A Model of Information Design (Carliner, S. 2004) προερχόμενα από θεωρίες για τηλε-εκπαίδευση υλικό επίπεδο (Physical Level): βοηθάει τους χρήστες να εντοπίζουν πληροφορίες (Helping Users Find Information) γνωστικό επίπεδο (Cognitive Level): βοηθάει τους χρήστες να κατανοούν πληροφορίες (Helping Users Understand Information) ελκυστικό επίπεδο (Affective Level): δίνει κίνητρο στους χρήστες να συμμετέχουν (Motivating Users to Perform)
Μεγάλο μέρος της σχεδίαση πληροφορίας συγκεντρώνονται στο υλικό επίπεδο For some it is simple … The “magical” formula for designing successful web pages is: content + writing style + layout = information design (από διαφήμιση για τηλε-εκπαίδευση www.uie.com )www.uie.com
Έτσι το μοντέλο αυτό είναι σε αντίθεση με την υπάρχουσα πρακτική «practice of design as ‘appearance improving’ (βελτίωση της εμφάνισης) has replaced the concept of design as ‘problem-solving’ (επίλυση προβλημάτων)» Οδηγεί σε «συνταγές» όπως –χρώματα και γραμματοσειρές –διάταξη των στοιχείων στην σελίδα /οθόνη Αλλά δεν είναι σωστό, δεν υπάρχουν «έτοιμες λύσεις» και δεν υπάρχουν «λύσεις κατάλληλες για κάθε περίπτωση» και που είναι ο χρήστης;
Υπερφόρτωση πληροφοριών: (information overload) Because users are exposed to more messages in the media than they can respond to, information designers must also consider information overload. Some solutions involve physical design, such as communicating through visuals rather than words. Some solutions involve cognitive design, such as creatively structuring information and removing less essential information
Η ανάγκη για μοντέλα “Design is a problem-solving discipline” It considers –the appearance of the designed product, –the underlying structure of the solution –its anticipated reception by users. So a design theory (μοντέλο) must provide more than a series of guidelines about discrete characteristics of the solution, it must focus designers on identifying the problem by –Providing a framework for identifying and considering the inter-related issues that must be addressed in a solution, –guiding designers to develop their instincts about choosing "right" solutions.
Η Διαδικασία (Τhe process…) Preparing communication products so that they achieve objectives established for them. 1. Analysing communication problems (ανάλυση) 2. Establishing objectives that can be later evaluated (στόχοι) 3. Developing a blueprint for a communication effort to address those objectives (σχέδιο / λεπτομερές (προ)σχέδιο) 4. Developing the components of the planned communication effort solution (ανάπτυξη) 5. Evaluating the ultimate effectiveness of the effort (αξιολόγηση)
υλικό επίπεδο (Physical Level) 1/2 Page and screen design, which refers to placing information on a page or screen so readers can easily locate it. Elements of page and screen design include : –Layout, or placement of information –White space –Headings, which readers can scan to find information –Type, which can help or hinder the search and reading process –Graphics, which can call readers’ attention to information Retrievability aids, help readers locate information in a document. –tables of contents, –indexes, –running headers and footers, –site maps, –links,
υλικό επίπεδο (Physical Level) 2/2: Media selection, choosing the appropriate means of physically delivering the information to users, such as –in print, –online, –through video or audio tape, –or a live connection. Production, the process of preparing a communication product for duplication and distribution to its intended readers. Elements of production include: –Packaging –Marketing Basic writing and editing, which refers to the skill of preparing text that conforms to a generally acceptable style, such as –composing instructions in the active voice and second person, –preparing scientific articles according to the ‘guidelines for authors’ of the intended publication.
γνωστικό επίπεδο (Cognitive Level):1/5 Once readers find information, can they understand it and make use of it? Analyzing needs, to assess the following: The need underlying the request for a communication product The tasks that readers are expected to successfully complete as a result of using the communication product The motivations, needs, and experience of the key groups of anticipated readers –Constraints affecting the ability to successfully produce the communication product, such as a completion date, budget, expectations of quality, idiosyncrasies in the corporate culture of the requesting or producing agency, and personalities/abilities involved in the project
γνωστικό επίπεδο (Cognitive Level):2/5 Setting goals for the project: –Establishing observable and measurable use and content objectives. Use objectives : state how the communication product directly or indirectly contributes to revenues, contains expenses, or assists in meeting corporate, industry, or government objectives. Content objectives describe, in observable and measurable terms, the main and supporting tasks that readers should be able to perform after using the communication product –Planning a comprehensive evaluation to ensure that the communication product meets its objectives. planning an evaluation first helps designers visualise the end result, and helps them design for success. A comprehensive evaluation employs several types of assessments, –assessments of reader satisfaction (such as a Reader’s Comment Form), –usability, and business performance
γνωστικό επίπεδο (Cognitive Level):3/5 Choosing the form of the communication product: –The genre of communication product, such as a user’s guide, help, tutorial, job aid. –Each given genre has a group of characteristics associated with it and to be fully considered as an example of a certain genre, a communication product must contain those characteristics. Readers bring a set of expectations to a communication product based on its form. –The communications medium (media) for delivering the product to users, (also considered as part of physical access).
γνωστικό επίπεδο (Cognitive Level):4/5 Preparing the design of the communication product: –The structure of the document, as represented in an outline or a flow chart. The structure also includes the front and back matter of the document. –A sample section of the document, to make tangible the otherwise intangible plans for a document. –Detailed storyboards or thumbnails detailing-- screen-by-screen or page-by-page--which material is covered, how it will be presented (graphically, through video or audio, or in text) and special production and programming needed to realize the plans. –Specifications of designs for recurring types of pages or screens, such as pages with procedures or introductions to new sections. Specifications would cover such issues as layout, margins, type, and recurring graphical images.
γνωστικό επίπεδο (Cognitive Level):5/5 Setting the project guidelines: Product guidelines, –editorial guidelines (style guide, dictionary, and exceptions) –production specifications (such packaging for online products and printing specifications), –technical specifications for authoring (such as the configuration of the authoring stations) Project guidelines, –the schedule, –budget, –staff. NOTE : Waiting until after the communication product is thoroughly designed before providing a projected schedule and budget ensures more accurate and complete budgeting.
Και οι χρήστες.. Δεν μιλήσαμε ακόμα για γνωστικά μοντέλα... Υπάρχει πολύ γνώση εκεί όσον αφορά –το πως ο άνθρωπος επεξεργάζεται τις πληροφορίες – τις ικανότητες του εγκέφαλου (αισθήσεις, μνήμη) κτλ. Πρέπει να τα εφαρμόσουμε εδώ; Παραδείγματα;
ελκυστικό επίπεδο (Affective Level): 1/3 if users … can find the information they need υλικό επίπεδο and understand it, γνωστικό επίπεδο is it written/presented in a way that users want to use it (perform the intended tasks)? ελκυστικό επίπεδο
ελκυστικό επίπεδο (Affective Level): 2/3 Factor 1: Attention. –Before users can perform the tasks describe in communication products, they need to feel compelled to read about them. Researchers in the fields of advertising, book publishing, and training have learned that getting attention is essential to success. Factor 2: Motivation. –After attracting readers’ attention, communication must address readers’ motivation to use information. For example, "must" people use information or is the information "nice to know?" Users' attitudes vary with their motivation, information designers must address this attitude to successfully transfer information about tasks.
ελκυστικό επίπεδο (Affective Level): 3/3 Other factors to think about: Technology and the changes it brings. The technology described in technical communication products often has the potential to change the way users work or live. But how prepared are users for the change? How can the communication product address the pain that’s often a byproduct of change? Cross-cultural communication. Communication products are often published by people who have little or nothing in common with the intended users. national cultures and languages occupational cultures urban versus rural cultures Different socio-economic cultures within same language Social and political impact. Who are the organisations involved, what interests do they have? Legal and ethical issues. The process of communicating information often encompasses a variety of legal and ethical issues, such as copyright, privacy, and implied and stated promises. Client and end users. The ‘reader’ is not always the client who commissions the work, often things are written to satisfy the client rather than the end user.
Strengths and weaknesses of this model Strengths Unifies different outlooks different roles Shows the changing role of information From static to interactive Weaknesses Prescriptive : what should be done Difficult for some levels not to overlap with others Useful for educating information designers
And yet another definition… Information design is : the defining, planning, and shaping of the contents of a message and the environments it is presented in with the intention of achieving particular objectives in relation to the needs of users. Information Design news 1999