Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Collaboration Scripts Structure and Guidance in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Dillenbourg,"— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:
ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Collaboration Scripts Structure and Guidance in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Dillenbourg, P., Framework for integrated learning, Kaleidoscope Network of Excellence, JEIRP MOSIL -Deliverable 23.5.1, (2004)
ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ What are CSCL scripts? CSCL scripts are instructional sequences (didactic scenarios) in which peer interactions are defined and expected to constitute the core learning mechanism. Scripts are tools for enhancing the probability that productive interactions occur in the group. The key issue in the design of a CSCL script is: which type of peer interactions does the teacher want to foster to reach educational objectives?
ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Script Structure A script is a sequence of phases and each phase is defined by five attributes TASK: the task that students have to perform at this phase, GROUP COMPOSITION: the composition of the group: number of subjects, group formation rules, … TASK DISTRIBUTION: the way that the task is distributed within and among groups Subtasks, Roles, … MODE: the mode of interaction face-to-face, a/synchronous, text-based or voice-based, … TIMING: the timing of the phase
ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Script Examples
ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Script example: ArgueGraph (1/3) Phase 1: Each student has to answer multiple-choice questions on domain-specific questions Phase 2: The system produces a graph in which all students are positioned according to their answers The system or the tutor forms pairs of students by selecting peers with the largest distance on the graph (i.e., that have the most different opinions).
ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ George Maria Results Graph (individual)
ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Script example: ArgueGraph (2/3) Phase 3: The pairs formed during phase 2 answer the same questionnaire as in phase 1 together They have to agree on a common answer. Phase 4: The system computes the distribution of answers given individually (phase 1) and collaboratively (phase 3). The tutor uses these data during a face-to-face debriefing session, during which (s)he reviews each question.
ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ George Maria Results Graph (Collaborative)
ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Script example: ArgueGraph (3/3) Phase 5 (evaluation): Each student writes a synthesis of all arguments collected for a specific question. This synthesis has to be structured according to the theoretical framework introduced by the teacher during the debriefing (phase 4). This synthesis is used as assessment.
ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Script Example 2: The “Pyramid” script Phase1: Mode: Individual Activity: Students study one specific case each Instructor’s role: Support students identify critical themes Deliverable: Report Phase 2: Mode: Collaborative (Small group synthesis) Activity: Synthesis based on cases studied in Phase1 Instructor’s role: Coordinate Deliverable: Group report Phase 3 Mode: Collaborative (Larger Group) Activity: Representatives from each small group are online discussants (New material is provided) Instructor’s role: Supportive Deliverable: Group discussion 2 weeks Blended mode Phase 2 online or f2f X Phase 1 X Phase 3 online X
ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Script Basics
ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Ideal, mental and actual scripts Ideal script: the set of behaviors that the teacher or the environment prescribes; The mental script is the mental representation that the group builds from the teacher prescription. how each group member understands his or her role in collaboration how the group builds a shared representation of the collaborative process. The actual script refers to the task and group interactions that students do actually engage.
ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ How do computers support scripts? Reifiying provide students with a concrete script representation (phases, roles, …) Enabling enable scripts events that would be harder or impossible to create without computers, Traceability functionalities for the teacher to analyze and regulate teamwork and for the student themselves to access to previous steps. Connecting computer as a communication tool Managing off-load groups and teachers from some logistics duties Constraining offer opportunities for shaping communication within groups
ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Script schemata (1/2) A script schema is an abstract idea of how to organize the students’ interactions in a collaborative task JIGSAW schema: the partition of the knowledge or information necessary to solve the task (a) by forming pairs who have complementary knowledge, or (b) or by providing them with complementary information or (c) by asking them to play complementary roles Design principle: no learner has the necessary information or knowledge to solve the problem alone. It can only be achieve through intense interaction with the other team members.
Jigsaw Phase 1 Jigsaw Group Formation A1 D1 B1 C1 D2 B2 A2 C2 C3 D3B3 A3 B4 A4 D4 C4 Phase 2 EXPERT Group Formation Phase 3 BACK to Jigsaw Group Formation
ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Script schemata (2/2) CONFLICT schema: triggers argumentation among group members (a) by forming pairs with student with conflicting opinions, or (b) by providing them with conflicting evidence, or (c) by asking them to play conflicting roles. RECIPROCAL Schema: Define two roles in teams, one of the peers regulating the other and then switching roles
ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Use Jigsaw, Conflict, Reciprocal schemata to design a collaboration script Combine at least two of them…
ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Script Design Issues
ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Granularity Scripts vary along the time scale (typically from 20 minutes to one semester) the grain size of sub-tasks definition. Example In a coarse grain script such e.g. project-based teaching… …a task may last a few weeks, such as "customer needs analysis"
ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Degree of Coercion Scripts vary according to the freedom loss they generate To which extent the actions of the students are constrained by the script Some scripts force the students to achieve specific subtasks while other simply induce it High granularity scripts tend to be more coercive
ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Macro vs. Micro Scripts & Locus of Control Macro script: the general didactic contract that describes how the collaborative activity will be organized External locus of control: learners need not internalize/learn the macro script e.g. the overall organization of the pyramid script Micro script (scriptlet): specific instructions for learners (at psychological level) on how to conduct a specific activity / develop a skill, etc. Internal locus of control: learners are expected to internalize/learn the micro script and transfer this knowledge to other situations e.g. a micro-script (scriptlet) of how to express a well-structured argument
ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ The Social Levels (Planes) of a Script
ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Social planes Learning activities occur at different social planes Intra-psychological plane Individual Inter-psychological plane Collaborative activities small groups (2-8) Team members maintain some representation of their teammate's cognition Social plane Collective activities all the class students (whether they are 20 or 300) Individual representations disappear behind the culture that the community members jointly constructed
ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ Levels of activity (planes) in CSCL environments Individual Plane: solo activities Small Group plane: activities in small groups ranging from 2 to 4-5 people This is often the target or reference level of CSCL scripts Larger Group: activities in larger groups ranging from 5 to 12 people Class Plane: activities involving all students enrolled in the same course (>12) Community Plane: activities that involve identified actors such as other classes, expert groups, families, etc.; World Plane: activities that are available to unidentified actors
ΕΠΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΑ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΑ ΜΕ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΤΠΕΣΤ. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑΔΗΣ
The SWISH model SWISH: "Split Where Interaction Should Happen" Learning results from the interactions engaged by students to build a shared understanding of task despite the fact that it is distributed The task distribution determines the nature of interactions: Interactions are mechanisms for overcoming task splits Task splits can be designed for triggering the interactions that the teacher wants to foster: Split Where Interaction Should Happen
Summary Collaborative Learning: does not guarantee always positive learning outcomes Script Schemata: JIGSAW, CONFLICT, RECIPROCAL Script Design: Granularity, Coercion, Control Social Planes: Individual, Group, Class, Community, World SWISH Model A script is a sequence of Phases. Each phase defines: A Task Group Composition Task Distribution (student roles) Mode of Interaction Timing Scripts: didactic scenarios for guiding and supporting the collaborative activity