for customized component directly to designers and suppliers ship to buyers Connect engineering and manufacturing division with worldwide

71 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Collaborative Commerce (C-Commerce) (cont.) Other examples of c-commerce –Tricon Restaurant International—global brand marketing management –RE/MAX—real estate franchiser improved communication and collaboration between independent owners –Marriott International—links corporations, franchising partners, suppliers, customers –Nygard of Canada—interorganizational collaboration

72 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές B2B Infrastructure Server to host database and applications Software for executing sell-side (catalogs) Software for conducting auctions and reverse auctions Software for e-procurement (buy-side)

73 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές B2B Infrastructure (cont.) Software for CRM Security hardware and software Software for building a storefront Telecommunications networks and protocols

74 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Extranet and EDI Secure interorganizational networks Traditional EDI limits accessibility of small companies Internet-based EDI offers wide accessibility to companies around the world

75 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Extranet

76 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Integration ERP software Customer, supplier, and other databases Legacy systems Catalog (product) information Inventory systems Sales statistics Decision support systems (DSS) and SCM applications

77 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Integration (cont.) Integration with existing information systems –Issues in integrating with back-end information systems: Intranet-based work flow Database management systems (DMBS) Application packages ERP Back-end sell-side integration works for sellers but not buyers and vice versa

78 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Integration (cont.) Integration with business partners –Easy integration with one company-centric side –Not easy to integrate for many buyers or sellers –Need buyer owned shopping cart that can interface with back-end information systems

79 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Intelligent Agent-Based Commerce B2B Agents

80 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Implementation Issues Justification and prioritization –Must conduct cost benefit analysis of proposed projects –Include organizational impacts Possible channel conflicts Dealing with resistance to change due to processes reengineering –Cost-benefit analysis related to: Finding B2B opportunities Prioritizing potential initiatives

81 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Implementation Issues (cont.) Vendor selection –Primary vendor uses its software and procedures, adds partners as needed –Integrator mixes and matches existing products and vendors to create “best of the breed” Affiliate programs –Referral program –Useful for B2B intermediaries

82 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Implementation Issues (cont.) Implementing e-procurement –Fit e-procurement into EC strategy –Review and change procurement process itself –If ERP or SCM is in place—integrate e-procurement, If not in place—BPR before implementation –Coordinate buyer’s information system with seller’s

83 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Managerial Issues B2B marketing—sell-side marketplaces require advertisement and incentives Which models to use and when—need for implementation strategies and prioritization Purchase process reengineering (BPR) –Establish buy-side marketplace on its server if volume is big enough to attract major vendors –Join third-party intermediary-oriented marketplace if volume is small

84 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Managerial Issues (cont.) Integration—trading in e-marketplaces is interrelated with logistics –Particularly true in many-to-many exchanges –Company-centric marketplaces must integrate: Logistics Other support services

85 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Managerial Issues (cont.) Business ethics –Accessing unauthorized areas in the tracing system should not be allowed –Privacy of partners should be protected technically and legally Auctions—both forward and reverse –Benefits are substantial –Implementation is relatively simple –Considerable flexibility in implementation

86 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Managerial Issues (cont.) E-procurement—critical success factors –Need to cut down number of routine tasks –Reduce overall procurement cycle using appropriate information technologies Workflow Groupware ERP software B2B models

87 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές E-Marketplaces and B2B Exchanges

88 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Opening Case: ChemConnect & Covisint ChemConnect uses a B2C business model where customers look for: –Lowest price –Fast shipment –Good return policy –Helpful customer service

89 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές ChemConnect & Covisint (cont.) ChemConnect—world chemical exchange –Provides free membership in trading marketplaces and information portals Public exchange floor for anonymous bids Commodities floor for buying and exchanging Corporate trading rooms—private online auctions –Up-to-the-minute market information –Large electronic catalog –Independent intermediary

90 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές ChemConnect & Covisint (cont.) Covisint—e-market of automotive industry –B2B integrated buy-side marketplace General Motors Ford DaimlerChrysler –Entire industry gains Lower costs Easier business practices Increased efficiency

91 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές ChemConnect & Covisint (cont.) Covisint (cont.) –“Co” stands for Connectivity Collaboration Communication –“Vis” stands for visibility provided by the Internet –“Int” stands for integrated solutions

92 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές ChemConnect & Covisint (cont.) Covisint (cont.) –Collaborative commerce Facilitate product design Enable procurement process Provide broad marketplace of buyers and suppliers –Vertical consortia trading exchange Few large buyers Many sellers (suppliers to the industry)

93 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Trading Communities

94 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές B2B E-Marketplaces and Exchanges (cont.) Dynamic pricing Ownership of exchanges Gains and risks of B2B exchange participation Governance Organization of exchanges

95 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Ελληνικά Marketplaces Yassas –Περισσότεροι από 350 προμηθευτές του χώρου έχουν ήδη συμφωνήσει με το Yassas.com. Ήδη έχουν καταχωρηθεί στη βάση δεδομένων του συστήματος περισσότερα από 10,000 προϊόντα ενώ μεταξύ των προμηθευτών που έχουν ήδη υπογράψει συμβόλαιο με το Yassas.com περιλαμβάνονται οι εταιρείες όπως Pepsico, SC Johnson, Vileda, Creta Farm, Λαζαρίδης, Lavazza, Misko-Barilla, Hepp, Υφαντής. –To Yassas.com υλοποιήθηκε πάνω στo που με τη σειρά του βασίζεται σε state-of-the-art, καθιερωμένες και δοκιμασμένες τεχνολογίες ηλεκτρονικού εμπορίου (XML, LDAP, COM, κλπ) και ακολουθεί την τυποποιημένη πλέον 3-tier Microsoft Windows DNA αρχιτεκτονική

96 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Ελληνικά Marketplaces – 2 - Be24 –Η Business Exchanges S.A έχει αναλάβει τη δημιουργία της τεχνολογικής και υποστηρικτικής υποδομής, καθώς και την προσέγγιση αγοραστών και πωλητών για τη δημιουργία μιας Οριζόντιας καθώς και εξειδικευμένων Κάθετων Ηλεκτρονικών Αγορών μέσα στον επιχειρηματικό της κόμβο, –Η Business Exchanges Α.Ε. είναι το αποτέλεσμα της συνεργασίας τριών κορυφαίων ελληνικών εταιρειών, της EFG Eurobank Ergasias, της Panafon-Vodafone και της Hellas On Line που ένωσαν τις δυνάμεις

97 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Ελληνικά Marketplaces – 3 - Cosmo-one –Η cosmoONE Hellas MarketSite A.E είναι η πρώτη εταιρία στην Ελλάδα που προωθεί εφαρμογές και υπηρεσίες ηλεκτρονικού εμπορίου, έχοντας ήδη δημιουργήσει μία Ηλεκτρονική Αγορά (Marketplace) αποκλειστικά για συναλλαγές μεταξύ επιχειρήσεων (Business to Business). –Στο μετοχικό κεφάλαιο της cosmoONE συμμετέχουν η COSMOTE (www.cosmote.gr), ο Οργανισμός Τηλεπικοινωνιών της Ελλάδος (www.ote.gr), η ΔΙΗΝΕΚΗΣ Πληροφορική (www.dienekis.gr) - που αντιπροσωπεύει το λογισμικό της Αμερικανικής εταιρείας Commerce One (www.commerceone.com) στην Ελλάδα, πάνω στο οποίο έχει αναπτυχθεί η Ηλεκτρονική Αγορά της cosmoONE - η Alpha Bank (www.alpha.gr) και η Εθνική Τράπεζα της Ελλάδος (www.nbg.gr).www.cosmote.grwww.ote.grwww.dienekis.grwww.commerceone.comwww.alpha.grwww.nbg.gr

98 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Ελληνικά Marketplaces – 4 - Onianet –Βελτίωση της αλυσίδας τροφοδοσίας λιανεμπορίου με χρήση προηγμένων τεχνολογιών πληροφορικής, αποθήκευσης και διανομής –Από τον Νοέμβριο 2001 θα συνδεθούν σταδιακά άλλες αλυσίδες, όπως επίσης και άλλοι προμηθευτές, δεδομένου ότι το ενδιαφέρον τους για συμμετοχή στην Ηλεκτρονική Αγορά της ΩΝΙΑ-ΝΕΤ έχουν ήδη εκφράσει οι εταιρίες: ΑΒ Βασιλόπουλος, Ένα, Τροφό, Ξυνός, Όμιλος αγορών ΕΛΕΤΑ, Agrino, BDF, Bingo, Chipita, Colgate-Palmolive, Georgia Pacific, Sara Lee, SC Johnson & Son, Schwarzkopf & Rilken, Wella, Αττική-Πίττας, Ελαϊς και Νίκας.

99 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Η λειτουργία του Παγκόσμιου Εμπορικού Δικτύου (από MICROSOFT) H Αγορά GTW (Global Trading Web)

100 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές H Αγορά GTW (Global Trading Web) Συμμετέχοντες: British Telecom, που έχει δημιουργήσει και λειτουργεί το BT Marketsite στην Αγγλία Singapore Telecom, που έχει δημιουργήσει και λειτουργεί το SESAMi.net στη Νοτιοανατολική Ασία Nippon Telephone and Telegraph, που έχει δημιουργήσει και λειτουργεί το NTΤ Marketsite στην Ιαπωνία Cable and Wireless Optus, που έχει δημιουργήσει και λειτουργεί το Optus Marketsite στην περιοχή της Αυστραλίας - Νέας Ζηλανδίας Banacci, που έχει δημιουργήσει και λειτουργεί το Banacci Marketsite στην Λατινική και Νότια Αμερική Tοronto Dominion Bank, που έχει δημιουργήσει και λειτουργεί το TD Marketsite στoν Καναδά EMediate Consortium, που έχει δημιουργήσει και λειτουργεί MarketSite στη Νότια Αφρική CosmoONE, Σύντομα…

101 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Information Portals Thomas register Alibaba.com –The database –The portal’s features –Reverse auctions –Services –Languages –Revenue model More on information portals

102 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές B2B Classified Ads

103 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Supplier Aggregation Model

104 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Buyer Aggregation Model Requests Responses

105 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Third-Party (Trading) Exchanges Suitability of third-party exchanges –Fragmented markets –Buyer-concentrated markets –Seller-concentrated markets

106 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Consortium Trading Exchanges (CTE) CTE is a subset of third-party exchanges, the 4 types are: –Vertical, purchasing-oriented –Horizontal, purchasing-oriented –Vertical, selling-oriented –Horizontal, selling-oriented

107 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Consortium Trading Exchanges (cont.) E-Procurement Consortia can be: –Vertical purchasing-oriented –Horizontal purchasing-oriented –Vertical selling-oriented Selling-oriented consortia Legal challenges for B2B consortia Signals that may prompt legal scrutiny

108 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Consortium Trading Exchanges (cont.) Critical success factors of consortia –Size of industry –Ability to drive user adoption –Elasticity—measure of incremental spending by buyers as a result of savings generated –Standardization of commodity-like products –Management of intensive information flow –Smoothing inefficiencies in supply chain

109 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Dynamic Trading: Auctions and Matching Auctions –Private trading rooms—members conduct auctions at the exchange –Auction services may be one of the activities –Exchange may be fully dedicated to auctions Matching –Market makers conduct matching supply and demand (e.g., stocks) –More complex than auctions because they match: Prices Quantities Times Locations

110 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Building and Integrating Marketplaces and Exchanges Step 1—Think ahead Step 2—Planning Step 3—System analysis and design Step 4—Building the exchange Step 5—Testing, installation, and operation Step 6—System evaluation and improvement

111 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Building and Integrating Marketplaces and Exchanges (cont.) Integration –Between 3 rd -party exchange and back-office systems of participants –Across multiple, incompatible exchanges External communications –Web/client access –Data exchange –Direct application integration –Share process

112 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Building and Integrating Marketplaces and Exchanges (cont.) Process and information coordination—how to coordinate external communications with internal information systems External process Internal process Data transformationException handling System and information management— involves management of: SoftwareHardware Information components

113 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Building and Integrating Marketplaces and Exchanges (cont.) Shopping carts—allow customers to shop at any participating vendor –Buyer maintains order information on its own site in order to integrate it with its internal e-procurement system –Sell-side cannot support this capability –B-cart approach: cart resides on buyer’s PC instead of seller’s site –Interoperable interface between heterogeneous e- marketplaces and e-procurement system

114 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές The B-Cart

115 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Managing Exchanges Revenue models –Transaction fees –Fee for service –Membership fees –Advertisement fees Networks of exchanges Centralized management Finding a CEO and independent management team

116 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Critical Success Factors Early liquidity –Liquidity refers to volume of business conducted –Business’s chance of survival is best when liquidity is achieved early Right owners –Partner with companies that can bring liquidity to the exchange –Best owner may be intermediary that can push both buyers and sellers

117 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Critical Success Factors (cont.) Right governance –Good management and fair /effective operations and rules are critical –Governance provides: The rules for the exchange Minimized conflicts Decision making support –Good management induces necessary liquidity

118 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Critical Success Factors (cont.) Openness –Exchanges must be open to all from: Organizational point of view Technical point of view –Open standards require: Commitment by all involved Universal agreement on the standards –Using the wrong standards can hurt the exchange

119 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Critical Success Factors (cont.) Full range of services –Participants are attracted by an exchange that helps cut costs –Exchanges team up with banks, logistic services and IT companies to help Importance of domain expertise –Market makers need an in-depth understanding of: The industry Business processes inherent in the industry Knowledge of industry structure Government and policy stipulations

120 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Critical Success Factors (cont.) Targeting inefficient industry processes –Contribute to increased costs and time delays –Vertical exchanges can add value Targeting right industries –Large base of transactions –Many fragmented buyers and sellers –Difficulties bringing together buyers and sellers –High vendor and product search/comparison costs –Strong pressure to cut expenses

121 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Critical Success Factors (cont.) Brand building is critical –Increase switching costs by adding features and functionality –Invest in: Gaining brand awareness Attracting businesses to exchange Customer retention

122 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Critical Success Factors (cont.) Exploiting economics of scope –Value-added services make exchange compelling Industry news Expert advice Detailed product specification sheets –Adjacent services Banks and financial information providers Identification supported by sophisticated digital certificate architecture

123 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Critical Success Factors (cont.) Garner diverse and multiple revenue streams –Software licensing –Advertising –Sponsorship Critical mass of users will garner more value- added services –Auction services –Financial services –Business reporting –Data mining services Choice of business/revenue models

124 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Critical Success Factors (cont.) Blending content, community, and commerce –Content and community perspective—stimulate traffic –EC transaction perspective—creates higher level of customer “stickiness” Managing channel conflict –Hostile phase as buyers interact directly with sellers (disintermediation of supply chain) –Short-term revenues impacted by backlash from existing fulfillment channels result in price erosion affecting medium-term profitability

125 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές B2B Networks and Extranet The Internet Intranets—intra-business delivery systems Extranets

126 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές An Extranet

127 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Implementation Issues Problems with exchanges –Problems with public exchanges Transaction fees Cost savings Recruiting suppliers Too many exchanges Supply chain improvements

128 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Implementation Issues (cont.) Problems with private exchanges –Lack of trust –Liquidity is questionable Software agents in B2B exchanges Disintermediation Evaluating exchanges

129 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Managerial Issues Plan most secure and economical choice for implementation Review current network and find out if it can be replaced by intranets or extranets Participate in which exchange? Determine in which exchange to participate

130 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Managerial Issues (cont.) Joining exchange may require a BPR of internal supply chain Channel conflicts may arise when a company joins an exchange Risks of joining an exchange must be carefully considered

131 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές B2B Support Services

132 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Hewlett Packard Closes the Payment Gap in B2B E-Commerce HP payment solution—seamless electronic B2B payment –Two components are preintegrated and provide end-to- end automation Embedded options that establish rules to facilitate direct debit payment options –Buyer accounts –Purchasing limits –Corporate discounting The system connects all these accounts with their online financial institutions

133 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Hewlett Packard Closes the Payment Gap in B2B E-Commerce (cont.) HP payment solution –The integrated system reduces cost of: Order processing Contract administration Customer service –Captures and analyzes information that allows company to offer unique purchasing experience Customers—best value online experience Partners—handle complex transactions quickly and securely Employees—reduce cost and time for processing

134 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Electronic Commerce Services and Analysis Insert Fig 8.1 here

135 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές EC Services: Overview & Services (cont.) –Why outsource B2B services? Desire to concentrate on core business Need to have services up and running quickly Lack of expertise for support services Economy of scale for project not possible from inside In-house options do not keep up with rapidly changing demands Too many services for one company to handle

136 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές –Steps in the process of developing and managing EC applications EC strategy formulation Application design Building (or buying) application Hosting, operating, and maintaining EC EC Services: Overview & Services (cont.)

137 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές EC Application Development Process

138 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Τhe Evolution of E-Marketplaces

139 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές E-strategy –Consultants help determine which specific EC applications to implement –First step in infrastructure development Technology –Consultants advise companies on technology issues EC architecture Security Consulting Services

140 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Consulting Services (cont.) Four types of consulting firms –Provide expertise in area of EC –Traditional firms that maintain divisions focused on EC –A large firm that consists of many small firms that specialize in EC –Hardware and software vendors that provide consulting services

141 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Application-Building Services and Required Standards Services that support B2B applications –Utilized by in-house design teams putting together system that incorporates best-of-breed EC components (building blocks) –Vendors and system integrators may do the job –EC components can be: Special-purpose niche tools (tax-calculation) Broad packages that facilitate all aspects of successful transactions online

142 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Application-Building Services and Required Standards (cont.) Industry standards—XML, XSL, and support organizations –Efficient interaction between B2B companies necessitates connection of: Servers Applications Databases –Standard protocols and data representation schemes are needed

143 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Application-Building Services and Required Standards (cont.) Industry standards –XML—improve compatibility between disparate system by defining meaning of data in business documents –XSL– and XML require international agreements and cooperation –Support organizations UN body for facilitation of EC W3C—XML and other EC standards RosettaNet—supply chain topics

144 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές WEB HOSTING SERVICES: provides large servers for Web sites of fee-paying customer ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS: using Web for electronic funds transfers, credit, smart & debit cards ELECTRONIC COMMERCE SUPPORT SYSTEMS

145 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές ICAT: on-line catalog shopping, order placement (Icat) NET.COMMERCE: merchant server supporting Secure Electronic Transactions protocol (IBM) MerchantXpert:: search tools, order management, tax, payment, logistics modules (Netscape) Microsoft - Commerce Server 2000 Electronic Commerce Servers

146 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές OPEN MARKET TRANSACT: customer authentication, order & payment processing, tax, multi-language customer service (Open Market) INTERNET COMMERCE SERVER: integrates orders, inventory, customer service, payments (Oracle) Electronic Commerce Services

147 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Web Hosting and Other Services Business hosting—hosting is popular for SMEs; large businesses need more advanced services –Dedicated server—assigned for specific purpose or customer –Co-location (physical location for the server) –Free Web hosting attractive option for small start-ups Provider company inserts a banner ad on their site Starting point for small company—minimize start-up costs

148 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Web Hosting and Other Services (cont.) Sources of information about Web hosting –Web Host Review (hostreview.com): how to select free Web hosting based on various criteria –Host Search (hostsearch.com): search engine recommends best host based on: Monthly cost Disk space requirements Monthly transfer volume Other –WebHosting Magazine (whmag.com):comprehensive information for members of Web hosting industry and those looking for outsources

149 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Web Hosting and Other Services (cont.) Management service provider (MSP) –Deliver IT infrastructure management services –Multiple customers over networks on a subscription basis –Specialize in e-business and enterprise solutions –See imspassociation.org and crosscommerce.com

150 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Web Hosting and Other Services (cont.) End-to-end solutions –Builds Web sites and EC applications from conceptual design to deployment –Also supply: Payment systems Delivery management Site monitoring Other services See bccentral.com and WebVision.com

151 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Participants and Process of Using a Purchasing Card

152 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Financial B2B Services (cont.) Payments (cont.) –Electronic letters of credit Benefits to seller –Credit risk reduced –Payment highly assured –Political/country risk reduced Benefits to the buyer –Allows negotiation of lower purchase price –Expansion of supply sources –Payment received after document inspected by issuing bank

153 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Financial B2B Services (cont.) Payments (cont.) –Payments in B2B global trading –Venture capital to fund e-commerce initiatives –Internet incubators –Tax calculation services DPC HotSamba Sales tax clearinghouse Taxware international –Implementing tax collection in the U.S.

154 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Financial B2B Services (cont.) Payments (cont.) –Other financial services Credit reporting firms New credit intermediaries broker credit risks Assurance firms guarantee quality Exchanges strike insurance deals E-credit services

155 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Transaction-Based Financing

156 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Order Fulfillment, Logistics, and Supply Chain Services Supply chain management –Reengineering & managing complex supply chains Supplier Manufacturer Distributor Customer Transportation services –Manages complex Transportation networks Dedicated fleets Carriers Multimodel shipments UPS Logistics Group

157 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Order Fulfillment, Logistics, and Supply Chain Services (cont.) Parts distribution –Comprehensive return-and-repair –Parts distributions operations Logistics technologies –Integration of logistics information systems –Services to provide supply chain visibility EC solutions –Logistics services –Web-based businesses worldwide Global services –Logistics facilities –Staffing –Expertise about global commerce

158 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Order Fulfillment, Logistics, and Supply Chain Services (cont.) Call center services –Customer care –Communications (call center services to EC capabilities) Financial services—full range of financial services that complement: –Logistics –Transporting –Additional business needs Solutions for EC initiatives –Tracking systems –Product return systems –Shipping solutions –E-document exchange –Customization EC software/providers E-services/partners

159 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Marketing and Advertisement Advertising methods used by offline marketers –Vertical trade show –Ads in industry magazines –Salespeople call on: Existing customers Potential buyers Digital advertisers –Ad server network provider –Electronic wholesalers

160 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές The Architecture of Ad Server Networks

161 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Affiliate Programs Affiliate programs (B2C services) –Affiliates invited to put a banner of a vendor on their sites –Consumer clicks on the banner and brings up that company’s EC site –Commission paid to affiliate if customer makes a purchase 161

162 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Infomediaries Infomediary services –Collect data about consumer behavior –Analyze it –Repackage it –Sell the results As marketing and profiling information Purpose to increase customer loyalty –Identify likely buyers Increased sales Reduced marketing costs

163 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Online Data Mining Services Clickstream data—data collected by monitoring what people do online Analyzed and mined to produce useful knowledge used to improve: –Services –Marketing efforts Firms use these services to extend their ability to execute EC a successful strategy –NetTracker –WebTrends

164 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Other Marketing Services Three examples of other services: –Digitalcement.com provides corporate marketing portals; builds stronger relationships with customers –Vantagenet.com free tools that help ease traffic to a company’s Web site –Businesstown.com has an online directory that enables small businesses to identify and evaluate service companies

165 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Digital Delivery Content Life Cycle

166 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Content Generation, Syndication, Delivery, and Management (cont.) Syndication Content-delivery networks (CDNs) Catalog content Content management options –Do it yourself –Let the suppliers do it –Buy the content from an aggregator –Subscribe to a vertical exchange –Outsource to full-service Internet exchange

167 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Content Generation, Syndication, Delivery, and Management (cont.) Content maximization and streaming services— companies provide media rich content to reach target audience –Video clips –Music –Flash media Use content delivery solutions that do not cause “traffic jams” with slow download times (e.g., Akamai Corporation)

168 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Directory Services & Search Engines Directory services –B2Business.net –B2BToday.com –Communityb2b.com –A2zofb2b.com –I-stores.co.uk –Websteronline.com –Thomasregister.com –Bocal.com –B2b.yahoo.com Search engines and news aggregators –Moreover.com –Google.com –Ientry.com Newsletters

169 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές E-Communities E-communities –Chat rooms –Bulletin boards –Personalized Web pages B2B are basically communities of transactions –Classified ads –Job vacancies –Announcements –Industry news E-communities connect: –Personnel –Partners –Customers –Any combination of these three Service providers –Design of exchange portals –E-community service

170 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Partner Relationship Management (PRM) In B2B environment the partners include: –Suppliers –Partners in joint ventures –Service providers PRM—relies on: –Trust –Commitment –Quality of services –Continuity Strategy for e-service How much to invest in services What services to provide

171 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Other B2B Services Trust services Trust Trademark and domain names Digital photos Global business communities Client matching E-business rating sites Promotion programs Encryption sites Web research services Coupon-generating sites

172 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Integration Integration in e-marketplaces and exchanges –B2X hubs connect: All Internet business services Merchant services Exchange infrastructure Buying and selling Member enterprises Other B2X exchanges

173 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Hypermediation Hypermediators are: –Content providers –Affiliate sites –Search engines –Portals –ISPs –Software makers –Other entities

174 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Managerial Issues Which services and to what level? Complex decision situation for managers; use: –Check out the competition –Vendors can provide useful direction –Read white papers etc. –Hire a reputable EC consultant Selecting service providers— –Public ratings and rankings of service providers –Talk to others in the industry –Examine growth rate of provider’s business –Try vendor with small projects first

175 Ε.Μ.Π.Ι. Βασιλείου --- Electronic Commerce Αγορές Managerial Issues (cont.) E-infrastructure—large part of outsourcing funds go to e-infrastructure Join ventures—look for potential partnerships with service providers End-to-end outsourcing vs. best-of-breed –Complete end-to-end service –Different vendors for best-of-breed approach


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