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Matth 2:23 By Associate Professor Erik Waaler Dr. Theol. NLA University College Norway Why was Jesus called a Nazarean?

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1 Matth 2:23 By Associate Professor Erik Waaler Dr. Theol. NLA University College Norway Why was Jesus called a Nazarean?

2 Text of Matthew 2:23 MGK Matthew 2:23 καὶ ἐλθὼν κατῴκησεν εἰς πόλιν λεγομένην Ναζαρέτ, διὰ νὰ πληρωθῇ τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ τῶν προφητῶν · ὅτι Ναζωραῖος θέλει ὀνομασθῆ. (Mat 2:23 MGK) NIV Matthew 2:23 and he went and lived in a town called Nazareth. So was fulfilled what was said through the prophets: "He will be called a Nazarene." (Mat 2:23 NIV)

3 What does Ναζωρα i ο s mean? Which Old testament text is quoted? «

4 What is the meaning? 1) It is a gentilic – that is application of village name to an inhabitant of that village 2) It is a fulfillment of a particular prophecy The question is: Which text is quoted? What meaning does this quotation impact? MGK Matthew 2:23 καὶ ἐλθὼν κατῴκησεν εἰς πόλιν λεγομένην Ναζαρέτ, διὰ νὰ πληρωθῇ τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ τῶν προφητῶν · ὅτι Ναζωραῖος θέλει ὀνομασθῆ. (Mat 2:23 MGK)

5 Clearly a gentilic referring to Nazareth This is the church at Nazareth of today Is reference to this place the only meaning???? The Church in Nazareth Inside view of old ruin within the church

6 Is it a quotation? ὅπως πληρωθῇ τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ τῶν προφητῶν ὅτι Ναζωραῖος κληθήσεται (Mat 2:23 BGT) διὰ νὰ πληρωθῇ τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ τῶν προφητῶν · ὅτι Ναζωραῖος θέλει ὀνομασθῆ. (Mat 2:23 MGK) Phrase with words of writing, like “it is written” (e.g. τὸ ῥηθὲν ), is often used when a proper quotation is not in place. It indicates application and interpretation [in ancient Greek culture, among the Jews (f.ex. in Qumran) and possibly also in the Christian Church] Fulfill ( πληρωθῇ ) might be used about a prophecy, but it is also used about “keeping the law” – thus πληροω is less restrictive and have the meaning “abidance with” thus obedience

7 What is a quoatation? Modern: Reference (in footnotes), quotation marks (“”) exact wording and high level of consciousness. The implication is that an exact quotation does not change meaning. This is simply false. Try irony, intonation only may change a text. Ancient: Verbal exactness not necessary. No quotation marks. More interpretive reuse of text. The author was more aware of his interpretative activity

8 Various suggestions about the background Not from the Old Testament Pre-christaian Syrian jewish sect of Nasareans This is unlikely: The spelling is diffrerent for the different categories Confusion with a different sect is difficult to explain in Christian documents Epiphanius (Panar. i.29.6) However: The Christians are called: Ναζωραιοι Those with a nazirite vow is called: Ναζιραιοι The Jewish sect is called: Νασαραιοι

9 Those who “fall of”= apostate Backgroun in a Hebrew word with this meaning ( rsn / rvn ) However: Not attested in later sources And: A word meaning apostate is not very likely in a christian document Not: Ἰησοῦς ἀποστάτης Χριστός

10 Isaiah 11:1 κλάδος ἐκ τῶν ῥιζῶν Ἰεσσαί Isaiah 11:111, 1: καὶ ἐξελεύσεται ῥάβδος ἐκ τῆς ῥίζης Ἰεσσαὶ καὶ ἄνθος (=netser) ἐκ τῆς ῥίζης ἀναβήσεται καὶ ἀναπαύσεται ἐπ᾽ αὐτὸν Πνεῦμα τοῦ Θεοῦ ( βλ. και Ησ. 60, 21 [ Μασ.]: μονάχα δίκαιοι θ ’ αποτελούνε το λαό σου, Ιερουσαλήμ, κι αυτοί για πάντα θα κατέχουνε τη γη. Αυτοί, βλαστάρι [=netser] της φυτείας μου, το δημιούργημά μου, θα φανερώνουνε τη δόξα μου ) NIV Isaiah 11:1 A shoot will come up from the stump of Jesse; from his roots a Branch will bear fruit. (Isa 11:1 NIV) The Greek term κλάδος is spelled «nezer» ( נֵצֶר ) in Hebrew, meaning branch or rootshot. This is a well known text that the Jews interpreted in a messianic sense.

11 To guard or a guard MGK Isaiah 42:6 Ἐγὼ ὁ Κύριος σὲ ἐκάλεσα ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ, καὶ θέλω κρατεῖ τὴν χεῖρά σου καὶ θέλω σὲ φυλάττει καὶ θέλω σὲ καταστήσει διαθήκην τοῦ λαοῦ, φῶς τῶν ἐθνῶν · (Isa 42:6 MGK) MGK Jeremiah 31:6 Διότι θέλει εἶσθαι ἡμέρα, καθ ἥν οἱ φύλακες ἐπὶ τοῦ ὄρους Ἐφραῒμ θέλουσι φωνάζει, Σηκώθητε καὶ ἄς ἀναβῶμεν εἰς τὴν Σιὼν πρὸς Κύριον τὸν Θεὸν ἡμῶν. (Jer 31:6 MGK) Nasorene means: to keep or guard something - that is φυλάττει (hebrew ‘esorah’ from nazar)(see futher Isa 49:6 which is less obvious in Greek transl.) Nasorene means : A guard φύλακες (with reference to same root, but this time as a noun) in hebrew nosrim which is the form in the Talmud. Both would in some sense point to the same This text is not use as a messianic text in Judaism or Christianity elsewhere

12 Nazirite Judges 16:17 = Holy MGK Judges 16:17 ἐφανέρωσε πρὸς αὐτὴν ὅλην τὴν καρδίαν αὑτοῦ καὶ εἶπε πρὸς αὐτὴν, ξυράφιον δὲν ἀνέβη ἐπὶ τὴν κεφαλήν μου · διότι ἐγὼ εἶμαι Ναζηραῖος εἰς τὸν Θεὸν ἐκ κοιλίας μητρὸς μου. (Jdg 16:17 MGK) Alternative spelling In the LXX (Septuagint, Greek Old Testament ) The Hebrew term Ναζηραῖος is often translated ‘holy’ ἅγιος Another version of this is crown (noun), sign of consecration.

13 Last alternative: No Old Testament reference at all / unknown As no clear reference text is found, we have a quotation from an unknown source … We shall look at the two most common solutions

14 Focus on two solutions 1) Ναζωραῖος = ῥίζα 2) Ναζωραῖος = διάδημα / ἁγιασμός

15 The difference is not big, one letter 1) נצר in Greek should be Νασωραῖος 2) נזר in Greek NT Ναζωραῖος

16 Branch of her (i.e. Egypts) roots Ἐκ τοῦ βλαστοῦ ὅμως τῶν ῥιζῶν αὐτῆς θέλει σηκωθῆ τις ἀντ αὐτοῦ (Dan 11:7 MGK) But out of a branch of her roots shall one stand up in his estate, (Dan 11:7 KJG) This is from the kingdom of the south καὶ ἐνισχύσει βασιλείαν Αἰγύπτου, Dan 11:5 BGT This text is about the relationship between Syria and Egypt It does not fit our context very well

17 Better with the traditional Isa 11:1 Καὶ θέλει ἐξέλθει ῥάβδος ἐκ τοῦ κορμοῦ τοῦ Ἰεσσαί, καὶ κλάδος θέλει ἀναβῆ ἐκ τῶν ῥιζῶν αὐτοῦ · (Isa 11:1 MGK) Ἄκουε τώρα, Ἰησοῦ ὁ ἱερεὺς ὁ μέγας, σὺ καὶ οἱ ἑταῖροί σου οἱ καθήμενοι ἐνώπιόν σου, ἐπειδὴ αὐτοὶ εἶναι ἄνθρωποι θαυμάσιοι · διότι ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ θέλω φέρει ἔξω τὸν δοῦλόν μου τὸν Βλαστόν. (Zec 3:8 MGK) And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a Branch shall grow out of his roots (Isa 11:1 KJG) Parallel, but with another term for branch: Hear now, O Joshua the high priest, thou, and thy fellows that sit before thee: for they are men wondered at: for, behold, I will bring forth my servant the BRANCH. (Zec 3:8 KJG)

18 1) Isa 11:1; A text that is frequent in the New Tetament, but … Καὶ πάλιν ὁ Ἡσαΐας λέγει · Θέλει εἶσθαι ἡ ῥίζα τοῦ Ἰεσσαί, Καὶ ὁ ἀνιστάμενος διὰ νὰ βασιλεύῃ ἐπὶ τὰ ἔθνη · (Rom 15:12 MGK) Μὴ κλαῖε · ἰδού, ὑπερίσχυσεν ὁ λέων, ὅστις εἶναι ἐκ τῆς φυλῆς Ἰούδα, ἡ ῥίζα τοῦ Δαβίδ, (Rev 5:5 MGK) Ἐγὼ ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἔπεμψα τὸν ἄγγελόν μου νὰ μαρτυρήσῃ εἰς ἐσᾶς ταῦτα εἰς τὰς ἐκκλησίας. Ἐγὼ εἶμαι ἡ ῥίζα καὶ τὸ γένος τοῦ Δαβίδ, (Rev 22:16 MGK) These texts have ῥί ζα, but no reference to a branch κλ ά δος i.e. naziraios And again, Esaias saith, There shall be a root of Jesse, and he that shall rise to reign over the Gentiles; in him shall the Gentiles trust. (Rom 15:12 KJG) Then one of the elders said to me, "Do not weep! See, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, has triumphed. He is able to open the scroll and its seven seals." (Rev 5:5 NIV) I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright and morning star. (Rev 22:16 KJG)

19 2. Other problems How do you get from Νασαρεθ, Νασαρετ or Νασαρα - ε ἰ ς π ό λιν λεγομ έ νην Ναζαρ έ τ (Mat 2:23) Κα ὶ ἦ λθεν ε ἰ ς Ναζαρ ά, (Luk 4:16) Ιησο ῦ ς ὁ ἀ π ὸ Ναζαρ ὲ θ τ ῆ ς Γαλιλα ί ας. (Mat 21:11) Το Ναζωραιος There is no tradition for the transcription of the term Νασαρ But there is a tradition for the trascription of the term Ναζαρ

20 Talmud, Aramaic, Peshitta ha-Nôzrîm” which might also be interpreted “the guards” (see b.Tan. 27 b ) Aramaic language in Syria, namely the terms “Nāzōrăth” from aramaic Nā ṣ ōrĕth נצרת (Mat 2:23 PEH) נָצרַת ̅ (Mat 2:23 PHA) It must be noted that Albright has argued that an assimilation of the middle consonant from ς ( צ ) to ζ ( ז ) is possible in Aramaic expressions

21 Talmud “The two censored traditions about Jesus and his disciples which would occur at b.San.43a were brought into the Talmudic discussions early in the 3 rd century and removed in the 15 th and 16 th centuries. External evidence gives independent witness that the earliest core in this tradition was: ‘On the Eve of Passover, they hung Jesus of Nazareth for sorcery and enticing Israel [to idolatry]’” (Instone-Brewer 2012*: 20).Instone-Brewer 2012*: 20 In this text Jesus is called: Ιησου ἁνοζρι. ( ישו הנוצרי, 2x in Av.Zar. 16b-17a)

22 Talmud 3 “Netzer was brought. He said to them: “Is Netzer to be put to death? Yet it is written: ‘A Netzer [branch] shall spring up out of his roots’” (Is. 11: 1). They answered himn: “Netzer is to put to death; for it is said ’Thou art cast forth from thy sepulchre, like an abdominable Netzer’ (Isa 14:9)” (Talmud Sanhedrin 43a) transl. Dalman We already know the Isa 11:1 text which obviously is the Christian perspective Isa 14:19 is the Jewish perspective MGK Isaiah 14:19 σὺ δὲ ἀπερρίφθης τοῦ τάφου σου ὡς κλάδος βδελυκτός, ἱμάτιον κεκεντημένων, πεφονευμένων ἐν μαχαίρᾳ, καταβαινόντων εἰς τὰς πέτρας τοῦ λάκκου · ὡς πτῶμα καταπατούμενον. (Isa 14:19 MGK) KJG Isaiah 14:19 But thou art cast out of thy grave like an abominable branch, and as the raiment of those that are slain, thrust through with a sword, that go down to the stones of the pit; as a carcase trodden under feet. (Isa 14:19 KJG)

23 In addition to this there is an early possible reference to Nazareth in a Hebrew list of towns - found in an excavation in Caesarea. This text has the reading νασαραθ ( נצראת ) not ναζαραθ The nun ( ν, נ ) is somewhat uncertain (Avi-Yonah 1981: ).Avi-Yonah 1981: “The discovery was important because it solved an old dispute. It had not been clear from the Greek orthography ( Ναζαρέτ [ θ ], or the variant Ναζαρά ) whether ‘Nazareth’ in Hebrew was written with zade ( צ ) or with zayin ( ז ). The Clear צ in the inscription supports the connection of the name with nezer, ‘branch’” (Pixner et al. 2010: 29); similarly Mimouni (1998: 220).Pixner et al. 2010: : 220

24 The Jewish material gives us νασαραθ = κλ ά δος

25 Another solution να z αραθ = holy or sign of holiness (crown)

26 Is this a picture of Jesus? 3 θέλει ἐγκρατεύεσθαι ἀπὸ οἴνου καὶ ἀπὸ σίκερα καὶ δὲν θέλει πίει ὄξος ἀπὸ οἴνου ἤ ὄξος ἀπὸ σίκερα οὔτε θέλει πίει ὅ, τι εἶναι κατεσκευασμένον ἀπὸ σταφυλῆς οὔτε θέλει φάγει σταφυλὴν πρόσφατον οὐδὲ σταφίδας. 4 Πάσας τὰς ἡμέρας τῆς ἀφιερώσεως αὐτοῦ δὲν θέλει φάγει οὐδὲν ἐκ τῶν ὅσα γίνονται ἐξ ἀμπέλου, ἀπὸ φλοιοῦ σταφυλῆς ἕως κόκκου αὐτῆς. 5 Πάσας τὰς ἡμέρας τῆς εὐχῆς τῆς ἀφιερώσεως αὐτοῦ δὲν θέλει περάσει ξυράφιον ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτοῦ, ἑωσοῦ πληρωθῶσιν αἱ ἡμέραι, τὰς ὁποίας εὐχήθη εἰς τὸν Κύριον · ἅγιος θέλει εἶσθαι, ἀφίνων τὰς τρίχας τῆς κόμης τῆς κεφαλῆς αὑτοῦ νὰ αὐξάνωσι. 6 Πάσας τὰς ἡμέρας τῆς ἀφιερώσεως αὐτοῦ εἰς τὸν Κύριον δὲν θέλει εἰσέλθει εἰς τεθνεῶτα. (Num 6:3-6 MGK) 3 He shall separate himself from wine and strong drink, and shall drink no vinegar of wine, or vinegar of strong drink, neither shall he drink any liquor of grapes, nor eat moist grapes, or dried. 4 All the days of his separation shall he eat nothing that is made of the vine tree, from the kernels even to the husk. 5 All the days of the vow of his separation there shall no razor come upon his head: until the days be fulfilled, in the which he separateth himself unto the LORD, he shall be holy, and shall let the locks of the hair of his head grow. 6 All the days that he separateth himself unto the LORD he shall come at no dead body. (Num 6:3-6 KJG) There is no focus on long hair, we know that he drank wine, he did assosiate with corpses,. Jesus is not a typical Nazirite

27 The end of the nazirite vow 18 Καὶ ὁ Ναζηραῖος θέλει ξυρισθῆ τὴν κεφαλὴν τῆς ἀφιερώσεως αὑτοῦ εἰς τὴν θύραν τῆς σκηνῆς τοῦ μαρτυρίου, καὶ θέλει λάβει τὰς τρίχας τῆς κεφαλῆς τῆς ἀφιερώσεως αὑτοῦ καὶ ἐπιθέσει ἐπὶ τοῦ πυρὸς τοῦ ὑποκάτω τῆς εἰρηνικῆς θυσίας. 19 (Num 6:18-19 MGK) Shaving the head and offering sacrifice

28 Like Samson MGK Judges 13:5 διότι, ἰδού, θέλεις συλλάβει καὶ θέλεις γεννήσει υἱόν · καὶ ξυράφιον δὲν θέλει ἀναβῆ ἐπὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτοῦ, διότι τὸ παιδίον θέλει εἶσθαι Ναζηραῖος εἰς τὸν Θεὸν ἐκ κοιλίας μητρὸς αὑτοῦ · καὶ αὐτὸς θέλει ἀρχίσει νὰ ἐλευθερόνῃ τὸν Ἰσραὴλ ἐκ τῆς χειρὸς τῶν Φιλισταίων. (Jdg 13:5 MGK) For, lo, thou shalt conceive, and bear a son; and no razor shall come on his head: for the child shall be a Nazarite unto God from the womb: and he shall begin to deliver Israel out of the hand of the Philistines. (Jdg 13:5 KJG)

29 The priests also have a nazirite crwon MGK Leviticus 21:12 Καὶ ἐκ τοῦ ἁγιαστηρίου δὲν θέλει ἐξέλθει οὐδὲ θέλει βεβηλώσει τὸ ἁγιαστήριον τοῦ Θεοῦ αὑτοῦ · διότι τὸ ἅγιον ἔλαιον τοῦ χρίσματος τοῦ Θεοῦ αὐτοῦ εἶναι ἐπ αὐτόν. Ἐγὼ εἶμαι ὁ Κύριος. (Lev 21:12 MGK) 12 Neither shall he go out of the sanctuary, nor profane the sanctuary of his God; for the crown of the anointing oil of his God is upon him: I am the LORD. (Lev 21:12 KJG) Eusebius connects this text with Matthew 2:23

30 The king MGK 2 Kings 11:12 Τότε ἐξήγαγε τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ βασιλέως καὶ ἐπέθεσεν ἐπ αὐτὸν τὸ διάδημα ( ἔδωκεν ἐπ᾽ αὐτὸν τὸ νεζερ LXX) καὶ τὸ μαρτύριον · καὶ ἔκαμον αὐτὸν βασιλέα καὶ ἔχρισαν αὐτόν · καὶ κροτήσαντες τὰς χεῖρας, εἶπον, Ζήτω ὁ βασιλεύς (2Ki 11:12 MGK) KJG 2 Kings 11:12 And he brought forth the king's son, and put the crown upon him, and gave him the testimony; and gave him his crown, and anointed him; and they clapped their hands, and said, God save the king.

31 The vine καὶ δὲν θέλετε τρυγήσει τὴν ἀκλάδευτον ἄμπελον αὐτοῦ · (Lev 25:11 MGK) nor gather the grapes in it of thy vine undressed. (Lev 25:11 KJG) The undressed view is the nazirite wine, the holy wine

32 Nazirite mans sign of holiness “In view of the fact that the long hair of a Nazirite was a n¢zer denoting his consecration, and the head plate of a priest was a n¢zer denoting his consecration, the word n¢zer appears not to connote “crown” in the primary sense, but crown in the sense of the sign of one’s consecration. This could be one’s hair as well as a headpiece. The n¢zer was a sign of the king’s consecration to his office just as it was a sign of the Nazirite’s consecration to God” (TWOT, Biblewindows).

33 New Testament combination of naziraios and holy In Acts 26:9-10 Paul speaks of τὸ ὄνομα Ἰησοῦ τοῦ Ναζωραίου and he further describes his (Paul’s) persecution of τῶν ἁγίων ; τῶν ἁγίων ; Mt 27:52, Acts 9:13, 32, 41; 26:10, 15:25- 26, 2Cor 8:4, 9:1 About the Christians in Jerusalem but also in the congregations of Paul KJG Mark 1:24 Saying, Let us alone; what have we to do with thee, thou Jesus of Nazareth? art thou come to destroy us? I know thee who thou art, the Holy One of God. MGK Mark 1:24 λέγων · Φεῦ, τί εἶναι μεταξὺ ἡμῶν καὶ σοῦ, Ἰησοῦ Ναζαρηνέ ᾐλθες νὰ μᾶς ἀπολέσῃς σὲ γνωρίζω τίς εἶσαι, ὁ Ἅγιος τοῦ Θεοῦ.

34 Church fathers Epiphanius, writing about A.D. 375, identified the term Nazorean as coming from the place name (Panarion 29:5:5, 6:5,7, 7:1 ): “Not ‘nazirites’ – that means ‘consecrated persons’ ( καλεῖσθαι Ναζωραίους – οὐχὶ Ναζιραίους, τὸ ἑρμηνευόμενον ἡγιασμένους ). Williams (1987: xiii)1987: xiii

35 Combination of crown and anointing διότι τὸ ἅγιον ἔλαιον τοῦ χρίσματος τοῦ Θεοῦ αὐτοῦ εἶναι ἐπ αὐτόν. (Lev 21:12 MGK) KJV Leviticus 21:12 “Neither shall he go out of the sanctuary, nor profane the sanctuary of his God; for the crown of the anointing oil of his God [ כִּ ֡ י נֵ ֠ זֶר שֶׁ ֣ מֶן מִשְׁחַ ֧ ת אֱלֹהָ ֛ יו, LXX: τὸ ἅγιον ἔλαιον τὸ χριστὸν τοῦ θεοῦ ) is upon him: I am the LORD.”

36 The amalekit takes the crown of Saul 6 Καὶ εἶπεν ὁ νέος ὁ ἀπαγγέλλων πρὸς αὐτόν, Εὐρέθην κατὰ τύχην ἐν τῷ ὄρει Γελβουέ, καὶ ἰδού, ὁ Σαοὺλ ᾐτο κεκλιμένος ἐπὶ τοῦ δόρατος αὑτοῦ, καὶ ἰδού, αἱ ἅμαξαι καὶ οἱ ἱππεῖς κατέφθανον αὐτόν. 7 καὶ ὅτε ἔβλεψεν εἰς τὰ ὀπίσω αὑτοῦ, μὲ εἶδε καὶ μὲ ἐκάλεσε · καὶ ἀπεκρίθην, Ἰδού, ἐγώ. 8 Καὶ εἶπε πρὸς ἐμέ, Ποῖος εἶσαι Καὶ ἀπεκρίθην πρὸς αὐτόν, Εἶμαι Ἀμαληκίτης. 9 Πάλιν εἶπε πρὸς ἐμέ, Στῆθι ἐπάνω μου, παρακαλῶ, καὶ θανάτωσόν με · διότι σκοτοδινίασις μὲ κατέλαβεν, ἐπειδὴ ἡ ζωὴ μου εἶναι ἔτι ὅλη ἐν ἐμοί. 10 Ἐστάθην λοιπὸν ἐπ αὐτὸν καὶ ἐθανάτωσα αὐτόν · ἐπειδὴ ἤμην βέβαιος ὅτι δὲν ἠδύνατο νὰ ζήσῃ ἀφοῦ ἔπεσε · καὶ ἔλαβον τὸ διάδημα τὸ ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτοῦ καὶ τὸ βραχιόλιον τὸ ἐν τῷ βραχίονι αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἔφερα αὐτὰ ἐνταῦθα πρὸς τὸν κύριόν μου. 11 … Καὶ ἐκάλεσεν ὁ Δαβὶδ ἕνα ἐκ τῶν νέων καὶ εἶπε, Πλησίασον, πέσον ἐπ αὐτόν. Καὶ ἐπάταξεν αὐτόν, καὶ ἀπέθανε. 16 Καὶ εἶπε πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ Δαβίδ, Τὸ αἷμά σου ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς σου · διότι τὸ στόμα σου ἐμαρτύρησεν ἐναντίον σου, λέγων, Ἐγώ ἐθανάτωσα τὸν κεχρισμένον τοῦ Κυρίου. (2Sa 1:6- 16 MGK) 2 Samuel 1: “I happened to be on Mount Gilboa,” the young man said, “and there was Saul, leaning on his spear, with the chariots and riders almost upon him. 7 When he turned around and saw me, he called out to me, and I said, ‘What can I do?’ 8 “He asked me, ‘Who are you?’ “’An Amalekite,’ I answered. 9 “Then he said to me, ‘Stand over me and kill me! I am in the throes of death, but I’m still alive.’ 10 “So I stood over him and killed him, because I knew that after he had fallen he could not survive. And I took the crown ( הַנֵּזֶר, LXX: τὸ βασίλειον ) that was on his head and the band on his arm and have brought them here to my lord.” 11 … Then David called one of his men and said, “Go, strike him down!” So he struck him down, and he died. 16 For David had said to him, “Your blood be on your own head. Your own mouth testified against you when you said, ‘I killed the LORD’s anointed.’”

37 Crowning seremony Jehoiada and his sons brought out the king’s son and put the crown (LXX: τ ὸ βασ ί λειον) on him; they presented him with a copy of the covenant and proclaimed him king. They anointed him and shouted, “Long live the king!” (2Chr 23:11 NIV, cf. 2King 11:2)

38 The crown as a sign of covenant NIV Ps 89:3-5 3 You said, “I have made a covenant with my chosen one, I have sworn to David my servant, 4 ‘I will establish your line forever and make your throne firm through all generations.’” Selah 5 The heavens praise your wonders, O LORD, your faithfulness too, in the assembly of the holy ones. 38 But you have rejected, you have spurned, you have been very angry with your anointed one. 39 You have renounced the covenant with your servant and have defiled his crown [ נִזְרֽוֹ, LXX: τὸ ἁγίασμα αὐτοῦ ] in the dust. 40 You have broken through all his walls and reduced his strongholds to ruins. “Einerseits hat נזר bisweilen durchaus die Bedeutung ‘Weihe’ (etwa in Lev 21,12) und wird dementsprechend auch mit einer Form von τὸ ἁγίασμά übersetzt, so daß die Wiedergabe hier nicht ungewöhnlich ist” (Hossfeld and Zenger 2000: 599). “Der Bund wurde gelöst (40), das Diadem im in den Staub ‘geschändet’” (Kraus 1966: 624).Hossfeld and Zenger 2000: 599Kraus 1966: 624

39 Davids horn and crown 16 I will clothe her priests with salvation, and her saints will ever sing for joy. 17 “Here I will make a horn grow ( אַצְמִ ֣ יחַ) for David and set up a lamp for my anointed one (לִמְשִׁיחִֽי, τ ῷ χριστ ῷ μου). 18 I will clothe his enemies with shame, but the crown (נִזְרֽוֹ, LXX: τ ὸ ἁ γ ί ασμ ά μου) on his head will be resplendent.” (Ps 132:11-18) When your days are over and you rest with your fathers, I will raise up your offspring to succeed you, who will come from your own body, and I will establish his kingdom. 13 He is the one who will build a house for my Name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever (2Sam 7:12-15, NIV)

40 Nasaran used by outsiders Nazareth! Can anything good come from there?’ Nathanael asked. ‘Come and see,’ said Philip” (John 1:45-46 NIV). In the Gospels and Acts the terms Ναζωραῖος, Ναζαρηνά and Ναζαρά are often used about Jesus by outsiders or even demons ( Ναζωραῖος Matt 26:71, Luke 18:37, Acts 6:14, 24:5, John 18:5, 7, 19:19 Ναζαρηνά Mark 14:67 Ναζαρά Matt 21:11). In Acts 24:5 it is used by non-Christians who describes Paul as ringleader for the Nazareean sect ( πρωτοστάτην τε τῆς τῶν Ναζωραίων αἱρέσεως ).

41 Combination of the two both holy/crown and branch 4Q161:11-25 gives an interesting example of a combined use of נצר and נזר in a messianic context linked to Isa 11:1-5: “A shoot will issue from the stu]mp of Jesse and [a bud] will sprout ( נצר ) from [its] ro[ots … The interpretation of the words concerns the shoot] of David which will sprout in the fi[nal days … thro]ne of glory (cf. Is 22:23), h[oly] crown ( נזר קודש, cf. Num 6:8, Ex 29:6, Lev. 8:9) and multi-colour[ed] vestments (Ezek 26:16, includes all three elements) … in his hands.”

42 How did the different spellings arise The Christians changed ad Jewish Title with negative meaning The Jews changed a Christian titel with Christian meaning The origin is gentilic – then there were subsequent interpretations – some negative and some positive What we do not know is when the branch interpetation originated

43 We know that competing interpretations existed Moses, whose name is given two or three meanings: 1) child (Egyptian mesu), 2) the one drawn from water (Exod 2:10), 3) the one who draws someone out of the water (i.e. משֶׁה )

44 Historic development Gentilic Interpreted as holy from the term nazar Increasingly negative The titel went out of use – replaced by holy ones (in the letters it is not used, neither in the early churchfathers Matthew later reintpretation of the term When used in later fathers first holy then branch


Κατέβασμα ppt "Matth 2:23 By Associate Professor Erik Waaler Dr. Theol. NLA University College Norway Why was Jesus called a Nazarean?"

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