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ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕ ΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Translating Constructivism into Instructional Design: Potential and Limitations Yiasemina Karagiorgi.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕ ΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Translating Constructivism into Instructional Design: Potential and Limitations Yiasemina Karagiorgi."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕ ΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Translating Constructivism into Instructional Design: Potential and Limitations Yiasemina Karagiorgi Loizos Symeou

2 ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕ ΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Constructivism: Challenges for Designers Designers must understand the strengths and weaknesses of each learning theory The implications of constructivism for instructional design are revolutionary Instructional designers are thus challenged to translate the philosophy of constructivism into actual practice.

3 ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕ ΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Constructivism – “Viability” of Knowledge Knowledge is being actively constructed by the individual ‘truth’ and ‘certainty’ are replaced by the term ‘viability’ Novice Higher Viability Lower Viability

4 ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕ ΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Radical vs. Social constructivist Radical constructivists every reality is unique to the individual Social (Non-radical or moderate) constructivists shared reality grows out of social constraints placed on the constructive process of the individual

5 ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕ ΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Implications of the constructivist paradigm for the design process Analysis – Design – Evaluation

6 ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕ ΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Analysis Traditional approach: the instructional designer analyses the conditions Constructivists: …are in favor of environments in which knowledge, skills, and complexity exist naturally They search for authentic tasks The goal, for instance, is not to teach a particular version of history, but to teach someone how to think like a historian

7 ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕ ΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Analysis Challenge (1) Allow for complexity in the learning environment

8 ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕ ΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Design (1/6) Traditional instruction: the design of a sequence to achieve specified performance objectives Constructivists:...point to the creation of instructional environments that are... Student-centered & Student-directed Collaborative Supported with teacher scaffolding and authentic tasks …and based on ideas of Active Learning Authentic Learning Multiple Perspectives

9 ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕ ΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Design : Active Learning (2/6) Constructivists recommend that designers provide problems which may be solved in different ways and leave students struggle with problems of their own choice Technology, should confront the learner......with a ‘phenomenarium’ an artificially limited arena where phenomena to investigate occur or with a ‘construction kit’ a set of modular parts with which to make things

10 ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕ ΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Design : Active Learning (3/6) Several cognitive tools can establish a partnership with the learner on the basis of Vygotsky’s theory of the ‘zone of proximal development’ Tools provide strategies that experts use to solve problems Tools can also provide scaffolding, relevant to the learner’s ability level Scaffolding is the process of guiding the learner from what is presently known to what is to be known.

11 ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕ ΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Design : Authentic Learning (4/6) Authentic learning occurs when instruction is designed to facilitate, simulate and recreate real-life complexities and occurrences The complexity of authentic contexts must be maintained Thus, constructive designers must situate cognition in real- world contexts. Situated cognition suggests that knowledge and the conditions (context) of its use are inextricably linked “cognitive authenticity” articulation of ideas, experimentation and engagement in complex environments

12 ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕ ΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Design : Multiple Perspectives (5/6) Presentation of multiple and alternative views to learners. the need for ‘cognitive flexibility’ stress conceptual interrelatedness provide multiple representations of the content emphasize case-based instruction that provides multiple themes.

13 ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕ ΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Design : Collaborative Learning (6/6) Collaborative learning does not just entail sharing a workload It allows learners to develop, compare, and understand multiple perspectives on an issue The goal is the rigorous process of developing and evaluating the arguments Learners should be able to explain and justify their thinking and “openly negotiate their interpretations of and solutions to instructional tasks”

14 ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕ ΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Design Challenge (2) Design to promote: Active Learning Authentic Learning Multiple Perspectives Engagement in Collaborative Learning

15 ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕ ΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Evaluation (1/2) Evaluation in the constructivist perspective examines the thinking process. The students’ ability to explain and defend decisions is an important element of evaluation and is related to the development of metacognitive skills. Even though the learner is free to build a personal interpretation of the world, this interpretation has to be coherent with the general ‘Zeitgeist’

16 ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕ ΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Evaluation (2/2) Multiple evaluators are needed in order to triangulate the learners’ theories In general, evaluation assesses knowledge construction in real-world contexts that are as rich as those used during the instruction Can be assessed via an examination of portfolios and other idiosyncratic accomplishments

17 ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕ ΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Evaluation Challenge (3) Multiple evaluators Evaluate metacognitive skills also in real-world rich contexts Use portfolios and other appropriate tools (e.g. rubrics)

18 ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕ ΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Towards pragmatic constructivism

19 ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕ ΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Challenges… cont’d Learning is a personal interpretation of the world Learning objectives are not possible and all understanding is negotiated if each individual is responsible for knowledge construction, then designers can not determine and ensure a common set of outcomes for learning standards to assess the meaningfulness of the learning. ……………………………………………………………… Most of the problematic issues stem from the fact that constructivism is an underlying philosophy and not a strategy

20 ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕ ΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Moderate Constructivism (1/2) Draw links between constructivist theory and instructional design practices. Moderate approaches can be more easily incorporated into instructional designers’ repertoire Therefore, the needed next step is for designers to consider principles of constructivism that are aligned with non-radical views.

21 ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕ ΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Moderate Constructivism (2/2) teaching authentic tasks in context is desirable, but there is also a need to teach abstractions that are decontextualized; that learning should be active, but not always collaborative, since sometimes individual learning is more effective; Some learning problems require highly prescriptive solutions, whereas others are more suited to learner control of the environment.

22 ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕ ΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Pragmatic Constructivism & Technology Tools Jonassen’s model for designing constructivist learning environments An example of how tools can promote further development of pragmatic constructivism A generic context in which students can be aided in interpreting and solving various kinds of problems in groups as well as alone

23 ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕ ΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Synopsis Two important points to enable the transition from theory to practice (1) The pragmatic constructivism could be built on moderate theoretical assumptions that are more compatible with instructional design practices (2) The emergence of rich constructivist environments can be facilitated by the emergence of powerful technology tools

24 ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕ ΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Constructive Designers: What do we need? (a) Models for the contents and tools of Constructive Learning Environments Johnassen model for CLEs (b) Technology-based learning tools 1) ‘Phenomenaria’  Simulations, Microworlds, Modellers 2) ‘Construction kits’  Robotics, Tangibles (b) Concrete Didactic Models …for translating the theoretical perspectives into practical activities Case-based learning, Project-based learning, Problem-based learning (c) Models for analyzing learning as a socially emerging activity within a complex social context Activity theory (d) Methods and tools for structuring and guiding the Collaborative learning activity Scripted Collaboration


Κατέβασμα ppt "ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕ ΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Translating Constructivism into Instructional Design: Potential and Limitations Yiasemina Karagiorgi."

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