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Βιοπληροφορική Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics

Παρόμοιες παρουσιάσεις


Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "Βιοπληροφορική Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics"— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 Βιοπληροφορική Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics

2 Τι είναι Βιοπληροφορική; Ένας λειτουργικός ορισμός: οι εφαρμογές της επιστήμης υπολογιστών στη μοριακή βιολογία - ιδιαίτερα στη μελέτη των μακρομορίων όπως πρωτεΐνες και νουκλεϊνικά οξέα. Ορισμένα συνώνυμα: Μοριακή Βιοπληροφορική Βιοϋπολογιστική Υπολογιστική βιολογία Bioinformatics I

3 Ιστορική ανασκόπηση: 1954: πρώτη πρωτεϊνική ακολουθία (ινσουλίνη από Sanger) 1958: πρώτh ακτινογραφία τρισδιάστατης δομής πρωτεΐνης (μυοσφαιρίνης από Kendrew) 1972: πρώτη DNA αλληλουχίας 1977: τεχνικές ταχείας αλληλούχισης (Gilbert και Sanger) 1986: PCR 1992: αλληλούχιση ζύμης χρωμόσωμα III (3 * 105 bp) 1995: αλληλούχιση βακτηρίου Haemophilus influenzae (2*106 bp) 1999: αλληλούχιση γονιδιώματος πολυκύτταρου οργανισμού (Caenorhabditis elegans) (108 bp) 2000: αρχική αλληλούχιση ανθρώπινου γονιδιώματος (3 * 109 bp) 2002: αλληλούχιση γονιδιώματος Ashbya gossypii Σήμερα: 16 archeal, 77 βακτηριακή & 9 ευκαρυτικά γονιδιώματα έχουν ολοκληρωθεί Bioinformatics I

4 Μεταγραφή DNA 5’3’ mRNA Splicing Translation Poly- peptide Αναδίπλωση Protein Μεταφορά Ολιγομερισμός Μετα-μεταφραστικές ρυθμίσεις (Post-Translational Modification) ΛειτουργίαΛειτοyργία Γιατί χρειαζόμαστε τη βιοπληροφορική; Bioinformatics I

5 Μεταγραφή DNA 5’3’ mRNA Splicing Translation Poly- peptide Αναδίπλωση Protein Μεταφορά Ολιγομερισμός Μετα-μεταφραστικές ρυθμίσεις (Post-Translational Modification) ΛειτουργίαΛειτοyργία Γιατί χρειαζόμαστε τη βιοπληροφορική; Bioinformatics I Απαιτείται να οργανωνουμε την αποθήκευση γενομικών αλληλουχιών

6 gggtctctcttgttagaccagatctgagcctgggagctctctggctaactagggaacccactgcttaagcctcaataaagcttgccttgagtgcttcaagtagtgtgtgcccgtctgttgtgtgactctgatagctagagatcccttcagaccaaatttagtcagtgtgaaaa atctctagcagtggcgcctgaacagggacttgaaagcgaaagagaaaccagagaagctctctcgacgcaggactcggcttgctgaagcgcgcacggcaagaggcgaggggacggcgactggtgagtacgccaaaattttgactagcggaggctagaaggagagagatgggtgc gagagcgtcgatattaagcgggggaggattagatagatgggaaaaaattcggttaaggccagggggaaagaaaaaatatagattaaaacatttagtatgggcaagcagggagctagaacgattcgcagtcaatcctggcctattagaaacatcagaaggttgtagacaaatac tgggacaactacaaccagcccttcagacaggatcagaagaacttagatcattatataatacagtagcaaccctctattgtgtgcatcaaaagatagatgtaaaagacaccaaggaagctttagataagatagaggaagagcaaaacaaaagtaagaaaaaagcacagcaagca gcagctgacacaggaaatagcagccaggtcagccaaaattaccccatagtgcagaacatccaggggcaaatggtacatcaggccatatcacctagaactttaaatgcatgggtaaaagtagtagaagagaaggctttcagcccagaagtaatacccatgttttcagcattatc agaaggagccaccccacaagatttaaacaccatgctaaacacagtggggggacatcaagcagccatgcaaatgttaaaagagaccatcaatgaggaagctgcagaatgggatagattgcatccagtgcatgcagggcctcatccaccaggccagatgagagaaccaaggggaa gtgacatagcaggaactactagtacccttcaggaacaaatagcatggatgacaaataatccacctatcccagtaggagaaatctataagagatggataatcctgggattaaataaaatagtaaggatgtatagccctaccagcattctggacataaaacaaggaccaaaggaa ccctttagagactatgtagaccggttctataagactctaagagccgagcaagcttcacaggaggtaaaaaattggatgacagaaaccttgttggtccaaaatgcgaacccagattgtaagactattttaaaagcattgggaccagcagctacactagaagaaatgatgacagc atgtcagggagtgggaggacccggccataaagcaagagttttggcagaagcaatgagccaagtaacaaattcagctaccataatgatgcagaaaggcaattttaggaaccaaagaaaaattgttaagtgtttcaattgtggcaaagaagggcacatagccaaaaattgcaggg cccctaggaaaaggggctgttggaaatgtggaaaggagggacaccaaatgaaagattgtactgagagacaggctaattttttagggaaaatctggccttcccacaggggaaggccagggaattttcctcagaacagactagagccaacagccccaccagccccaccagaagag agcttcaggtttggggaagagacaacaactccctctcagaagcaggagctgatagacaaggaactgtatccttcagcttccctcaaatcactctttggcaacgaccccttgtcacaataaagataggggggcaactaaaggaagctctattagatacaggagcagatgataca gtattagaagaaataaatttgccaggaagatggaaaccaaaaatgatagggggaattggaggttttatcaaagtaagacagtatgatcaaatactcgtagaaatctgtggacataaagctataggtacagtattagtaggacctacacctgtcaacataattggaagaaatct gttgactcagattggttgcactttaaattttcccattagtcctattgaaactgtaccagtaaaattaaagccaggaatggatggcccaaaagttaaacaatggccattgacagaagaaaaaataaaagcattagtagaaatctgtacagaaatggaaaaggaaggaaaaattt caaaaatcgggcctgaaaatccatataatactccagtatttgccataaagaaaaaagacagtactaaatggagaaaattagtagatttcagagaacttaataagaaaactcaagacttctgggaagttcaattaggaataccacatcccgcagggttaaaaaagaaaaaatca gtaacagtactggatgtgggtgatgcatatttttcagttcccttagataaagaattcaggaagtacactgcatttaccatacctagtataaacaatgagacaccagggattagatatcagtacaatgtgcttccacagggatggaaaggatcaccagcaatattccaaagcag catgacaaaaatcttagagccttttagaaaacaaaatccagacatagttatctatcaatacatggacgatttgtatgtaggatctgacttagaaatagggcagcatagaacaaaaatagaggaactgagacaacatctgttgaagtggggatttaccacaccagacaaaaaac atcagaaagaacctccattcctttggatgggttatgaactccatcctgataaatggacagtacagcctatagtgctgccagaaaaggacagctggactgtcaatgacatacagaagttagtgggaaaattgaattgggcaagtcagatttacccagggattaaagtaaagcaa ttatgtagactccttaggggaaccaaggcactaacagaagtaataccactaacaaaagaagcagagctagaactggcagaaaacagggaaattctaaaagaaccagtacatggagtgtattatgacccatcaaaagacttaatagcggaaatacagaagcaggggcaaggtca atggacatatcaaatttatcaagagccatttaaaaatctgaaaacaggaaaatatgcaagaatgaggggtgcccacactaatgatgtaaaacaattaacagaggcagtgcaaaaaataaccacagaaagcatagtaatatggggaaagactcctaaatttaaactacccatac aaaaagaaacatgggaaacatggtggacagagtattggcaagccacctggattcctgagtgggagtttgtcaatacccctcccttagtaaaattatggtaccagttagagaaagaacccataataggagcagaaactttctatgtagatggggcagctaacagggagactaaa ttaggaaaagcaggatatgttactaacaaagggagacaaaaagttgtctccataactgacacaacaaatcagaagactgagttacaagcaattcttctagcattacaggattctggattagaagtaaacatagtaacagactcacaatatgcattaggaatcattcaagcaca accagataaaagtgaatcagagatagtcagtcaaataatagagcagttaataaaaaaagaaaaggtctacctgacatgggtaccagcgcacaaaggaattggaggaaatgaacaagtagataaattagtcagtactggaatcaggaaagtactctttttagatggaatagata aagcccaagaagaacatgaaaaatatcacagtaattggagggcaatggctagtgattttaacctgccacctgtggtagcaaaagagatagtagccagctgtgataaatgtcagctaaaaggagaagccatgcatggacaagtagactgtagtccaggaatatggcaactagat tgtacacatttagaaggaaaaattatcctggtagcagttcatgtagccagtggatatatagaagcagaagttattccagcagaaacagggcaggaaacagcatactttctcttaaaattagcaggaagatggccagtaaaaacagtacatacagacaatggcagcaatttcac cagtactacagttaaggccgcctgttggtgggcaggaatcaagcaggaatttggcattccctacaatccccaaagtcaaggagtagtagaatctataaataaagaattaaagaaagttataggacagataagagatcaggctgaacatcttaagacagcagtacaaatggcag tattcatccacaattttaaaagaaaaggggggattggggggtacagtgcaggggaaagaatagtagacataatagcaacagacatacaaactaaagaactacaaaaacaaattacaaaaattcaaaattttcgggtttattacagggacagcagagatccactttggaaagga ccagcaaagcttctctggaaaggtgaaggggcagtagtaatacaagataatagtgacataaaagtagtgccaagaagaaaagcaaagatcattagggattatggaaaacagatggcaggtgatgattgtgtggcaagtagacaggatgaggattagaacatggaaaagtttag taaaacaccatatgtatgtttcaaggaaagctaagggatggttttatagacatcactatgaaagtactcatccgagaataagttcagaagtacacatcccactagggaatgcaaaattggtaataacaacatattggggtctacatacaggagaaagagactggcatttgggt caaggagtctccatagaattgaggaaaaggagatatagcacacaattagaccctaacctagcagaccaactaattcatctgcattactttgattgtttttcagaatctgctataagaaatgccatattaggacatatagttagccctaggtgtgaatatcaagcaggacataa caaggtaggatctctacagtacttggcactaacagcattagtaagaccaagaaaaaagataaagccacctttgcctagtgttacaaaactgacagaggatagatggaacaagccccagaagaccaagggccacaaagggaaccatacaatgaatggacactagaacttttaga ggagctcaagaatgaagctgttagacattttcctaggatatggctccatagcttagggcaacatatctatgaaacttatggagatacttgggcaggagtggaagccataataagaattctgcaacaactgctgtttattcatttcagaattgggtgtcaacatagcagaatag acattcttcgacgaaggagagcaagaaatggagccagtagatcctagactagagccctggaagcatccaggaagtcagcctaggactgcttgtaccaattgctattgtaaaaagtgttgctttcattgccaagtttgtttcataacaaaaggcttaggcatctcctatggcag gaagaagcggagacagcgacgaagagctcctcaagacagtcagactcatcaagtttctctatcaaagcagtaagtagtacatgtaatgcaatctttacaaatattagcagtagtagcattagtagtagcagcaataatagcaatagttgtgtggtccatagtattcatagaat ataggaaaataagaagacaaaacaaaatagaaaggttgattgatagaataatagaaagagcagaagacagtggcaatgagagtgacggagatcaggaagaattatcagcacttgtggaaatggggcacgatgctccttgggatgttaatgatctgtaaagctgcagaaaattt gtgggtcacagtttattatggggtacctgtgtggaaagaagcaaccaccactctattttgtgcctcagatgctaaagcgtatgatacagaggtacataatgtttgggccacacatgcctgtgtacccacagaccccaacccacaagaagtagaactgaagaatgtgacagaaa attttaacatgtggaaaaataacatggtagaccaaatgcatgaggatataattagtttatgggatcaaagcctaaagccatgtgtaaaattaaccccactctgtgttactttaaattgcactgattatgggaatgatactaacaccaataatagtagtgctactaaccccact agtagtagcgggggaatggaggggagaggagaaataaaaaattgctctttcaatatcaccagaagcataagagataaagtgaagaaagaatatgcacttttttatagtcttgatgtaataccaataaaagatgataatactagctataggttgagaagttgtaacacctcagt cattacacaggcctgtccaaaggtatcctttgaaccaattcccatacattattgtgccccggctggttttgcgattctaaagtgtaatgataaaaagttcaatggaaaaggaccatgtacaaatgtcagcacagtacaatgtacacatggaattaggccagtagtatcaactc aactgctgttaaatggcagtctagcagaagaagaggtagtaattagatcagacaatttctcggacaatgctaaagtcataatagtacatctgaatgaatctgtagaaattaattgtacaagactcaacaacattacaaggagaagtatacatgtaggacatgtaggaccaggc agagcaatttatacaacaggaataataggaaaaataagacaagcacattgtaacattagtagagcaaaatggaataacactttaaaacagatagttacaaaattaagagaacaatttaagaataaaacaatagtctttaatcaatcctcaggaggggacccagaaattgtaat gcacagttttaattgtggaggggaatttttctactgtaattcaacacaactgtttaacagtacttggaatggtactgcatggtcaaataacactgaaggaaatgaaaatgacacaatcacactcccatgcagaataaaacaaattataaacatgtggcaggaagtaggaaaag caatgtatgcacctcccatcagaggacaaattagatgttcatcaaatattacagggctgatattaacaagagatggtggtattaaccagaccaacaccaccgagattttcaggcctggaggaggagatatgaaggacaattggagaagtgaattatataaatataaagtagta aaaattgaaccattaggagtagcacccaccaaggcaaagagaagagtggtgcaaagagaaaaaagagcagtgggaataataggagctatgctccttgggttcttgggagcagcaggaagcactatgggcgcagcgtcaatgacgctgacggtacaggccagacaattattgtc tggtatagtgcaacagcagaacaatttgctgagggctattgaggcgcaacagcatctgttgcacctcacagtctggggcatcaagcagctccaagcaagagtcctggctgtggaaagatacctaagggatcaacagctcctggggttttggggttgctctggaaaactcattt gcaccactgctgtgccttggaatactagttggagtaataaatctctgagtcagatttgggataacatgacctggatgcagtgggaaagggaaattgataattacacaagcttaatatacaacttaattgaagaatcgcaaaaccaacaagaaaagaatgaacaagagttattg gaattagataactgggcaagtttgtggaattggtttagcataacaaattggctgtggtatataaaaatattcataatgatagtaggaggcttggtaggtttaagaatagtttttactgtactttctatagtaaatagagttaggcagggatactcaccattgtcgtttcagac gcgcctcccagccaggaggggacccgacaggcccgaaggaatcgaagaagaaggtggagagagagacagagacagatccggtcaattagtggatggattcttagcaattatctgggtcgacctgcggagcctgtgcctcttcagctaccaccgcttgagagacttactcttga ttgtaacgaggattgtggaacttctgggacgcagggggtgggaagccctcaaatattggtggaatctcctacaatattggattcaggaactaaagaatagtgctgttagcttgctcaacgccacagccatagcagtagctgagggaactgatagggttatagaagtattacaa agagcttgtagagctattctccacatacctagaagaataagacagggcttagaaagggctttgcaataagatgggtggtaagtggtcaaaaagtagtaaaattggatggcctactgtaagggaaagaatgagaagagctgagccagcagcagatggggtgggagcagtatctc gagacctggaaaaacatggagcaatcacaagtagtaatacagcaactaacaatgctgattgtgcctggctagaagcacaagaggaggaggaggtgggttttccagtcagacctcaggtacctttaagaccaatgacttacaagggagcgttagatcttagccactttttaaaa gaaaaggggggactggaagggctaatttggtcccagaaaagacaagacatccttgatttgtgggtccaccacacacaaggctacttccctgattggcagaactacacaccagggccagggatcagatatccactgacctttggttggtgcttcaagctagtaccagttgagcc agagaaggtagaagaggccaatgaaggagagaacaacagattgttacaccctgtgagcctgcatgggatggaggacccggagaaagaagtgttagtatggaggtttgacagccgcctagtactccgtcacatggcccgagagctgcatccggagtactacaaggactgctgac actgagctttctacaagggactttccgctggggactttccagggaggcgtggcctgggcgggactggggagtggcgagccctcagatgctgcatataagcagctgctttttgcctgtactgggtctctcttgttagaccagatctgagcctgggagctctctggctaactagg gaacccactgcttaagcctcaataaagcttgccttgagtgcttca Το πλήρες γονιδίωμα του HIV type 1, 9214 BP Bioinformatics I

7 Βάσεις δεδομένων DNA GenBank (USA)http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Genbank/ EMBL (Europe)http://www.ebi.ac.uk/embl/ DDBJ (Japan)http://www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp/ Bioinformatics I

8 Μεταγραφή DNA 5’3’ mRNA Splicing Translation Poly- peptide Αναδίπλωση Protein Μεταφορά Ολιγομερισμός Μετα-μεταφραστικές ρυθμίσεις (Post-Translational Modification) ΛειτουργίαΛειτοyργία Γιατί χρειαζόμαστε τη βιοπληροφορική; Bioinformatics I Πως βρίσκουμε τις κωδικοποιούσες περιοχές, εξώνια και ιντρόνια σε γενομικές DNA αλληλουχίες

9 gggtctctcttgttagaccagatctgagcctgggagctctctggctaactagggaacccactgcttaagcctcaataaagcttgccttgagtgcttcaagtagtgtgtgcccgtctgttgtgtgactctgatagctagagatcccttcagaccaaatttagtcagtgtgaaaaatctctagcagtggcgcc tgaacagggacttgaaagcgaaagagaaaccagagaagctctctcgacgcaggactcggcttgctgaagcgcgcacggcaagaggcgaggggacggcgactggtgagtacgccaaaattttgactagcggaggctagaaggagagagatgggtgcgagagcgtcgatattaagcgggggaggattagatag atgggaaaaaattcggttaaggccagggggaaagaaaaaatatagattaaaacatttagtatgggcaagcagggagctagaacgattcgcagtcaatcctggcctattagaaacatcagaaggttgtagacaaatactgggacaactacaaccagcccttcagacaggatcagaagaacttagatcattat ataatacagtagcaaccctctattgtgtgcatcaaaagatagatgtaaaagacaccaaggaagctttagataagatagaggaagagcaaaacaaaagtaagaaaaaagcacagcaagcagcagctgacacaggaaatagcagccaggtcagccaaaattaccccatagtgcagaacatccaggggcaaatg gtacatcaggccatatcacctagaactttaaatgcatgggtaaaagtagtagaagagaaggctttcagcccagaagtaatacccatgttttcagcattatcagaaggagccaccccacaagatttaaacaccatgctaaacacagtggggggacatcaagcagccatgcaaatgttaaaagagaccatcaa tgaggaagctgcagaatgggatagattgcatccagtgcatgcagggcctcatccaccaggccagatgagagaaccaaggggaagtgacatagcaggaactactagtacccttcaggaacaaatagcatggatgacaaataatccacctatcccagtaggagaaatctataagagatggataatcctgggat taaataaaatagtaaggatgtatagccctaccagcattctggacataaaacaaggaccaaaggaaccctttagagactatgtagaccggttctataagactctaagagccgagcaagcttcacaggaggtaaaaaattggatgacagaaaccttgttggtccaaaatgcgaacccagattgtaagactatt ttaaaagcattgggaccagcagctacactagaagaaatgatgacagcatgtcagggagtgggaggacccggccataaagcaagagttttggcagaagcaatgagccaagtaacaaattcagctaccataatgatgcagaaaggcaattttaggaaccaaagaaaaattgttaagtgtttcaattgtggcaa agaagggcacatagccaaaaattgcagggcccctaggaaaaggggctgttggaaatgtggaaaggagggacaccaaatgaaagattgtactgagagacaggctaattttttagggaaaatctggccttcccacaggggaaggccagggaattttcctcagaacagactagagccaacagccccaccagccc caccagaagagagcttcaggtttggggaagagacaacaactccctctcagaagcaggagctgatagacaaggaactgtatccttcagcttccctcaaatcactctttggcaacgaccccttgtcacaataaagataggggggcaactaaaggaagctctattagatacaggagcagatgatacagtattag aagaaataaatttgccaggaagatggaaaccaaaaatgatagggggaattggaggttttatcaaagtaagacagtatgatcaaatactcgtagaaatctgtggacataaagctataggtacagtattagtaggacctacacctgtcaacataattggaagaaatctgttgactcagattggttgcacttta aattttcccattagtcctattgaaactgtaccagtaaaattaaagccaggaatggatggcccaaaagttaaacaatggccattgacagaagaaaaaataaaagcattagtagaaatctgtacagaaatggaaaaggaaggaaaaatttcaaaaatcgggcctgaaaatccatataatactccagtatttgc cataaagaaaaaagacagtactaaatggagaaaattagtagatttcagagaacttaataagaaaactcaagacttctgggaagttcaattaggaataccacatcccgcagggttaaaaaagaaaaaatcagtaacagtactggatgtgggtgatgcatatttttcagttcccttagataaagaattcagga agtacactgcatttaccatacctagtataaacaatgagacaccagggattagatatcagtacaatgtgcttccacagggatggaaaggatcaccagcaatattccaaagcagcatgacaaaaatcttagagccttttagaaaacaaaatccagacatagttatctatcaatacatggacgatttgtatgta ggatctgacttagaaatagggcagcatagaacaaaaatagaggaactgagacaacatctgttgaagtggggatttaccacaccagacaaaaaacatcagaaagaacctccattcctttggatgggttatgaactccatcctgataaatggacagtacagcctatagtgctgccagaaaaggacagctggac tgtcaatgacatacagaagttagtgggaaaattgaattgggcaagtcagatttacccagggattaaagtaaagcaattatgtagactccttaggggaaccaaggcactaacagaagtaataccactaacaaaagaagcagagctagaactggcagaaaacagggaaattctaaaagaaccagtacatggag tgtattatgacccatcaaaagacttaatagcggaaatacagaagcaggggcaaggtcaatggacatatcaaatttatcaagagccatttaaaaatctgaaaacaggaaaatatgcaagaatgaggggtgcccacactaatgatgtaaaacaattaacagaggcagtgcaaaaaataaccacagaaagcata gtaatatggggaaagactcctaaatttaaactacccatacaaaaagaaacatgggaaacatggtggacagagtattggcaagccacctggattcctgagtgggagtttgtcaatacccctcccttagtaaaattatggtaccagttagagaaagaacccataataggagcagaaactttctatgtagatgg ggcagctaacagggagactaaattaggaaaagcaggatatgttactaacaaagggagacaaaaagttgtctccataactgacacaacaaatcagaagactgagttacaagcaattcttctagcattacaggattctggattagaagtaaacatagtaacagactcacaatatgcattaggaatcattcaag cacaaccagataaaagtgaatcagagatagtcagtcaaataatagagcagttaataaaaaaagaaaaggtctacctgacatgggtaccagcgcacaaaggaattggaggaaatgaacaagtagataaattagtcagtactggaatcaggaaagtactctttttagatggaatagataaagcccaagaagaa catgaaaaatatcacagtaattggagggcaatggctagtgattttaacctgccacctgtggtagcaaaagagatagtagccagctgtgataaatgtcagctaaaaggagaagccatgcatggacaagtagactgtagtccaggaatatggcaactagattgtacacatttagaaggaaaaattatcctggt agcagttcatgtagccagtggatatatagaagcagaagttattccagcagaaacagggcaggaaacagcatactttctcttaaaattagcaggaagatggccagtaaaaacagtacatacagacaatggcagcaatttcaccagtactacagttaaggccgcctgttggtgggcaggaatcaagcaggaat ttggcattccctacaatccccaaagtcaaggagtagtagaatctataaataaagaattaaagaaagttataggacagataagagatcaggctgaacatcttaagacagcagtacaaatggcagtattcatccacaattttaaaagaaaaggggggattggggggtacagtgcaggggaaagaatagtagac ataatagcaacagacatacaaactaaagaactacaaaaacaaattacaaaaattcaaaattttcgggtttattacagggacagcagagatccactttggaaaggaccagcaaagcttctctggaaaggtgaaggggcagtagtaatacaagataatagtgacataaaagtagtgccaagaagaaaagcaaa gatcattagggattatggaaaacagatggcaggtgatgattgtgtggcaagtagacaggatgaggattagaacatggaaaagtttagtaaaacaccatatgtatgtttcaaggaaagctaagggatggttttatagacatcactatgaaagtactcatccgagaataagttcagaagtacacatcccacta gggaatgcaaaattggtaataacaacatattggggtctacatacaggagaaagagactggcatttgggtcaaggagtctccatagaattgaggaaaaggagatatagcacacaattagaccctaacctagcagaccaactaattcatctgcattactttgattgtttttcagaatctgctataagaaatgc catattaggacatatagttagccctaggtgtgaatatcaagcaggacataacaaggtaggatctctacagtacttggcactaacagcattagtaagaccaagaaaaaagataaagccacctttgcctagtgttacaaaactgacagaggatagatggaacaagccccagaagaccaagggccacaaaggga accatacaatgaatggacactagaacttttagaggagctcaagaatgaagctgttagacattttcctaggatatggctccatagcttagggcaacatatctatgaaacttatggagatacttgggcaggagtggaagccataataagaattctgcaacaactgctgtttattcatttcagaattgggtgtc aacatagcagaatagacattcttcgacgaaggagagcaagaaatggagccagtagatcctagactagagccctggaagcatccaggaagtcagcctaggactgcttgtaccaattgctattgtaaaaagtgttgctttcattgccaagtttgtttcataacaaaaggcttaggcatctcctatggcaggaa gaagcggagacagcgacgaagagctcctcaagacagtcagactcatcaagtttctctatcaaagcagtaagtagtacatgtaatgcaatctttacaaatattagcagtagtagcattagtagtagcagcaataatagcaatagttgtgtggtccatagtattcatagaatataggaaaataagaagacaaa 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attgtacaagactcaacaacattacaaggagaagtatacatgtaggacatgtaggaccaggcagagcaatttatacaacaggaataataggaaaaataagacaagcacattgtaacattagtagagcaaaatggaataacactttaaaacagatagttacaaaattaagagaacaatttaagaataaaaca atagtctttaatcaatcctcaggaggggacccagaaattgtaatgcacagttttaattgtggaggggaatttttctactgtaattcaacacaactgtttaacagtacttggaatggtactgcatggtcaaataacactgaaggaaatgaaaatgacacaatcacactcccatgcagaataaaacaaattat aaacatgtggcaggaagtaggaaaagcaatgtatgcacctcccatcagaggacaaattagatgttcatcaaatattacagggctgatattaacaagagatggtggtattaaccagaccaacaccaccgagattttcaggcctggaggaggagatatgaaggacaattggagaagtgaattatataaatata aagtagtaaaaattgaaccattaggagtagcacccaccaaggcaaagagaagagtggtgcaaagagaaaaaagagcagtgggaataataggagctatgctccttgggttcttgggagcagcaggaagcactatgggcgcagcgtcaatgacgctgacggtacaggccagacaattattgtctggtatagtg caacagcagaacaatttgctgagggctattgaggcgcaacagcatctgttgcacctcacagtctggggcatcaagcagctccaagcaagagtcctggctgtggaaagatacctaagggatcaacagctcctggggttttggggttgctctggaaaactcatttgcaccactgctgtgccttggaatactag ttggagtaataaatctctgagtcagatttgggataacatgacctggatgcagtgggaaagggaaattgataattacacaagcttaatatacaacttaattgaagaatcgcaaaaccaacaagaaaagaatgaacaagagttattggaattagataactgggcaagtttgtggaattggtttagcataacaa attggctgtggtatataaaaatattcataatgatagtaggaggcttggtaggtttaagaatagtttttactgtactttctatagtaaatagagttaggcagggatactcaccattgtcgtttcagacgcgcctcccagccaggaggggacccgacaggcccgaaggaatcgaagaagaaggtggagagaga gacagagacagatccggtcaattagtggatggattcttagcaattatctgggtcgacctgcggagcctgtgcctcttcagctaccaccgcttgagagacttactcttgattgtaacgaggattgtggaacttctgggacgcagggggtgggaagccctcaaatattggtggaatctcctacaatattggat tcaggaactaaagaatagtgctgttagcttgctcaacgccacagccatagcagtagctgagggaactgatagggttatagaagtattacaaagagcttgtagagctattctccacatacctagaagaataagacagggcttagaaagggctttgcaataagatgggtggtaagtggtcaaaaagtagtaaa attggatggcctactgtaagggaaagaatgagaagagctgagccagcagcagatggggtgggagcagtatctcgagacctggaaaaacatggagcaatcacaagtagtaatacagcaactaacaatgctgattgtgcctggctagaagcacaagaggaggaggaggtgggttttccagtcagacctcaggt acctttaagaccaatgacttacaagggagcgttagatcttagccactttttaaaagaaaaggggggactggaagggctaatttggtcccagaaaagacaagacatccttgatttgtgggtccaccacacacaaggctacttccctgattggcagaactacacaccagggccagggatcagatatccactga cctttggttggtgcttcaagctagtaccagttgagccagagaaggtagaagaggccaatgaaggagagaacaacagattgttacaccctgtgagcctgcatgggatggaggacccggagaaagaagtgttagtatggaggtttgacagccgcctagtactccgtcacatggcccgagagctgcatccggag tactacaaggactgctgacactgagctttctacaagggactttccgctggggactttccagggaggcgtggcctgggcgggactggggagtggcgagccctcagatgctgcatataagcagctgctttttgcctgtactgggtctctcttgttagaccagatctgagcctgggagctctctggctaactag ggaacccactgcttaagcctcaataaagcttgccttgagtgcttcaggtctctcttgttagaccagatctgagcctgggagctctctggctaactagggaacccactgcttaagcctcaataaagcttgccttgagtgcttcaagtagtgtgtgcccgtctgttgtgtgactctgatagctagagatccct tcagaccaaatttagtcagtgtgaaaaatctctagcagtggcgcctgaacagggacttgaaagcgaaagagaaaccagagaagctctctcgacgcaggactcggcttgctgaagcgcgcacggcaagaggcgaggggacggcgactggtgagtacgccaaaattttgactagcggaggctagaaggagaga gatgggtgcgagagcgtcgatattaagcgggggaggattagatagatgggaaaaaattcggttaaggccagggggaaagaaaaaatatagattaaaacatttagtatgggcaagcagggagctagaacgattcgcagtcaatcctggcctattagaaacatcagaaggttgtagacaaatactgggacaac tacaaccagcccttcagacaggatcagaagaacttagatcattatataatacagtagcaaccctctattgtgtgcatcaaaagatagatgtaaaagacaccaaggaagctttagataagatagaggaagagcaaaacaaaagtaagaaaaaagcacagcaagcagcagctgacacaggaaatagcagccag gtcagccaaaattaccccatagtgcagaacatccaggggcaaatggtacatcaggccatatcacctagaactttaaatgcatgggtaaaagtagtagaagagaaggctttcagcccagaagtaatacccatgttttcagcattatcagaaggagccaccccacaagatttaaacaccatgctaaacacagt ggggggacatcaagcagccatgcaaatgttaaaagagaccatcaatgaggaagctgcagaatgggatagattgcatccagtgcatgcagggcctcatccaccaggccagatgagagaaccaaggggaagtgacatagcaggaactactagtacccttcaggaacaaatagcatggatgacaaataatccac ctatcccagtaggagaaatctataagagatggataatcctgggattaaataaaatagtaaggatgtatagccctaccagcattctggacataaaacaaggaccaaaggaaccctttagagactatgtagaccggttctataagactctaagagccgagcaagcttcacaggaggtaaaaaattggatgaca gaaaccttgttggtccaaaatgcgaacccagattgtaagactattttaaaagcattgggaccagcagctacactagaagaaatgatgacagcatgtcagggagtgggaggacccggccataaagcaagagttttggcagaagcaatgagccaagtaacaaattcagctaccataatgatgcagaaaggcaa ttttaggaaccaaagaaaaattgttaagtgtttcaattgtggcaaagaagggcacatagccaaaaattgcagggcccctaggaaaaggggctgttggaaatgtggaaaggagggacaccaaatgaaagattgtactgagagacaggctaattttttagggaaaatctggccttcccacaggggaaggccag ggaattttcctcagaacagactagagccaacagccccaccagccccaccagaagagagcttcaggtttggggaagagacaacaactccctctcagaagcaggagctgatagacaaggaactgtatccttcagcttccctcaaatcactctttggcaacgaccccttgtcacaataaagataggggggcaac taaaggaagctctattagatacaggagcagatgatacagtattagaagaaataaatttgccaggaagatggaaaccaaaaatgatagggggaattggaggttttatcaaagtaagacagtatgatcaaatactcgtagaaatctgtggacataaagctataggtacagtattagtaggacctacacctgtc aacataattggaagaaatctgttgactcagattggttgcactttaaattttcccattagtcctattgaaactgtaccagtaaaattaaagccaggaatggatggcccaaaagttaaacaatggccattgacagaagaaaaaataaaagcattagtagaaatctgtacagaaatggaaaaggaaggaaaaat ttcaaaaatcgggcctgaaaatccatataatactccagtatttgccataaagaaaaaagacagtactaaatggagaaaattagtagatttcagagaacttaataagaaaactcaagacttctgggaagttcaattaggaataccacatcccgcagggttaaaaaagaaaaaatcagtaacagtactggatg tgggtgatgcatatttttcagttcccttagataaagaattcaggaagtacactgcatttaccatacctagtataaacaatgagacaccagggattagatatcagtacaatgtgcttccacagggatggaaaggatcaccagcaatattccaaagcagcatgacaaaaatcttagagccttttagaaaacaa aatccagacatagttatctatcaatacatggacgatttgtatgtaggatctgacttagaaatagggcagcatagaacaaaaatagaggaactgagacaacatctgttgaagtggggatttaccacaccagacaaaaaacatcagaaagaacctccattcctttggatgggttatgaactccatcctgataa atggacagtacagcctatagtgctgccagaaaaggacagctggactgtcaatgacatacagaagttagtgggaaaattgaattgggcaagtcagatttacccagggattaaagtaaagcaattatgtagactccttaggggaaccaaggcactaacagaagtaataccactaacaaaagaagcagagctag aactggcagaaaacagggaaattctaaaagaaccagtacatggagtgtattatgacccatcaaaagacttaatagcggaaatacagaagcaggggcaaggtcaatggacatatcaaatttatcaagagccatttaaaaatctgaaaacaggaaaatatgcaagaatgaggggtgcccacactaatgatgta aaacaattaacagaggcagtgcaaaaaataaccacagaaagcatagtaatatggggaaagactcctaaatttaaactacccatacaaaaagaaacatgggaaacatggtggacagagtattggcaagccacctggattcctgagtgggagtttgtcaatacccctcccttagtaaaattatggtaccagtt agagaaagaacccataataggagcagaaactttctatgtagatggggcagctaacagggagactaaattaggaaaagcaggatatgttactaacaaagggagacaaaaagttgtctccataactgacacaacaaatcagaagactgagttacaagcaattcttctagcattacaggattctggattagaag taaacatagtaacagactcacaatatgcattaggaatcattcaagcacaaccagataaaagtgaatcagagatagtcagtcaaataatagagcagttaataaaaaaagaaaaggtctacctgacatgggtaccagcgcacaaaggaattggaggaaatgaacaagtagataaattagtcagtactggaatc aggaaagtactctttttagatggaatagataaagcccaagaagaacatgaaaaatatcacagtaattggagggcaatggctagtgattttaacctgccacctgtggtagcaaaagagatagtagccagctgtgataaatgtcagctaaaaggagaagccatgcatggacaagtagactgtagtccaggaat atggcaactagattgtacacatttagaaggaaaaattatcctggtagcagttcatgtagccagtggatatatagaagcagaagttattccagcagaaacagggcaggaaacagcatactttctcttaaaattagcaggaagatggccagtaaaaacagtacatacagacaatggcagcaatttcaccagta ctacagttaaggccgcctgttggtgggcaggaatcaagcaggaatttggcattccctacaatccccaaagtcaaggagtagtagaatctataaataaagaattaaagaaagttataggacagataagagatcaggctgaacatcttaagacagcagtacaaatggcagtattcatccacaattttaaaaga aaaggggggattggggggtacagtgcaggggaaagaatagtagacataatagcaacagacatacaaactaaagaactacaaaaacaaattacaaaaattcaaaattttcgggtttattacagggacagcagagatccactttggaaaggaccagcaaagcttctctggaaaggtgaaggggcagtagtaat acaagataatagtgacataaaagtagtgccaagaagaaaagcaaagatcattagggattatggaaaacagatggcaggtgatgattgtgtggcaagtagacaggatgaggattagaacatggaaaagtttagtaaaacaccatatgtatgtttcaaggaaagctaagggatggttttatagacatcactat Αναζητώντας γονίδια σε προκαρυοτικά γονιδιώματα... Bioinformatics I Εσωτερικές πληροφορίες: Μεταγραφικά σήματα (Transcription signals) (RBS) χρήση κωδικονίου (Codon usage) αμινοξική προτίμηση (amino acid preferences) περιεκτικότητα GC (content) Εξωτερικές πληροφορίες: Ομοιότητα με γνωστές πρωτεϊνες άλλων οργανισμών

10 gggtctctcttgttagaccagatctgagcctgggagctctctggctaactagggaacccactgcttaagcctcaataaagcttgccttgagtgcttcaagtagtgtgtgcccgtctgttgtgtgactctgatagctagagatcccttcagaccaaatttagtcagtgtgaaaaatctctagcagtggcgcc tgaacagggacttgaaagcgaaagagaaaccagagaagctctctcgacgcaggactcggcttgctgaagcgcgcacggcaagaggcgaggggacggcgactggtgagtacgccaaaattttgactagcggaggctagaaggagagagatgggtgcgagagcgtcgatattaagcgggggaggattagatag atgggaaaaaattcggttaaggccagggggaaagaaaaaatatagattaaaacatttagtatgggcaagcagggagctagaacgattcgcagtcaatcctggcctattagaaacatcagaaggttgtagacaaatactgggacaactacaaccagcccttcagacaggatcagaagaacttagatcattat ataatacagtagcaaccctctattgtgtgcatcaaaagatagatgtaaaagacaccaaggaagctttagataagatagaggaagagcaaaacaaaagtaagaaaaaagcacagcaagcagcagctgacacaggaaatagcagccaggtcagccaaaattaccccatagtgcagaacatccaggggcaaatg gtacatcaggccatatcacctagaactttaaatgcatgggtaaaagtagtagaagagaaggctttcagcccagaagtaatacccatgttttcagcattatcagaaggagccaccccacaagatttaaacaccatgctaaacacagtggggggacatcaagcagccatgcaaatgttaaaagagaccatcaa tgaggaagctgcagaatgggatagattgcatccagtgcatgcagggcctcatccaccaggccagatgagagaaccaaggggaagtgacatagcaggaactactagtacccttcaggaacaaatagcatggatgacaaataatccacctatcccagtaggagaaatctataagagatggataatcctgggat taaataaaatagtaaggatgtatagccctaccagcattctggacataaaacaaggaccaaaggaaccctttagagactatgtagaccggttctataagactctaagagccgagcaagcttcacaggaggtaaaaaattggatgacagaaaccttgttggtccaaaatgcgaacccagattgtaagactatt ttaaaagcattgggaccagcagctacactagaagaaatgatgacagcatgtcagggagtgggaggacccggccataaagcaagagttttggcagaagcaatgagccaagtaacaaattcagctaccataatgatgcagaaaggcaattttaggaaccaaagaaaaattgttaagtgtttcaattgtggcaa agaagggcacatagccaaaaattgcagggcccctaggaaaaggggctgttggaaatgtggaaaggagggacaccaaatgaaagattgtactgagagacaggctaattttttagggaaaatctggccttcccacaggggaaggccagggaattttcctcagaacagactagagccaacagccccaccagccc caccagaagagagcttcaggtttggggaagagacaacaactccctctcagaagcaggagctgatagacaaggaactgtatccttcagcttccctcaaatcactctttggcaacgaccccttgtcacaataaagataggggggcaactaaaggaagctctattagatacaggagcagatgatacagtattag aagaaataaatttgccaggaagatggaaaccaaaaatgatagggggaattggaggttttatcaaagtaagacagtatgatcaaatactcgtagaaatctgtggacataaagctataggtacagtattagtaggacctacacctgtcaacataattggaagaaatctgttgactcagattggttgcacttta aattttcccattagtcctattgaaactgtaccagtaaaattaaagccaggaatggatggcccaaaagttaaacaatggccattgacagaagaaaaaataaaagcattagtagaaatctgtacagaaatggaaaaggaaggaaaaatttcaaaaatcgggcctgaaaatccatataatactccagtatttgc cataaagaaaaaagacagtactaaatggagaaaattagtagatttcagagaacttaataagaaaactcaagacttctgggaagttcaattaggaataccacatcccgcagggttaaaaaagaaaaaatcagtaacagtactggatgtgggtgatgcatatttttcagttcccttagataaagaattcagga agtacactgcatttaccatacctagtataaacaatgagacaccagggattagatatcagtacaatgtgcttccacagggatggaaaggatcaccagcaatattccaaagcagcatgacaaaaatcttagagccttttagaaaacaaaatccagacatagttatctatcaatacatggacgatttgtatgta ggatctgacttagaaatagggcagcatagaacaaaaatagaggaactgagacaacatctgttgaagtggggatttaccacaccagacaaaaaacatcagaaagaacctccattcctttggatgggttatgaactccatcctgataaatggacagtacagcctatagtgctgccagaaaaggacagctggac tgtcaatgacatacagaagttagtgggaaaattgaattgggcaagtcagatttacccagggattaaagtaaagcaattatgtagactccttaggggaaccaaggcactaacagaagtaataccactaacaaaagaagcagagctagaactggcagaaaacagggaaattctaaaagaaccagtacatggag tgtattatgacccatcaaaagacttaatagcggaaatacagaagcaggggcaaggtcaatggacatatcaaatttatcaagagccatttaaaaatctgaaaacaggaaaatatgcaagaatgaggggtgcccacactaatgatgtaaaacaattaacagaggcagtgcaaaaaataaccacagaaagcata gtaatatggggaaagactcctaaatttaaactacccatacaaaaagaaacatgggaaacatggtggacagagtattggcaagccacctggattcctgagtgggagtttgtcaatacccctcccttagtaaaattatggtaccagttagagaaagaacccataataggagcagaaactttctatgtagatgg ggcagctaacagggagactaaattaggaaaagcaggatatgttactaacaaagggagacaaaaagttgtctccataactgacacaacaaatcagaagactgagttacaagcaattcttctagcattacaggattctggattagaagtaaacatagtaacagactcacaatatgcattaggaatcattcaag cacaaccagataaaagtgaatcagagatagtcagtcaaataatagagcagttaataaaaaaagaaaaggtctacctgacatgggtaccagcgcacaaaggaattggaggaaatgaacaagtagataaattagtcagtactggaatcaggaaagtactctttttagatggaatagataaagcccaagaagaa catgaaaaatatcacagtaattggagggcaatggctagtgattttaacctgccacctgtggtagcaaaagagatagtagccagctgtgataaatgtcagctaaaaggagaagccatgcatggacaagtagactgtagtccaggaatatggcaactagattgtacacatttagaaggaaaaattatcctggt agcagttcatgtagccagtggatatatagaagcagaagttattccagcagaaacagggcaggaaacagcatactttctcttaaaattagcaggaagatggccagtaaaaacagtacatacagacaatggcagcaatttcaccagtactacagttaaggccgcctgttggtgggcaggaatcaagcaggaat ttggcattccctacaatccccaaagtcaaggagtagtagaatctataaataaagaattaaagaaagttataggacagataagagatcaggctgaacatcttaagacagcagtacaaatggcagtattcatccacaattttaaaagaaaaggggggattggggggtacagtgcaggggaaagaatagtagac ataatagcaacagacatacaaactaaagaactacaaaaacaaattacaaaaattcaaaattttcgggtttattacagggacagcagagatccactttggaaaggaccagcaaagcttctctggaaaggtgaaggggcagtagtaatacaagataatagtgacataaaagtagtgccaagaagaaaagcaaa gatcattagggattatggaaaacagatggcaggtgatgattgtgtggcaagtagacaggatgaggattagaacatggaaaagtttagtaaaacaccatatgtatgtttcaaggaaagctaagggatggttttatagacatcactatgaaagtactcatccgagaataagttcagaagtacacatcccacta gggaatgcaaaattggtaataacaacatattggggtctacatacaggagaaagagactggcatttgggtcaaggagtctccatagaattgaggaaaaggagatatagcacacaattagaccctaacctagcagaccaactaattcatctgcattactttgattgtttttcagaatctgctataagaaatgc catattaggacatatagttagccctaggtgtgaatatcaagcaggacataacaaggtaggatctctacagtacttggcactaacagcattagtaagaccaagaaaaaagataaagccacctttgcctagtgttacaaaactgacagaggatagatggaacaagccccagaagaccaagggccacaaaggga accatacaatgaatggacactagaacttttagaggagctcaagaatgaagctgttagacattttcctaggatatggctccatagcttagggcaacatatctatgaaacttatggagatacttgggcaggagtggaagccataataagaattctgcaacaactgctgtttattcatttcagaattgggtgtc aacatagcagaatagacattcttcgacgaaggagagcaagaaatggagccagtagatcctagactagagccctggaagcatccaggaagtcagcctaggactgcttgtaccaattgctattgtaaaaagtgttgctttcattgccaagtttgtttcataacaaaaggcttaggcatctcctatggcaggaa gaagcggagacagcgacgaagagctcctcaagacagtcagactcatcaagtttctctatcaaagcagtaagtagtacatgtaatgcaatctttacaaatattagcagtagtagcattagtagtagcagcaataatagcaatagttgtgtggtccatagtattcatagaatataggaaaataagaagacaaa acaaaatagaaaggttgattgatagaataatagaaagagcagaagacagtggcaatgagagtgacggagatcaggaagaattatcagcacttgtggaaatggggcacgatgctccttgggatgttaatgatctgtaaagctgcagaaaatttgtgggtcacagtttattatggggtacctgtgtggaaaga agcaaccaccactctattttgtgcctcagatgctaaagcgtatgatacagaggtacataatgtttgggccacacatgcctgtgtacccacagaccccaacccacaagaagtagaactgaagaatgtgacagaaaattttaacatgtggaaaaataacatggtagaccaaatgcatgaggatataattagtt tatgggatcaaagcctaaagccatgtgtaaaattaaccccactctgtgttactttaaattgcactgattatgggaatgatactaacaccaataatagtagtgctactaaccccactagtagtagcgggggaatggaggggagaggagaaataaaaaattgctctttcaatatcaccagaagcataagagat aaagtgaagaaagaatatgcacttttttatagtcttgatgtaataccaataaaagatgataatactagctataggttgagaagttgtaacacctcagtcattacacaggcctgtccaaaggtatcctttgaaccaattcccatacattattgtgccccggctggttttgcgattctaaagtgtaatgataa aaagttcaatggaaaaggaccatgtacaaatgtcagcacagtacaatgtacacatggaattaggccagtagtatcaactcaactgctgttaaatggcagtctagcagaagaagaggtagtaattagatcagacaatttctcggacaatgctaaagtcataatagtacatctgaatgaatctgtagaaatta attgtacaagactcaacaacattacaaggagaagtatacatgtaggacatgtaggaccaggcagagcaatttatacaacaggaataataggaaaaataagacaagcacattgtaacattagtagagcaaaatggaataacactttaaaacagatagttacaaaattaagagaacaatttaagaataaaaca atagtctttaatcaatcctcaggaggggacccagaaattgtaatgcacagttttaattgtggaggggaatttttctactgtaattcaacacaactgtttaacagtacttggaatggtactgcatggtcaaataacactgaaggaaatgaaaatgacacaatcacactcccatgcagaataaaacaaattat aaacatgtggcaggaagtaggaaaagcaatgtatgcacctcccatcagaggacaaattagatgttcatcaaatattacagggctgatattaacaagagatggtggtattaaccagaccaacaccaccgagattttcaggcctggaggaggagatatgaaggacaattggagaagtgaattatataaatata aagtagtaaaaattgaaccattaggagtagcacccaccaaggcaaagagaagagtggtgcaaagagaaaaaagagcagtgggaataataggagctatgctccttgggttcttgggagcagcaggaagcactatgggcgcagcgtcaatgacgctgacggtacaggccagacaattattgtctggtatagtg caacagcagaacaatttgctgagggctattgaggcgcaacagcatctgttgcacctcacagtctggggcatcaagcagctccaagcaagagtcctggctgtggaaagatacctaagggatcaacagctcctggggttttggggttgctctggaaaactcatttgcaccactgctgtgccttggaatactag ttggagtaataaatctctgagtcagatttgggataacatgacctggatgcagtgggaaagggaaattgataattacacaagcttaatatacaacttaattgaagaatcgcaaaaccaacaagaaaagaatgaacaagagttattggaattagataactgggcaagtttgtggaattggtttagcataacaa attggctgtggtatataaaaatattcataatgatagtaggaggcttggtaggtttaagaatagtttttactgtactttctatagtaaatagagttaggcagggatactcaccattgtcgtttcagacgcgcctcccagccaggaggggacccgacaggcccgaaggaatcgaagaagaaggtggagagaga gacagagacagatccggtcaattagtggatggattcttagcaattatctgggtcgacctgcggagcctgtgcctcttcagctaccaccgcttgagagacttactcttgattgtaacgaggattgtggaacttctgggacgcagggggtgggaagccctcaaatattggtggaatctcctacaatattggat tcaggaactaaagaatagtgctgttagcttgctcaacgccacagccatagcagtagctgagggaactgatagggttatagaagtattacaaagagcttgtagagctattctccacatacctagaagaataagacagggcttagaaagggctttgcaataagatgggtggtaagtggtcaaaaagtagtaaa attggatggcctactgtaagggaaagaatgagaagagctgagccagcagcagatggggtgggagcagtatctcgagacctggaaaaacatggagcaatcacaagtagtaatacagcaactaacaatgctgattgtgcctggctagaagcacaagaggaggaggaggtgggttttccagtcagacctcaggt acctttaagaccaatgacttacaagggagcgttagatcttagccactttttaaaagaaaaggggggactggaagggctaatttggtcccagaaaagacaagacatccttgatttgtgggtccaccacacacaaggctacttccctgattggcagaactacacaccagggccagggatcagatatccactga cctttggttggtgcttcaagctagtaccagttgagccagagaaggtagaagaggccaatgaaggagagaacaacagattgttacaccctgtgagcctgcatgggatggaggacccggagaaagaagtgttagtatggaggtttgacagccgcctagtactccgtcacatggcccgagagctgcatccggag tactacaaggactgctgacactgagctttctacaagggactttccgctggggactttccagggaggcgtggcctgggcgggactggggagtggcgagccctcagatgctgcatataagcagctgctttttgcctgtactgggtctctcttgttagaccagatctgagcctgggagctctctggctaactag ggaacccactgcttaagcctcaataaagcttgccttgagtgcttcaggtctctcttgttagaccagatctgagcctgggagctctctggctaactagggaacccactgcttaagcctcaataaagcttgccttgagtgcttcaagtagtgtgtgcccgtctgttgtgtgactctgatagctagagatccct tcagaccaaatttagtcagtgtgaaaaatctctagcagtggcgcctgaacagggacttgaaagcgaaagagaaaccagagaagctctctcgacgcaggactcggcttgctgaagcgcgcacggcaagaggcgaggggacggcgactggtgagtacgccaaaattttgactagcggaggctagaaggagaga gatgggtgcgagagcgtcgatattaagcgggggaggattagatagatgggaaaaaattcggttaaggccagggggaaagaaaaaatatagattaaaacatttagtatgggcaagcagggagctagaacgattcgcagtcaatcctggcctattagaaacatcagaaggttgtagacaaatactgggacaac tacaaccagcccttcagacaggatcagaagaacttagatcattatataatacagtagcaaccctctattgtgtgcatcaaaagatagatgtaaaagacaccaaggaagctttagataagatagaggaagagcaaaacaaaagtaagaaaaaagcacagcaagcagcagctgacacaggaaatagcagccag gtcagccaaaattaccccatagtgcagaacatccaggggcaaatggtacatcaggccatatcacctagaactttaaatgcatgggtaaaagtagtagaagagaaggctttcagcccagaagtaatacccatgttttcagcattatcagaaggagccaccccacaagatttaaacaccatgctaaacacagt ggggggacatcaagcagccatgcaaatgttaaaagagaccatcaatgaggaagctgcagaatgggatagattgcatccagtgcatgcagggcctcatccaccaggccagatgagagaaccaaggggaagtgacatagcaggaactactagtacccttcaggaacaaatagcatggatgacaaataatccac ctatcccagtaggagaaatctataagagatggataatcctgggattaaataaaatagtaaggatgtatagccctaccagcattctggacataaaacaaggaccaaaggaaccctttagagactatgtagaccggttctataagactctaagagccgagcaagcttcacaggaggtaaaaaattggatgaca gaaaccttgttggtccaaaatgcgaacccagattgtaagactattttaaaagcattgggaccagcagctacactagaagaaatgatgacagcatgtcagggagtgggaggacccggccataaagcaagagttttggcagaagcaatgagccaagtaacaaattcagctaccataatgatgcagaaaggcaa ttttaggaaccaaagaaaaattgttaagtgtttcaattgtggcaaagaagggcacatagccaaaaattgcagggcccctaggaaaaggggctgttggaaatgtggaaaggagggacaccaaatgaaagattgtactgagagacaggctaattttttagggaaaatctggccttcccacaggggaaggccag ggaattttcctcagaacagactagagccaacagccccaccagccccaccagaagagagcttcaggtttggggaagagacaacaactccctctcagaagcaggagctgatagacaaggaactgtatccttcagcttccctcaaatcactctttggcaacgaccccttgtcacaataaagataggggggcaac taaaggaagctctattagatacaggagcagatgatacagtattagaagaaataaatttgccaggaagatggaaaccaaaaatgatagggggaattggaggttttatcaaagtaagacagtatgatcaaatactcgtagaaatctgtggacataaagctataggtacagtattagtaggacctacacctgtc aacataattggaagaaatctgttgactcagattggttgcactttaaattttcccattagtcctattgaaactgtaccagtaaaattaaagccaggaatggatggcccaaaagttaaacaatggccattgacagaagaaaaaataaaagcattagtagaaatctgtacagaaatggaaaaggaaggaaaaat ttcaaaaatcgggcctgaaaatccatataatactccagtatttgccataaagaaaaaagacagtactaaatggagaaaattagtagatttcagagaacttaataagaaaactcaagacttctgggaagttcaattaggaataccacatcccgcagggttaaaaaagaaaaaatcagtaacagtactggatg tgggtgatgcatatttttcagttcccttagataaagaattcaggaagtacactgcatttaccatacctagtataaacaatgagacaccagggattagatatcagtacaatgtgcttccacagggatggaaaggatcaccagcaatattccaaagcagcatgacaaaaatcttagagccttttagaaaacaa aatccagacatagttatctatcaatacatggacgatttgtatgtaggatctgacttagaaatagggcagcatagaacaaaaatagaggaactgagacaacatctgttgaagtggggatttaccacaccagacaaaaaacatcagaaagaacctccattcctttggatgggttatgaactccatcctgataa atggacagtacagcctatagtgctgccagaaaaggacagctggactgtcaatgacatacagaagttagtgggaaaattgaattgggcaagtcagatttacccagggattaaagtaaagcaattatgtagactccttaggggaaccaaggcactaacagaagtaataccactaacaaaagaagcagagctag aactggcagaaaacagggaaattctaaaagaaccagtacatggagtgtattatgacccatcaaaagacttaatagcggaaatacagaagcaggggcaaggtcaatggacatatcaaatttatcaagagccatttaaaaatctgaaaacaggaaaatatgcaagaatgaggggtgcccacactaatgatgta aaacaattaacagaggcagtgcaaaaaataaccacagaaagcatagtaatatggggaaagactcctaaatttaaactacccatacaaaaagaaacatgggaaacatggtggacagagtattggcaagccacctggattcctgagtgggagtttgtcaatacccctcccttagtaaaattatggtaccagtt agagaaagaacccataataggagcagaaactttctatgtagatggggcagctaacagggagactaaattaggaaaagcaggatatgttactaacaaagggagacaaaaagttgtctccataactgacacaacaaatcagaagactgagttacaagcaattcttctagcattacaggattctggattagaag taaacatagtaacagactcacaatatgcattaggaatcattcaagcacaaccagataaaagtgaatcagagatagtcagtcaaataatagagcagttaataaaaaaagaaaaggtctacctgacatgggtaccagcgcacaaaggaattggaggaaatgaacaagtagataaattagtcagtactggaatc aggaaagtactctttttagatggaatagataaagcccaagaagaacatgaaaaatatcacagtaattggagggcaatggctagtgattttaacctgccacctgtggtagcaaaagagatagtagccagctgtgataaatgtcagctaaaaggagaagccatgcatggacaagtagactgtagtccaggaat atggcaactagattgtacacatttagaaggaaaaattatcctggtagcagttcatgtagccagtggatatatagaagcagaagttattccagcagaaacagggcaggaaacagcatactttctcttaaaattagcaggaagatggccagtaaaaacagtacatacagacaatggcagcaatttcaccagta ctacagttaaggccgcctgttggtgggcaggaatcaagcaggaatttggcattccctacaatccccaaagtcaaggagtagtagaatctataaataaagaattaaagaaagttataggacagataagagatcaggctgaacatcttaagacagcagtacaaatggcagtattcatccacaattttaaaaga aaaggggggattggggggtacagtgcaggggaaagaatagtagacataatagcaacagacatacaaactaaagaactacaaaaacaaattacaaaaattcaaaattttcgggtttattacagggacagcagagatccactttggaaaggaccagcaaagcttctctggaaaggtgaaggggcagtagtaat acaagataatagtgacataaaagtagtgccaagaagaaaagcaaagatcattagggattatggaaaacagatggcaggtgatgattgtgtggcaagtagacaggatgaggattagaacatggaaaagtttagtaaaacaccatatgtatgtttcaaggaaagctaagggatggttttatagacatcactat Αναζήτηση γονιδίων σε ευκαρυωτικά γονιδιόματα... Μερικά προβλήματα: Η πολυπλοκότητα των γονιδιομάτων αυξάνεταια με τη πολυπλοκότητα των οργανισμών 1-2 % κωδικοποιούσες αλληλουχίεςcoding sequence Δομές εξωνίων –ιντρονίων Εναλλακτική ωρίμανση (Alternative splicing) (~30% όλων των γονιδίων) Ψευδογονίδια Bioinformatics I

11 Μεταγραφή DNA 5’3’ mRNA Splicing Translation Poly- peptide Αναδίπλωση Protein Μεταφορά Ολιγομερισμός Μετα-μεταφραστικές ρυθμίσεις (Post-Translational Modification) ΛειτουργίαΛειτοyργία Γιατί χρειαζόμαστε τη βιοπληροφορική; Bioinformatics I Υπο ποιές συνθήκες μταγράφεται ένα γονίδιο;

12 Ανάλυση γονιδιακής εκφρασης DNA Μικροσυστοιχίες και εκτυπωμένο DNA Chip Οι μικροσυστοιχίες είναι ομάδες DNA μορίων γνωστών αλληλουχιών τοποθετημένες σε ένα τσιπ (π.χ. Από γυαλί). Συνήθως έχουν ορθογώνιο σχήμα και αποτελούνται από μερικές εκατοντάδες έως εκατοντάδες χιλιάδες ομάδες. Κάθε συγκεκριμένη αλληλουχία βρίσκεται στη μικροσυστοιχία σε καθορισμένη θέση. Κύριος σκοπός είναι η σύγκριση της μεταγραφής γονιδίων σε δύο ή περισσότερα διαφορετικά είδη των κυττάρων. Bioinformatics I

13 Η δημιουργία ενός Chip E.g. Micro-spotting Bioinformatics I

14 1 - Δείγματα 2 - Εξαγωγή mRNA 3 - Σήμανση 4 - Υβριδοποίηση 5 - Σάρωση 6 – Οπτικοποίηση Bioinformatics I Συγκριτικό πείραμα υβριδοποίησης

15 Affymetrix GenechipMicroarray (spotted) Παραδείγματα εικόνων Bioinformatics I

16 Bioinformatics I Η εξόρυξη δεδομένων εξαρτάται από τις ερωτήσεις που τίθενται. Η πιο συχνή ερώτηση είναι να βρεθούν τα σύνολα γονιδίων που έχουν ίδια προφίλ έκφρασης (που ανήκουν στην ίδια βιολογική διαδικασία ή συν-ρυθμίζονται), ή να διαιρεθούν τα γονίδια σε ομάδες με παρόμοια προφίλ γονιδιακής έκφρασης. Μια μέθοδος για να απαντηθούν αυτά τα ερωτήματα είναι CLUSTERING. Κατανόηση της λειτουργίς απο τα δεδομένα

17 Bioinformatics I ExPASy Web Server ExPASy = Expert Protein Analysis System

18 Βάσεις δεδομένων μοριακής βιολογίς… AATDB, AceDb, ACUTS, ADB, AFDB, AGIS, AMSdb, ARR, AsDb, BBDB, BCGD, Beanref, Biolmage, BioMagResBank, BIOMDB, BLOCKS, BovGBASE, BOVMAP, BSORF, BTKbase, CANSITE, CarbBank, CARBHYD, CATH, CAZY, CCDC, CD4OLbase, CGAP, ChickGBASE, Colibri, COPE, CottonDB, CSNDB, CUTG, CyanoBase, dbCFC, dbEST, dbSTS, DDBJ, DGP, DictyDb, Picty_cDB, DIP, DOGS, DOMO, DPD, DPlnteract, ECDC, ECGC, EC02DBASE, EcoCyc, EcoGene, EMBL, EMD db, ENZYME, EPD, EpoDB, ESTHER, FlyBase, FlyView, GCRDB, GDB, GENATLAS, Genbank, GeneCards, Genline, GenLink, GENOTK, GenProtEC, GermOnline GIFTS, GPCRDB, GRAP, GRBase, gRNAsdb, GRR, GSDB, HAEMB, HAMSTERS, HEART-2DPAGE, HEXAdb, HGMD, HIDB, HIDC, HlVdb, HotMolecBase, HOVERGEN, HPDB, HSC-2DPAGE, ICN, ICTVDB, IL2RGbase, IMGT, Kabat, KDNA, KEGG, Klotho, LGIC, MAD, MaizeDb, MDB, Medline, Mendel, MEROPS, MGDB, MGI, MHCPEP5 Micado, MitoDat, MITOMAP, MJDB, MmtDB, Mol-R-Us, MPDB, MRR, MutBase, MycDB, NDB, NRSub, 0-lycBase, OMIA, OMIM, OPD, ORDB, OWL, PAHdb, PatBase, PDB, PDD, Pfam, PhosphoBase, PigBASE, PIR, PKR, PMD, PPDB, PRESAGE, PRINTS, ProDom, Prolysis, PROSITE, PROTOMAP, RatMAP, RDP, REBASE, RGP, SBASE, SCOP, SeqAnaiRef, SGD, SGP, SheepMap, Soybase, SPAD, SRNA db, SRPDB, STACK, StyGene,Sub2D, SubtiList, SWISS-2DPAGE, SWISS- 3DIMAGE, SWISS- MODEL Repository, SWISS-PROT, TelDB, TGN, tmRDB, TOPS, TRANSFAC, TRR, UniGene, URNADB, V BASE, VDRR, VectorDB, WDCM, WIT, WormPep, YEPD, YPD, YPM, etc Bioinformatics I

19 Μεταγραφή DNA 5’3’ mRNA Splicing Translation Poly- peptide Αναδίπλωση Protein Μεταφορά Ολιγομερισμός Μετα-μεταφραστικές ρυθμίσεις (Post-Translational Modification) ΛειτουργίαΛειτοyργί α Γιατί χρειαζόμαστε τη βιοπληροφορική; Bioinformatics I Μπορούμε να προβλέψουμε τη δομή των πρωτεΪνών;

20 Στοίχιση και συγκριση αλληλουχιών 1: MYTAILORISRICH 2: MONTAILLEURESTRICHE 1: MY-TAIL--ORIS-RICH- ¦x ¦¦¦¦ x¦x¦ ¦¦¦¦ 2: MONTAILLEURESTRICHE ¦ = Ταύτιση x = Αταίριαστο - = Προσθήκη / Αφαίρεση 1: TAILO RICH ¦¦¦¦x ¦¦¦¦ 2: TAILL RICHE Ολική Στοίχιση Τοπική Στοίχιση Bioinformatics I

21 HBA_CHICK VL-SAADKNNVKGIFTKIAGHAEEYGAETLERMFTTYPPTKTYFPHF-DL 48 HBAD_CHICK ML-TAEDKKLIQQAWEKAASHQEEFGAEALTRMFTTYPQTKTYFPHF-DL 48 HBPI_CHICK AL-TQAEKAAVTTIWAKVATQIESIGLESLERLFASYPQTKTYFPHF-DV 48 HBB_CHICK VHWTAEEKQLITGLWGKV--NVAECGAEALARLLIVYPWTQRFFASFGNL 48 HBE_CHICK VHWSAEEKQLITSVWSKV--NVEECGAEALARLLIVYPWTQRFFASFGNL 48 HBRH_CHICK VHWSAEEKQLITSVWSKV--NVEECGAEALARLLIVYPWTQRFFDNFGNL 48 MYG_CHICK GL-SDQEWQQVLTIWGKVEADIAGHGHEVLMRLFHDHPETLDRFDKFKGL *... * * * *...* * * *.. HBA_CHICK SH-----GSAQIKGHGKKVVAALIEAANHIDDIAGTLSKLSDLHAHKLRV 93 HBAD_CHICK SP-----GSDQVRGHGKKVLGALGNAVKNVDNLSQAMAELSNLHAYNLRV 93 HBPI_CHICK SQ-----GSVQLRGHGSKVLNAIGEAVKNIDDIRGALAKLSELHAYILRV 93 HBB_CHICK SSPTAILGNPMVRAHGKKVLTSFGDAVKNLDNIKNTFSQLSELHCDKLHV 98 HBE_CHICK SSPTAIMGNPRVRAHGKKVLSSFGEAVKNLDNIKNTYAKLSELHCDKLHV 98 HBRH_CHICK SSPTAIIGNPKVRAHGKKVLSSFGEAVKNLDNIKNTYAKLSELHCEKLHV 98 MYG_CHICK KTPDQMKGSEDLKKHGATVLTQLGKILKQKGNHESELKPLAQTHATKHKI 99. *... **.* *.. *.. HBA_CHICK DPVNFKLLGQCFLVVVAIHHPAALTPEVHASLDKFLCAVGTVLTAKYR HBAD_CHICK DPVNFKLLSQCIQVVLAVHMGKDYTPEVHAAFDKFLSAVSAVLAEKYR HBPI_CHICK DPVNFKLLSHCILCSVAARYPSDFTPEVHAEWDKFLSSISSVLTEKYR HBB_CHICK DPENFRLLGDILIIVLAAHFSKDFTPECQAAWQKLVRVVAHALARKYH HBE_CHICK DPENFRLLGDILIIVLASHFARDFTPACQFAWQKLVNVVAHALARKYH HBRH_CHICK DPENFRLLGNILIIVLAAHFTKDFTPTCQAVWQKLVSVVAHALAYKYH MYG_CHICK PVKYLEFISEVIIKVIAEKHAADFGADSQAAMKKALELFRNDMASKYKEF * *... **. HBA_CHICK HBAD_CHICK HBPI_CHICK HBB_CHICK HBE_CHICK HBRH_CHICK MYG_CHICK GFQG 153 Consensus length: 154; Identity : 19 ( 12.3%); Similarity: 51 ( 33.1%) Character to show that a position in the alignment is perfectly conserved: '*' Character to show that a position is well conserved: '.' Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA) Programs: CLUSTALW T_COFFEE MULTALIGN Bioinformatics I

22 NCBI BLAST BLAST: Basic Local Alignment Search Tool

23 Μεταγραφή DNA 5’3’ mRNA Splicing Translation Poly- peptide Αναδίπλωση Protein Μεταφορά Ολιγομερισμός Μετα-μεταφραστικές ρυθμίσεις (Post-Translational Modification) ΛειτουργίαΛειτοyργί α Γιατί χρειαζόμαστε τη βιοπληροφορική; Bioinformatics I Μπορούμε να προβλέψουμε τη δομή των πρωτεΪνών;

24 Secondary Structure (3-state model: EHL) Solvent accessibility (E)  -Strand (H)  -Helix 1-D property predictions SEQKELVLALYDYQEKSPREVTMKKGDILTLLNSTNKDWWKVEVNDRQGFVPAAYVKKLD SS EEEE E E E EEEEEE EEEEEE EEEEEEHHHEEEE Bioinformatics I

25 Μοντελοποίηση δομής Πρωτεϊνών MNIFEMLRID EGLRLKIYKD TEGYYTIGIG HLLTKSPSLN AAKSELDKAI GRNCNGVITK DEAEKLFNQD VDAAVRGILR NAKLKPVYDS LDAVRRCALI NMVFQMGETG VAGFTNSLRM LQQKRWDEAA VNLAKSRWYN QTPNRAKRVI TTFRTGTWDA YKNL Ab initio μοντελοποίηση Αναγνώριση πτυχώσεων Ομολογία ? Bioinformatics I

26 Μερικές σχετικές παρατηρήσεις... Είναι ένα επιστημονικό πεδίο που συμπληρώνει, αλλά δεν υποκαθιστά την πειραματική έρευνα Μπορεί να βοηθήσει στο σχεδιασμό πειραμάτων όχι να τα υποκαταστήσει Οι καλές βιοπληροφορικές μελέτες απαιτούν πολύ χρόνο Bioinformatics I


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