2 3 Βήματα Διαδικασίας Συγγραφής Βήμα 1ΣχεδιασμόςΒήμα 3ΟλοκλήρωσηΒήμα 2ΣυγγραφήΑνάλυσηΚατάστασηςΕκτίμησηΑκροατηρίουΑναθεώρησηΣυλλογήΠληροφοριώνΠροσαρμογή στοΑκροατήριοΠαραγωγήAs soon as the need to create a message appears, inexperienced communicators are often tempted to dive directly into writing. However, spending even a few minutes analyzing, organizing, adapting, and revising can often save you hours of rework later on—and help you generate much more effective messages. Successful communicators follow a writing process that can be divided into three major steps:Planning business messages. To plan any message, first analyze the situation by defining your purpose and developing a profile of your audience. Once you're sure what you need to accomplish with your message, gather information that will meet your audience's needs. Next, select the right medium (oral, written, or electronic) to deliver your message. With those three factors in place, you’re ready to organize the information by defining your main idea, limiting your scope, selecting a direct or an indirect approach, and outlining your content. Planning messages is the focus of Chapter 4.Writing business messages. Once you've planned your message, adapt to your audience with sensitivity, relationship skills, and style. Be sensitive to your audience’s needs by adopting the "you" attitude, being polite, emphasizing the positive, and using bias-free language. Build strong relationships with your audience, by establishing your credibility and projecting your company’s image. Be sure to control your style by using a conversational tone, plain English, and the correct voice. Then you're ready to compose your message by choosing strong words, creating effective sentences, and developing coherent paragraphs. Writing business messages is discussed in this chapter.Completing business messages. After writing your first draft, revise your message by evaluating the content, reviewing readability, and then editing and rewriting until your message comes across concisely and clearly, with correct grammar, proper punctuation, and effective format. Next produce your message. Put it into the form that your audience will receive, and review all design and layout decisions for an attractive, professional appearance. Proofread the final draft for typos, spelling errors, and other mechanical problems. Finally, distribute your message, using the best combination of personal and technological tools. Completing business messages is discussed in Chapter 6.Επιλογή ΜέσουΕίδος ΕλέγχουΤελικός ΈλεγχοςΟργάνωσηΣυγγραφήΜηνυμάτωνΔιανομή
3 Προσαρμογή στο Ακροατήριο ΕυαισθησίαΣχέσειςWhether consciously or not, audiences greet most incoming messages with a question: "What's in this for me?" If your intended audience thinks a message does not apply to them or does not offer them anything useful or interesting, they'll be far less inclined to pay attention to it. By adapting your communication to the needs and expectations of your audience, you'll provide a more compelling answer to this question and improve the chances of your message being successful.To adapt your message to your audience, do the following:Be sensitive to your audience’s needs.Build a strong relationship with your audience.Control your style to maintain a professional tone.Ύφος καιΤόνος Φωνής
4 Ευαισθησία Προς το Ακροατήριο Προσαρμογή στηνΨυχολογία τουΚοίνουΕκδήλωσηΕπαγγελματικήςΣυμπεριφοράςΈμφαση στα ΘετικάΧρήση ΓλώσσαςΧωρίς Προκαταλήψεις(Bias-Free)Even in simple messages intended merely to share information, it's possible to use all the right words and still not be sensitive to your audience and their needs. You can improve your audience sensitivity by doing the following:Adopting the "you" attitudeMaintaining good standards of etiquetteEmphasizing the positiveUsing bias-free language
5 Η Ψυχολογία του Κοινού Αντί αυτού Πες Αυτό Αντί Αυτού Για να προχωρήσουμε, πρέπει να ζητήσουμε άλλο ένα αντίτυπο της παραγγελίας.Προκειμένου η παραγγελία σας να συμπληρωθεί σύντομα, παρακαλούμε όπως μας απο-στείλετε άλλο ένα αντίτυπο της παραγγελίας σας.Μην χρησιμοποιείς ποτέ αυτόν τον τύπο χαρτιού στο φωτοτυ-πικό μηχάνημα.Αυτός ο τύπος χαρτιού δεν είναι πολύ καλός για το μηχάνημα.Αντί ΑυτούApproach in your messages by adopting a “you” attitude––that is, speaking and writing in terms of the audience’s interests, hopes, and preferences.On the simplest level, adopt the “you” attitude by replacing terms that refer to yourself and your company with terms that refer to your audience. In other words, use you and yours instead of I, me, mine, we, us, and ours. Too many business messages have an “I” or “we” attitude. The message tells what the sender wants, and the audience is expected to go along with it.The “you” attitude isn’t just a matter of using one pronoun rather than another; it’s a matter of genuine empathy. It’s the thought and sincerity that count, not the pronoun. The important thing is your attitude toward audience members and your appreciation of their position.On some occasions, you’ll do better to avoid using you. For instance, using you in a way that sounds dictatorial is impolite. If someone makes a mistake, you may want to minimize ill will by pointing out the error impersonally. You might say, “We have a problem,” instead of “You caused a problem.”When using the “you” attitude, consider the policies of your organization and the attitudes of other cultures. In some cultures, it is improper to single out one person’s achievements because the whole team is responsible for the outcome. Some companies have a tradition of using a formal, impersonal style. In such cases, confine your use of personal pronouns to informal letters and memos.
6 Επαγγελματική Συμπεριφορά Να Είστε ΔιπλωματικοίΝα Είστε ΕυγενικοίΝα Απαντάτε ΓρήγοραAnother good way to demonstrate interest in your audience and to earn their respect is to be demonstrate positive etiquette in your messages. You know yourself how it feels to be treated inconsiderately; you probably reacted to such treatment emotionally and then paid less attention to the offending message. Use the following techniques when communicating in business:By being courteous to members of your audience, you show consideration for them and foster a more successful environment for communication.Demonstrate your diplomatic skills by controlling your emotions and communicating calmly and politely.Another simple but effective courtesy is to be prompt in your correspondence.
7 Τονίστε τα Θετικά Αντί Αυτού Χρησιμοποίησε Αυτό Φτηνιάρικο Εμπόρευμα ΨεύτικοΜεταχειρισμένα Αυτ/ταΑποτυγχάνειΓέρος ΆνθρωποςΣπυράκια και ΣτίγματαBargain PricesΑπομίμηση ή ΦωΕπαναπώληση Αυτ/τωνΔεν Αποδίδει ΕπαρκώςΗλικιωμένοςΠροβλήματα ΕπιδερμίδαςAnother way of establishing a good relationship with your audience is to emphasize the positive side of your message. When you’re criticizing or correcting, don’t hammer on the other person’s mistakes. Avoid referring to failures, problems, or shortcomings. Focus instead on what he or she can do to improve. Emphasize what’s in it for him or her, not why you want that person to do something.In general, try to state your message without using words that might hurt or offend your audience. Substitute mild terms (euphemisms) for those that have unpleasant connotations. However, don’t carry euphemisms to extremes. If you’re too subtle, people won’t know what you’re talking about. It would be unethical to speak to your community about relocating refuse when you’re really talking about plans for disposing of toxic waste. In the end, people respond better to an honest message delivered with integrity than to sugar-coated double-speak.
8 Γλώσσα Χωρίς Προκαταλήψεις ΗλικίαΦύλοΑνικανότηταΡατσιστική ήΕθνικιστικήBias-free language avoids unethical, embarrassing language blunders related to gender, race, ethnicity, age, and disability.Gender bias. Avoid sexist language by using the same label for everyone (don’t call a woman chairperson and then call a man chairman). Reword sentences to use they or to use no pronoun at all. Vary traditional patterns by sometimes putting women first (women and men, her and his).Racial and ethnic bias. The central principle is to avoid language suggesting that members of a racial or an ethnic group have stereotypical characteristics. The best solution is to avoid identifying people by race or ethnic origin unless such a label is relevant.Age bias. As with gender, race, and ethnic background, mention the age of a person only when it is relevant. When referring to older people, avoid such stereotyped adjectives as spry and frail.Disability bias. Avoid mentioning a disability unless it is pertinent. If you must refer to someone’s disability, avoid terms such as handicapped, crippled, or retarded. Put the person first and the disability second.
9 Δυνατή Σχέση με το Κοινό Εδραιώστε τηνΑξιοπιστία σαςΕνισχύστε τηνΕικόνα τηςΕταιρείαςFocusing on your audience's needs is vital to effective communication, but you also have your own priorities as a communicator. Sometimes these needs are obvious and direct, such as when you're appealing for a budget increase for your department. Other times, the need may be more subtle. For instance, you might want to demonstrate your understanding of the marketplace or your company's concern for the natural environment. Two key efforts help you address your own needs while building positive relationships with your audience: establishing your credibility and projecting your company's image.
10 Εδραιώστε την Αξιοπιστία Σας Ειλικρίνεια και ΑντικειμενικότηταΣυναίσθηση των Αναγκών του ΑκροατηρίουΔιαπιστευτήρια, Γνώση, ΕξειδίκευσηΒεβαιώσεις και ΤεκμήριαΑποδείξεις ΑπόδοσηςΎφος ΕπικοινωνίαςYour audience's response to every message you send depends heavily on their perception of your credibility, a measure of your believability based on how reliable you are and how much trust you evoke in others. With colleagues and long-term customers, you've already established some degree of credibility based on past communication efforts, and these people automatically lean toward accepting each new message from you because you haven't let them down in the past. With audiences who don't know you, however, you need to establish credibility before they'll listen fully to your message. Whether you're working to build credibility with a new audience, to maintain credibility with an existing audience, or even to restore credibility after a mistake, consider emphasizing the following characteristics:Honesty. Demonstrating honesty and integrity will earn you the respect of your colleagues and the trust of everyone you communicate with, even if they don't always agree with or welcome the messages you have to deliver.Objectivity. Audiences appreciate the ability to distance yourself from emotional situations and to look at all sides of an issue. They want to believe that you have their interests in mind, not just your own.Awareness of audience needs. Let your audience know that you understand what's important to them. If you've done a thorough audience analysis, you'll know what your audience cares about and their specific issues and concerns in a particular situation.Credentials, knowledge, and expertise. Every audience wants to be assured that the messages they receive come from people who know what they're talking about. To establish credibility with a new audience, put yourself in their shoes and identify the credentials that would be most important to them.Endorsements. If your audience doesn't know anything about you, you might be able to get assistance from someone they do know and trust.Performance. It's easy to say you can do something, but following through can be much harder. That’s why demonstrating impressive communication skills is not enough; people need to know they can count on you to get the job done.Communication style. If you support your points with evidence that can be confirmed through observation, research, experimentation, or measurement, audience members will recognize that you have the facts, and they'll respect you.
11 Οικοδομώντας την Εικόνα της Εταιρείας Παραμένετε ΘετικοίΝα Εκπροσωπείτε ταΣυμφέροντα τηςΕταιρείας σαςΕλαχιστοποιήστε τηνΠροβολή Προσωπικώνσας ΑπόψεωνWhen you communicate with outsiders, on even the most routine matter, you serve as the spokesperson for your organization. The impression you make can enhance or damage the reputation of the entire company. Thus, your own views and personality must be subordinated, at least to some extent, to the interests and style of your company.
12 Οικοδομώντας την Εικόνα της Εταιρείας Να Παρατηρείτετους ΆλλουςΝα Ζητάτε Βοήθεια(Όταν την Χρειάζεστε)Να Υποστηρίζετε τηΘέση της ΕταιρείαςMany organizations have specific communication guidelines that show everything from the correct use of the company name to preferred abbreviations and other grammatical details. Specifying a desired style of communication is more difficult, however. Observe more experienced colleagues to see how they communicate, and never hesitate to ask for editorial help to make sure you're conveying the appropriate tone.
13 Έλεγχος Ύφους και Τόνου Ύφος ΣυζήτησηςΑπλή ΓλώσσαΕνεργητική καιΠαθητική ΦωνήΈλεγχος Ύφουςκαι ΤόνουΔομή Προτάσεωνκαι ΣύνταξηStyle is the way you use words to achieve a certain tone, or overall impression. The right choice depends on the nature of your message and your audience. Most business messages aim for a conversational tone, using plain language. To achieve such a conversational tone in your messages, try to avoid obsolete and pompous language, intimacy, humor, and preaching or bragging.Plain English is a way of writing and arranging technical materials so that your audience can understand your meaning. Because it’s close to the way people normally speak, plain English is easy to understand. If you’ve ever tried to make sense of a legal document or credit agreement, you can understand why governments and corporations today are using plain-English.Your choice of active or passive voice also affects the tone of your message. You’re using active voice when the subject (the “actor”) comes before the verb and the object of the sentence (the “acted upon”) follows the verb: “John rented the office.” You’re using passive voice when the subject follows the verb and the object precedes it: “The office was rented by John.”Using the active voice produces shorter, stronger sentences and makes your writing more vigorous, concise, and generally easier to understand. Using the passive voice makes sense (1) when you want to be diplomatic about pointing out a problem or error, (2) When you want to point out what’s being done without taking or attributing either the credit or the blame, and (3) When you want to avoid personal pronouns in order to create an objective tone.
14 Ύφος Συζήτησης Επιχειρησιακά Μηνύματα Αποφύγετε τη Χρήση... Κάντε Προσε-κτική Χρήση...You can achieve a conversational tone in your messages by following these guidelines:Avoid obsolete and pompous language. Business language used to be much more formal than it is today, and some out-of-date phrases still remain. You can avoid using such language if you ask yourself, "Would I say this if I were talking with someone face-to-face?" Similarly, avoid using big words, trite expressions, and overly complicated sentences to impress others. Such pompous language sounds self-important.Avoid preaching and bragging. Few things are more irritating than people who think that they know everything and that others know nothing.Be careful with intimacy. Most business messages should avoid intimacy, such as sharing personal details or adopting a causal, unprofessional tone. However, when you do have a close relationship with your audience, such as among the members of a close-knit team, a more intimate tone is sometimes appropriate and even expected.Be careful with humor. Humor can be an effective tool to inject interest into dry subjects or take the sting out of negative news. However, use it with great care: the humor must be connected to the point you’re trying to make.Πομπώδης ήΚαθαρεύουσα(Απαρχαιωμένη)ΓλώσσαΚήρυγμαήΚομπασμόΣυναίσθημαΟικειότηταΧιούμορΣάτιρα
15 Συγγραφή σε Απλή Γλώσσα ΑμεσότηταΕυκολονόητηΤόνος ΣυζήτησηςPlain English is a way of presenting information in a simple, unadorned style so that your audience can easily grasp your meaning, without struggling through specialized, technical, or convoluted language. Because it's close to the way people normally speak, plain English is easily understood by anyone with an eighth- or ninth-grade education. Plain English can also help you simplify the messages you prepare for audiences who speak English as a second or even third language.The Plain English Campaign (a nonprofit group in England campaigning for clear language) defines plain English as language "that the intended audience can read, understand and act upon the first time they read it.“ You can see how this definition supports using the "you" attitude and shows respect for your audience.
16 Χρήση Σωστής Φωνής Ενεργητική Φωνή Παθητική Φωνή Υποκείμ. + Ρήμα + Αντικείμ.Ο Δημήτρης νοίκιασετο αυτοκίνητο.Αντικείμ. + Ρήμα + Υποκείμ.Το αυτοκίνητο ενοικιάστηκεαπό τον Δημήτρη.ΧαρακτηριστικάΧαρακτηριστικάYour choice of active or passive voice also affects the tone of your message. You are using active voice when the subject ("actor") comes before the verb, and the object (“acted upon”) comes after the verb: "Joe rented the car." You're using passive voice when the subject follows the verb and the object precedes it: "The car was rented by Joe." As you can see, the passive voice combines the helping verb to be with a form of the verb that is usually similar to the past tense. When you use active sentences, your messages generally sound less formal and make it easier for readers to figure out who performed the action. In contrast, using passive voice de-emphasizes the subject and implies the action was done by something or someone.Use the active voice to produce shorter, stronger sentences and make your writing more vigorous, concise, and generally easier to understand. The passive voice is not wrong grammatically, but it is often cumbersome, is unnecessarily vague, and can make sentences longer. Nevertheless, using the passive voice can help you demonstrate the "you" attitude in some situations:When you want to be diplomatic about pointing out a problem or error of some kind.When you want to point out what's being done without taking or attributing either the credit or the blame.When you want to avoid personal pronouns in order to create an objective tone.ΆμεσηΣυνοπτικήΣθεναρήΈμμεσηΔιακριτικήΣυγκρα-τημένη
17 Συνθέτοντας το Μήνυμα Επιλογή Λέξεων Προτάσεις Παράγραφοι The most successful messages have three important elements: strong words, effective sentences, and coherent paragraphs.With these insights into how you can adapt to your audience, you're ready to begin composing your message. Composition is easiest if you've already figured out what to say and in what order (refer to the outlining advice in Chapter 4), although you may need to pause now and then to find the right word. You may also discover as you go along that you can improve on your outline. Feel free to rearrange, delete, and add ideas, as long as you don't lose sight of your purpose.Παράγραφοι
18 Επιλογή των Καταλληλότερων Λέξεων Σωστή Χρήση Γραμματικήςκαι ΛέξεωνΛειτουργικές ΛέξειςΠεριεκτικές ΛέξειςΑπαράλλαχτεςΣυγκεκριμενο-ποιημένεςΕννοιολογικέςTo compose effective messages, you must choose your words carefully. First, pay close attention to correctness. Although debating the finer points of usage may seem like nitpicking, using words correctly is important. If you make grammatical or usage errors, you lose credibility with your audience.Just as important as selecting the correct word is selecting the most suitable word for the job at hand. Words can be divided into two main categories. Function words express relationships and have only one unchanging meaning in any given context. They include conjunctions, prepositions, articles, and pronouns. Your main concern with functional words is to use them correctly. Content words are multidimensional and therefore subject to various interpretations. They include nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. These words carry the meaning of a sentence.Content words have both a denotative and a connotative meaning. The denotative meaning is the literal, or dictionary, meaning. The connotative meaning includes all the associations and feelings evoked by the word.An abstract word expresses a concept, quality, or characteristic. Abstractions are broad, encompassing a category of ideas. They are often intellectual, academic, or philosophical. A concrete word stands for something you can touch or see. Concrete terms are anchored in the tangible, material world.ΑυτοματοποιημένηςΧρήσης(Πάγιες Λέξεις)ΠεριγραφικέςΘεωρητικές,Αφηρημένες
19 Εύρεση Λέξεων Αποτελεσματικών στην Επικοινωνία ΧρήσηΔυνατώνΛέξεωνΑποφυγήΚλισέΓνώριμωνΑπουσίαΕπιχειρηματικήςΔιαλέκτουAnyone who earns a living by crafting words is a wordsmith—including journalists, public relations specialists, editors, and letter and report writers. Unlike poets, novelists, or dramatists, wordsmiths don’t strive for dramatic effects. Instead, they are concerned with using language to be clear, concise, and accurate. To reach their goal, they employ the following techniques:Choose strong words. Choose words that express your thoughts most clearly, specifically, and dynamically. Nouns and verbs are the most concrete, so use them as much as you can. Adjectives and adverbs have obvious roles, but they often evoke subjective judgments. Verbs are especially powerful because they tell what’s happening in the sentence, so make them dynamic and specific.Choose familiar words. You’ll communicate best with words that are familiar to your readers. However, keep in mind that words familiar to one reader might be unfamiliar to another.Avoid clichés. Although familiar words are generally the best choice, beware of terms and phrases so common that they have become virtually meaningless.Use jargon carefully. Handle technical or professional terms with care. When deciding whether to use technical jargon, let your audience’s knowledge guide you. For example, when addressing a group
20 Αποτελεσματικές Προτάσεις ΑπλέςΣύνθετεςΠερίπλοκεςΠολύπλοκεςSentences come in four basic varieties: simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex. A simple sentence has one main clause (a single subject and a single predicate), although it may be expanded by nouns and pronouns serving as objects of the action and by modifying phrases: Profits have increased in the past year.A compound sentence has two main clauses that express two or more independent but related thoughts of equal importance, usually joined by and, but, or or. In effect, a compound sentence is a merger of two or more simple sentences (independent clauses) that are related: Wage rates have declined by 5 percent, and employee turnover has been high.A complex sentence expresses one main thought (the independent clause) and one or more subordinate thoughts (dependent clauses) related to it, often separated by a comma. The subordinate thought, which comes first in the following sentence, could not stand alone: Although you may question Gerald’s conclusions, you must admit that his research is thorough.A compound-complex sentence has two main clauses, at least one of which contains a subordinate clause: Profits have increased in the past year, and although you may question Gerald’s conclusions, you must admit that his research is thorough.
21 Συνοχικές Παράγραφοι Θεματικές Προτάσεις Σχετιζόμενες Μεταβατικές A paragraph is a cluster of sentences all related to the same general topic. It is a unit of thought, separated from other units by skipping a line or indenting the first line. Each paragraph is an important part of the whole.Every properly constructed paragraph is unified; it deals with a single topic. The sentence that introduces that topic is called the topic sentence. In informal and creative writing, the topic sentence may be implied rather than stated. In business writing, the topic sentence is generally explicit and is often the first sentence in the paragraph. The topic sentence gives readers a summary of the general idea that will be covered in the rest of the paragraph.The sentences that explain the topic sentence round out the paragraph. These related sentences must all have a bearing on the general subject and must provide enough specific details to make the topic clear.In addition to being unified and well developed, effective paragraphs are coherent; that is, they are arranged in a logical order so that the audience can understand the train of thought. When you complete a paragraph, your readers automatically assume that you’ve finished with a particular idea. You achieve coherence by using transitions that show the relationship between paragraphs and among sentences within paragraphs. Transitions, words or phrases that tie ideas together, show how one thought is related to another; they help readers understand the connections you’re trying to make.
22 Ανάπτυξη Παραγράφου Τεχνική Περιγραφή Χρήση παραδειγμ. για υποστήριξη ΑπεικόνισηΣύγκριση/ΑντιπαράθεσηΑίτιο και ΑποτέλεσμαΚατάταξηΠρόβλημα και ΛύσηΧρήση παραδειγμ. για υποστήριξηΧρήση ομοιοτήτων και διαφορώνΕπικέντρωση στα αίτια για κάτιΚατηγοριοποίηση μιας γενικής ιδέαςΈκθεση προβλημάτων,προτεινόμενες λύσειςParagraphs can be developed in many ways. Five of the most common techniques are illustration, comparison or contrast, cause and effect, classification, and problem and solution.In practice, you’ll often combine two or more methods of development in a single paragraph. To add interest, you might begin by using illustration, shift to comparison or contrast, and then shift to problem and solution. However, before settling for the first approach that comes to mind, consider the alternatives. Think through various methods before committing yourself. If you fall into the easy habit of repeating the same old paragraph pattern time after time, your writing will be boring.
23 Αποτελεσματικά e-mail Σκεφτείτε τουςΑναγνώστεςΝα Είστε Υπερήφανοιγια την Δουλειά σαςΠροστατέψτε τηνΦήμη σαςAlthough may seem transitory, attention to detail is just as important as for any other type of business document. Too many people assume that is less formal, so they disregard punctuation, grammar, spelling and other conventions.However, this approach fails to consider several important factors:Sloppy writing may take less time for writers, but it demands more time from readers who are forced to dig the meaning out of misspelled words and convoluted sentences.People who care about effective communication often judge the quality of your work by the quality of your writing.At the click of a mouse, messages can travel to places you never imagined – a CEO’s computer screen, a newspaper, a lawyer’s office, or a thousand websites or blogs on the Internet.You don’t need to compose perfect works of art to announce that lunch will be served in the conference room; however, the time you might save with sloppy writing won’t make up for the damage it can do to your career.
24 Σύνταξη e-mail Περιεχόμενο που Αρμόζει Προσωπικά Μηνύματα Ιεραρχία της ΕξουσίαςΚαθαρότητα τωνEven though messages may seem transitory, attention to detail is just as important for these messages as for any other type of business message. In addition to the principles and techniques already discussed in this chapter, remember to consider a few additional points when writing messages.Restrict usage to appropriate content.Avoid sending personal messages at work.Respect the chain of command.Pay attention to hygiene.
25 Αποστολή Επιχειρησιακών e-mail Σύνταξη ΜηνυμάτωνΟργάνωσηAs an employee, you have a responsibility to follow your company’s guidelines, in a responsible, business-like manner. Typical guidelines include the following: use appropriate content, avoid personal messages, respect the chain of command, and promote hygiene.Of course company policy can’t cover every situation. However, the ease of is its greatest shortcoming: it’s far too easy to send needless messages. Don’t contribute to the problem. Let common sense be your guide.The subject line is important, because it helps recipients decide which messages to read and when. A message with a blank subject line or a general subject line like “question” will probably go unread and will perhaps be deleted. To capture your reader’s attention, make sure your subject line is informative and compelling. Moreover, if you are exchanging multiple s with someone on the same topic, modify the subject line of your message to reflect the revised content.Finally, never let your emotions get the best of you when composing s. If you are upset, compose yourself before composing your . Remember that a live person is at the other end of your – and that your message can be stored or forwarded.Ακολουθήστε τηνΕταιρική ΠολιτικήΧρήση ΚοινήςΛογικήςΔώστε ένα ΘέμαΕλέγξτε ταΣυναισθήματάσας
26 Εργαλεία Επεξεργασίας Λέξεων Είδη Φύλλωνκαι ΠρότυπαΑυτόματη ΟλοκλήρωσηκαιΑυτόματη ΔιόρθωσηΣυγχώνευση Αρχείωνκαι ΣυγχώνευσηΑλληλογραφίαςToday's word-processing software provides a wide range of tools to help writers compose documents. Most of these tools take care of the "housekeeping chores" often associated with business document preparation, allowing you to focus on the creative aspects of writing. If you're not aware of all these capabilities in your word processing software, spend a few minutes with them to see how they can help:Style sheets. Most word processors offer some form of style sheets, which are master lists of predefined styles for headlines, paragraph text, and so on.Templates. A template provides standardization on a larger scale, defining such factors as page design, available fonts, and other features. Templates can include boilerplate, sections of text that are reused from document to document.Auto completion. Software called auto completion (or something similar) inserts a ready-made block of text when you type the first few characters.Auto correction. Another automatic feature in some programs instantly corrects spelling and typing errors and converts text to symbols.File merge, mail merge. Today's software makes it easy to combine files—an especially handy feature when several members of a team write different sections of a report.
27 Εργαλεία Επεξεργασίας Λέξεων Τελικές Σημειώσειςκαι ΥποσημειώσειςΕυρετήρια καιΠίνακες ΠεριεχομένωνΒοηθοί ΣύνταξηςΕγγράφουEndnotes, footnotes, indexes, and tables of contents. Your computer can also help you track footnotes and endnotes, renumbering them every time you add or delete references. For a report indexes and table of contents, you can simply flag the items you want to include, and the software assembles the lists for you.Wizards. Programs such as Microsoft Word offer wizards that step you through the process of creating letters, résumés, and other common documents.As with every other communication technology, using these tools efficiently and effectively takes some balance. You need to learn enough about the features to be handy with them, without spending so much time that using the tools compromises the writing process.
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