Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "Temnos Die Study ANS 2012. What is it? Die study of posthumous Alexander tetradrachms minted by Temnos in Aeolia. Effort to determine quantity, chronology,"— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:
What is it? Die study of posthumous Alexander tetradrachms minted by Temnos in Aeolia. Effort to determine quantity, chronology, and the differences and intersections among civic coinage, international coinage, and a closed currency system. The interaction of borderland areas and other “marginal” areas to the center and other powerful areas of the Attalid kingdom (Pergamon and the important commercial city of Ephesus). Why the circulation patterns that are shown in the hoards? What does this tell us about the commercial needs of the Attalid state and Temnos?
Why Temnos? The issue of Alexanders is interesting given the “closed” cistophoric currency system of the Attalid kingdom. Is Temnos an “international” trading center? Temnos has a unique position in Attalid history Isopolity with Pergamon before the Attalid kingdom (OGIS 265) Recovered after capture by Achaeus (Polybius 5.77) After 188 BC it seems certain that Temnos was under the power of the Attalids with the blessing of Rome Treaty of Apamea (Polybius 21.48)
OGIS 265 – Early 3 rd century (?) - almost certainly before the formation of the Attalid Kingdom [ ἔ γνω βο]υλ ὴ κα ὶ δ ῆ μος· γν ώ μη στρατηγ ῶ ν· | [ ἐ πε ὶ ὁ ] δ ῆ μος ὁ Τημνιτ ῶ ν ο ἰ κε ί ως διακε̣[ ί ]- | [μενος] τυγχ ά νει τ ῶ ι δ ή μωι τ ῶ ι Περγαμην̣[ ῶ ν], | [ ἀ γαθ] ῆ ̣ι τ ύ χηι δεδ ό χθαι τ ῆ ι βουλ ῆ ι κα ὶ τ ῶ ι δ ή - | [μωι]· ἀ ποστε ῖ λαι πρεσβευτ ὰ ς δ ύ ο, ο ἵ τινες παρα- | [γε]ν̣ ό μενοι ἐ μφανιο ῦ σι τ ή ν τε ε ὔ νοιαν ἣ ̣ν ἔ χων | [δι]ατελε ῖ πρ ὸ ς α ὐ το ὺ ς ὁ δ ῆ μος ὁ Περγαμην ῶ ν | [κα] ὶ διαλεγ ή σονται ὅ πως ψηφισθ ῆ ι τα ῖ ς π ό λεσιν | [ ἀ μ]φοτ έ ραις ἰ σοπολιτε ί α. ἐὰ ν δ ὲ φα ί ν[η]ται | [Τη]μν ί ταις ἐ πιτ ή δειον ε ἶ ναι συνθε ῖ ναι περ ὶ τ[ο] ύ ̣- | [του], τ̣ο ὺ ς ἀ φεσταλμ έ νους α ὐ τοκρ ά τορας [ε ἶ ναι]. | [α ἱ ρε]θ έ ντες Ἀ πολλων ί δης Ἀ πελλ έ ος, Η[ ․․․․․․ ] | [ Ἑ ρ]μ ί ππου. ἀ γ ά θαι τ ύ χαι· ἔ δοξε Ταμν̣[ ί ταισι] | [κ]α̣ ὶ Περγ̣α̣μ ή νοισι ἐ π ὶ πρυτ ά νιος τ ῶ μ[ετ ὰ Ἡ ρα]- | [κ]λη ΐ δαν τ ὸ ν Δ ί τα μ ῆ ννος Ἠ ρ ά ω, ἐ ν [Περγ ά μ ῳ ] | ἐ π ὶ πρυτ[ ά ]νιος Ἀ ριστοκρ ά τεος τ ῶ Ἰ ερα[ ․․․․․․․ ] | μ ῆ νος Ἠ ρ̣ ά ̣ω· ἔ μμεναι Ταμν ί τ̣[αισι ἐ ν Περ]- | γ ά μ ῳ πολι[τ]ε ί αν κα ὶ Περγαμ ή ν[οισι ἐ ν Τ ά μν ῳ ] | μετεχ ό ντ[ε]σσι ὦ ν ο ἰ ἄ λλο[ι π ό λιται μετ έ χοι]- | σι κα ὶ γ ᾶ ς κα ὶ ο ἰ κ̣[ ί α]ς ἔ γκτησιν ἔ μ̣[μεναι τ ῷ Ταμν ί ]- | τ ᾳ ἐ μ Περγ ά μ ῳ κ̣α ὶ τ ῷ Περγα̣[μ ή ν ῳ ἐ ν Τ ά μν ῳ. Ψ ᾶ φον] | [δ] ὲ φ έ ρην τ ὸ ν Τα̣μν ί ταν [ ἐ μ Περγ ά μ ῳ καθ ά περ ὁ Περ]- | γ̣ ά μηνος φ έ ρει κα[ ὶ ] τ̣ ὸ ν Π[εργ ά μηνον ἐ ν Τ ά μν ῳ καθ ά περ] | [ ὁ ] Ταμν ί τας φ έ ρει̣ [— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —] | [σ]τε ί χην ἢ ἐ π ὶ συ [— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —] | [— — —]Σ ΤΑ Ι[— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — ] |... [τ έ λη] | [δ] ὲ φ έ ρειν τ ὸ ν Ταμν ί ταν [ ἐ μ Περγ ά μ ῳ ὄ σα κα ὶ ὀ Περ]- | [γ] ά μηνος φ έ ρει, κα[ ὶ τ] ὸ ν Π[εργ ά μηνον ἐ ν Τ ά μν ῳ ὄ σα κα ὶ ] [ ὀ ] Ταμν ί τας φ έ ρε[ι. — — —] Boule and demos [decided); proposal of the strategoi: [whereas the) demos of the Temnitans is in fact affectionately disposed towards the demos of the Pergamenes, with good fortune, be it resolved by the boule and the demos, to dispatch two envoys who, arriving (in Temnos), shall declare the goodwill towards them, and who shall address them to the effect that both cities decree isopolity; and, if this seems suitable to the Temnitans, for those dispatched to conclude (an agreement) about this as fully-empowered (representatives). Chosen were Apollonides, son of Apelles, and H[... ] son of Hermippos. With good fortune, resolved by the Temnitans and Pergamenes, (at Temnos) the prytanis being the one after [Herak]leides, son of Ditas, in the month Heraion, in [Pergamon] the prytanis being Aristokrates, son of Hiera[... ), in the month Heraion: for Temnitans to have citizenship in Pergamon and for Pergamenes (to have citizenship) (in Temnos], sharing in what the other [citizens share in], and for [the Temnitan] in Pergamon and the Pergamene in Temnos to have the right of owning land and house; and for the Temnitan to pay [taxes in Pergamon, as much as the] Pergamene pays, and for the Pergamene (to pay taxes) [in Temnos, as much as the] Temnitan pays - -.] (trans. Bagnall)
Polybius 5.77 - 218 B.C. κατ ὰ δ ὲ τ ὸ ν καιρόν, καθ ᾽ ὃ ν Ἀ χαι ὸ ς ἐ ποιε ῖ το τ ὴ ν ἐ π ὶ το ὺ ς Σελγε ῖ ς στρατείαν, Ἄ τταλος ἔ χων το ὺ ς Α ἰ γοσάγας Γαλάτας ἐ πεπορεύετο τ ὰ ς κατ ὰ τ ὴ ν Α ἰ ολίδα πόλεις κα ὶ τ ὰ ς συνεχε ῖ ς ταύταις, ὅ σαι πρότερον Ἀ χαι ῷ προσεκεχωρήκεισαν δι ὰ τ ὸ ν φόβον: ὧ ν α ἱ μ ὲ ν πλείους ἐ θελοντ ὴ ν α ὐ τ ῷ προσέθεντο κα ὶ μετ ὰ χάριτος, ὀ λίγαι δέ τινες τ ῆ ς βίας προσεδεήθησαν. ἦ σαν δ ᾽ α ἱ τότε μεταθέμεναι πρ ὸ ς α ὐ τ ὸ ν πρ ῶ τον μ ὲ ν Κύμη κα ὶ Σμύρνα κα ὶ Φώκαια: μετ ὰ δ ὲ ταύτας Α ἰ γαιε ῖ ς κα ὶ Τημν ῖ ται προσεχώρησαν, καταπλαγέντες τ ὴ ν ἔ φοδον: ἧ κον δ ὲ κα ὶ παρ ὰ Τηίων κα ὶ Κολοφωνίων πρέσβεις ἐ γχειρίζοντες σφ ᾶ ς α ὐ το ὺ ς κα ὶ τ ὰ ς πόλεις. But while Achaeus was engaged on his expedition against Selge, Attalus with the Aegosagae from Gaul was going through all the cities in Aeolis, and the neighbourhood, which had before this been terrified into joining Achaeus; but most of which now voluntarily and even gratefully gave in their adherence to him, though there were some few which waited to be forced. Now the cities which transferred their allegiance to him in the first instance were Cyme, Smyrna, and Phocaea; after them Aegae and Temnus submitted, in terror at his approach; and thereupon he was waited upon by ambassadors from Teos and Colophon with offers to surrender themselves and their cities. (trans. Evelyn S. Shuckburgh)
Polybius 21.48 - Settlement of 188 ὅ τι κατ ὰ τ ὴ ν Ἀ πάμειαν ο ἵ τε δέκα κα ὶ Γνάιος ὁ στρατηγ ὸ ς τ ῶ ν Ῥ ωμαίων, διακούσαντες πάντων τ ῶ ν ἀ πηντηκότων, το ῖ ς μ ὲ ν περ ὶ χώρας ἢ χρημάτων ἤ τινος ἑ τέρου διαφερομένοις πόλεις ἀ πέδωκαν ὁ μολογουμένας ἀ μφοτέροις, ἐ ν α ἷ ς διακριθήσονται περ ὶ τ ῶ ν ἀ μφισβητουμένων: τ ὴ ν δ ὲ περ ὶ τ ῶ ν ὅ λων ἐ ποιήσαντο διάληψιν τοιαύτην. ὅ σαι μ ὲ ν τ ῶ ν α ὐ τονόμων πόλεων πρότερον ὑ πετέλουν Ἀ ντιόχ ῳ φόρον, τότε δ ὲ διεφύλαξαν τ ὴ ν πρ ὸ ς Ῥ ωμαίους πίστιν, ταύτας μ ὲ ν ἀ πέλυσαν τ ῶ ν φόρων: ὅ σαι δ ᾽ Ἀ ττάλ ῳ σύνταξιν ἐ τέλουν, ταύταις ἐ πέταξαν τ ὸ ν α ὐ τ ὸ ν Ε ὐ μένει διδόναι φόρον. ε ἰ δέ τινες ἀ ποστ ᾶ σαι τ ῆ ς Ῥ ωμαίων φιλίας Ἀ ντιόχ ῳ συνεπολέμουν, ταύτας ἐ κέλευσαν Ε ὐ μένει διδόναι το ὺ ς Ἀ ντιόχ ῳ διατεταγμένους φόρους. At Apameia the Proconsul and the ten commissioners, after listening to all who appealed to them, assigned in the case of disputed claims to territory, money, or anything else, certain cities in which the parties might have their claims settled by arbitration. The general scheme which they drew out was as follows: Those of the autonomous cities which, having formerly paid tribute to Antiochus, had remained faithful to Rome, they relieved from tribute altogether. Those that had been tributary to Attalus they ordered to pay the same tribute to his successor Eumenes. Such as had abandoned the Roman friendship and joined Antiochus in the war, they ordered to pay Eumenes the amount of tribute imposed on them by Antiochus. (trans. Evelyn S. Shuckburgh)
Numismatic Evidence Hoards Location Numbers Chronology Pretty decent representation of Temnos Auctions Sometimes hoard (or likely hoard) information Most of the time no context Collections Some information in the ANS concerning the coins
Where is the Project? (continued) All of the auction catalogs (but not the fixed price lists) have been scanned. 1622 obverse & reverse images separated So far 193 images of Price 1690 type have been sorted (there are an unknown number of duplicates yet to be identified): 26 coins of Obverse #1 67 coins of Obverse #2 79 coins of Obverse #3 21 coins of Obverse #4
What Needs to be Finished Catalog and sort all current coin scans. Obtain coin images from museums and other collections. Return for the fixed price lists. Find all the dies. Perform the die calculations. Write the results and relate it to the history of Temnos in the Attalid kingdom.
Future Similarities between some of the dies and dies from other cities (notable Myrina) Die links, the same die cutter, or a similar style? Possibly a die study on surrounding cities in Aeolis A larger study on Attalid currency and control in the region?