Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "What Do You Mean by “Collaborative Learning” ?"— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:
1 What Do You Mean by “Collaborative Learning” ? Pierre DillenbourgUniversity of Geneva, SwitzerlandDillenbourg P. (1999) What do you mean by collaborative learning?. In P. Dillenbourg (Ed) Collaborative-learning: Cognitive and Computational Approaches. (pp.1-19). Oxford: Elsevier
2 Collaborative learning A broad definition but unsatisfactory: a situation in which two or more people learn or attempt to learn something together"two or more“ ?a pair, a small group (3-5), a class, a community a society.. ?"learn something""follow a course", "study course material", "perform learning activities such as problem solving“… ?"together“face-to-face or computer mediated, synchronous or not, frequent in time or not …?
3 A definition of collaboration “Collaboration is a coordinated, synchronous activity that is the result of a continued attempt to construct and maintain a shared conception of a problem"Roschelle's & Teasley's (1995, p. 70)Roschelle, J. & Teasley S.D. (1995) The construction of shared knowledge in collaborative problem solving. In C.E. O'Malley (Ed), Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning. (pp ). Berlin: Springer-Verlag
4 Three dimensions of exploration the Scale of the collaborative situationType of ‘Learning‘ activityType of ‘Collaboration'ScaleLearningCollaboration
6 Time scale & Sample sizes Studies with different scales : from 2 to 30 subjects, from 20 minutes to one yearMost empirical research on the effectiveness of collaborative learning was concerned with a small scale:…of two to five subjects collaborating for one hour or so
7 Generalizability ?Different scales reduces generalizability of studiesResearchers need different theoretical tools in order to grasp phenomena on various scalesGeneralizability is been affected by divergent underlying theoriesPsychology small groups analysisSocial psychology theories broader groupsTheories from sociology, ethnology or anthropology larger scales
8 The notion of scale has been the “Berlin Wall” ……but it fell in late ’80s"... research paradigms built on supposedly clear distinctions between what is social and what is cognitive will have an inherent weakness, because the causality of social and cognitive processes is, at the very least, circular and is perhaps even more complex"(Perret-Clermont, Perret & Bell, 1991,p. 50).This evolution is illustrated by the emergence of distributed cognition theories (Salomon, 1993) in which the group is viewed as a cognitive system.
9 Theoretical constructs across different scales… The notion of group memory as compared to the notion of individual memorygroup memory “working” memory + interaction memory…the notion of culture is applied to describe the common grounds built by peers in interaction…distributed cognition theories in which the group is viewed as a cognitive system…or - reciprocally - view the individual as a distributed systemThe idea that thinking can be viewed as a dialogue with oneself is not a new idea
11 Various meanings of “learning” …any collaborative activity within an educational contextsuch as studying course material or sharing course assignments.joint problem solvinglearning is expected to occur as a side-effect of problem solving…measured by the elicitation of new knowledge or by the improvement of problem solving performancelearning from collaborative workthe lifelong acquisition of expertise within a professional community
12 is it a pedagogical method or a psychological process? Collaborative learning is not one single mechanismCognitive systems learn because they perform some activities (reading, building, predicting, ...) which trigger some learning mechanisms (induction, deduction, compilation,...)Collaborative learning is not a method…because of the low predictability of specific types of interactionsBasically, collaborative learning takes the form of instructions to subjects - a kind of social contract
13 The essential concern of collaborative learning as a didactical method the words 'collaborative learning' describe a situation in which particular forms of interaction among people are expected to occur which would trigger learning mechanisms,…… but there is no guarantee that the expected interactions will actually occur……hence, a general concern is to develop ways to increase the probability that some types of interaction occur
16 “Collaborative” concerns four aspects of learning setting (1) A Situation… can be characterized as more or less collaborativee.g. peer collaboration vs. boss-employee or teacher-student(2) The Interactions…between the group members can be more or less collaborativee.g. negotiation vs. giving instructions(3) Some learning Mechanisms (processes)…are more intrinsically collaborativee.g. grounding vs. induction(4) The Effects of collaborative learningDivergent views on how to measure the effects of collaboration
17 (1) Criteria for characterizing situations as "collaborative" Symmetry in the interactionSymmetry of action, knowledge, status, etc.Shared/common goals & understandingThrough the negotiation of goals, agents develop shared goals AND become mutually aware of their shared goals & understandingDivision of labour among group membersCooperation vs. Collaboration
19 (2) Criteria for characterizing interactions as "collaborative" Degree of Interactivitya collaborative situation should be quite interactiveThe extent to which these interactions influence the peers' cognitive processesDegree of Synchronicity'doing something together' implies synchronous communication…the feeling of reasoning synchronously increases the process of mutual modelingDegree of Negotiabilitycollaborative interactions are negotiableone partner will not impose his view on the sole basis of his authority, but will - to some extent - argue for his standpoint
20 Space of Misunderstanding and the notion of “Optimal collaborative effort” … a collaborative learning situation should not eliminate (if possible) the probability of misunderstanding…but instead leave the space for misunderstandingWhy?Sustain the subjects' efforts to overcome miscommunication
21 (3a) Learning mechanisms (processes) characterized as "collaborative" studied first in inter-individual plane and extended to intra-individual, social planeInductionpairs draw more abstract representations of the problem at hand, because their joint drawing had to integrate what was common to the representations built by each individual.Cognitive loadIn collaboration, the horizontal division of labour reduces the amount of processing performed by each individualthe interaction with other group members increases the cognitive loadSchnotz (1997) observed that while individuals perform better with animated pictures than with static pictures, pairs perform better with static pictures / Why?
22 (3b) Learning processes specific to social interactions Internalisationthe "transfer" of tools from the social plane (interaction with others) to the inner plane (reasoning), since this process implies social interaction.Appropriationan agent reinterprets his own action or utterance under the light of what his “expert” partner does or saysSimilar to ‘grounding’, i.e. when a concept becomes part of the common grounds of the partners throughMutual modellingBuilding a model of the partnerUsually developed only up to the point where it needs to be developed to succeed in performing the task at hand
23 Effects of collaborative learning – methodological issues effects of what ?Researchers need to zoom in the collaborative interactions in order to gain better understanding of the underlying mechanisms.The effects of collaborative learning are often assessed by individual task performance measuresIt has been objected that a more valid assessment would be to measure group performance (?)
24 Overview – Collaborative Learning Various scalesTheoretical concepts are imported across different scalesVarious meanings of 'learning'Collaborative learning is not one single mechanism - not a methodDevelop ways to increase the probability that some types of peer interaction occurVarious meanings of 'collaboration‘Situation / Interactions / Learning mechanisms / Effects of collaborative learning