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Η παρουσίαση φορτώνεται. Παρακαλείστε να περιμένετε

ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΤΙΚΟ ΣΕΜΙΝΑΡΙΟ ΕΚΘΑ Αθήνα 4 Φεβρουαρίου 2016 4 Ο ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΤΙΚΟ ΣΕΜΙΝΑΡΙΟ ΕΚΘΑ Αθήνα 4 Φεβρουαρίου 2016 Βασιλική Ν. Γιαννακοπούλου MD, Βασιλική Ν.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΤΙΚΟ ΣΕΜΙΝΑΡΙΟ ΕΚΘΑ Αθήνα 4 Φεβρουαρίου 2016 4 Ο ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΤΙΚΟ ΣΕΜΙΝΑΡΙΟ ΕΚΘΑ Αθήνα 4 Φεβρουαρίου 2016 Βασιλική Ν. Γιαννακοπούλου MD, Βασιλική Ν."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΤΙΚΟ ΣΕΜΙΝΑΡΙΟ ΕΚΘΑ Αθήνα 4 Φεβρουαρίου Ο ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΤΙΚΟ ΣΕΜΙΝΑΡΙΟ ΕΚΘΑ Αθήνα 4 Φεβρουαρίου 2016 Βασιλική Ν. Γιαννακοπούλου MD, Βασιλική Ν. Γιαννακοπούλου MD, Phds, FESC, FEAS Phds, FESC, FEAS Διευθ. Μονάδας Εμφραγμάτων Διευθ. Μονάδας Εμφραγμάτων Τζάνειο Νοσοκομείο Πειραιά

2 Δεν υπάρχει σύγκρουση συμφερόντων Δεν υπάρχει σύγκρουση συμφερόντων

3 Tobacco Kills More Americans/year Than Alcohol, Cocaine, Crack, Heroin, Homicide, Suicide, Car Accidents, Fires & AIDS combined:

4 History It was first patented by Herbert A. Gilbert in 1963 described as "a smokeless non-tobacco cigarette" ( replacing burning tobacco and paper with heated, moist, flavored air heated the nicotine solution and produced steam) It was first patented by Herbert A. Gilbert in 1963 described as "a smokeless non-tobacco cigarette" ( replacing burning tobacco and paper with heated, moist, flavored air heated the nicotine solution and produced steam) In 1967, was approached by several companies interested in manufacturing it, but it was never commercialized and disappeared from the public record after 1967 In 1967, was approached by several companies interested in manufacturing it, but it was never commercialized and disappeared from the public record after 1967 In 2003 Hon Lik, (Chinese pharmacist), is widely credited with the invention of the 1st generation e-cigarette In 2003 Hon Lik, (Chinese pharmacist), is widely credited with the invention of the 1st generation e-cigarette 2004 introduced to the Chinese domestic market by Golden Dragon Holdings renamed Ruyan (patents in >40 countries, including USA) 2004 introduced to the Chinese domestic market by Golden Dragon Holdings renamed Ruyan (patents in >40 countries, including USA) In 2005–2006 started exporting its products before receiving its first international patent in 2007 (1 st in 2004 in Canada) In 2005–2006 started exporting its products before receiving its first international patent in 2007 (1 st in 2004 in Canada)

5 Το ηλεκτρονικό τσιγάρο αποτελείται: 1.Ένα πλαστικό σωλήνα, που περιέχει μια επαναφορτιζόμενη μπαταρία λιθίου 2.Ένα ηλεκτρονικό θερμαντήρα/ρυθμιστή 3.Ένα δοχείο ψεκασμού (atomizer) με μεμβράνη συγκράτησης των συστατικών 4.Ένα φυσίγγιο (cartridge) μιας χρήσης με διάλυμα νικοτίνης/μη νικοτινούχων ουσιών 5.Στο μπροστινό τμήμα έχει τοποθετημένη μια δίοδο / λυχνία LED, που παράγει κόκκινο φως, που παρομοιάζει με καύτρα αναμμένου τσιγάρου 6.Το πίσω τμήμα είναι διαμορφωμένο σε επιστόμιο

6 Τι περιέχει? Το υγρό αναπλήρωσης του φυσιγγίου μιας χρήσης περιέχει νικοτίνη (σε ποικίλη συγκέντρωση από mg), χημικά πρόσθετα και καρυκεύματα (π.χ. αρωματικό σοκολάτας, μέντας, καφέ, φρούτων κλπ.). Τα χημικά πρόσθετα είναι συνήθως προπυλενογλυκόλη (propylene Glycol- PG) ή φυτική γλυκερίνη (vegetable glycerin). Τα ηλεκτρονικά τσιγάρα είναι σχεδιασμένα να ξαναγεμίζουν είτε με υγρό αναπλήρωσης είτε με νέα φυσίγγια που περιέχουν το κατάλληλο υγρό αναπλήρωσης Το υγρό αναπλήρωσης του φυσιγγίου μιας χρήσης περιέχει νικοτίνη (σε ποικίλη συγκέντρωση από mg), χημικά πρόσθετα και καρυκεύματα (π.χ. αρωματικό σοκολάτας, μέντας, καφέ, φρούτων κλπ.). Τα χημικά πρόσθετα είναι συνήθως προπυλενογλυκόλη (propylene Glycol- PG) ή φυτική γλυκερίνη (vegetable glycerin). Τα ηλεκτρονικά τσιγάρα είναι σχεδιασμένα να ξαναγεμίζουν είτε με υγρό αναπλήρωσης είτε με νέα φυσίγγια που περιέχουν το κατάλληλο υγρό αναπλήρωσης

7 Επικίνδυνα για τον άνθρωπο Myosamine Myosamine Anabasine Anabasine β-nicotyrine β-nicotyrine  Amino-tadafanil Ανάλογο του cialis & του rimonabant Nitrosamines Nitrosamines Καρκινογόνες Glycol Glycol Τοξική σε ↑ δόσεις

8 Πιθανά μέταλλα και νανοσωματίδια που προκύπτουν από την θερμοκρασία, όπως κασσίτερος, σίδηρος, νικέλιο και χρώμιο Πιθανά μέταλλα και νανοσωματίδια που προκύπτουν από την θερμοκρασία, όπως κασσίτερος, σίδηρος, νικέλιο και χρώμιο Από κάποια ENDS εκλύονται κεραμικά, πλαστικά, διάφορες ίνες και άλλα αφρώδη υλικά Από κάποια ENDS εκλύονται κεραμικά, πλαστικά, διάφορες ίνες και άλλα αφρώδη υλικά Φορμαλδεΰδη η οποία είναι καρκινογόνος ουσία, επίσης ερεθίζει τα μάτια, την μύτη και το λαιμό Φορμαλδεΰδη η οποία είναι καρκινογόνος ουσία, επίσης ερεθίζει τα μάτια, την μύτη και το λαιμό

9 Fuoco et al Environ Pollut Concentrations of fine particles in the air increased from a median of 400 particles/1 cm3 with people simply sitting in the room for 2 h Medians of to particles/1 cm3 (depending on the e- cigarette fluid used) after 2 h of e-cig use in the same room Higher e-liquid nicotine content was associated with higher particle numbers in the resulting aerosol, with little effect on the particle size distribution. Schober et al Int J Hyg Environ Health 2014

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11 In Austria nicotine-containing cartridges are classified as medicinal products & e-cigarettes for nicotine inhalation as medical devices In Austria nicotine-containing cartridges are classified as medicinal products & e-cigarettes for nicotine inhalation as medical devices In Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Germany, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, are legal In Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Germany, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, are legal In Danemark, Netherlands, Finland, Italy, Switzerland, and in the United Kingdom there are controversies In Danemark, Netherlands, Finland, Italy, Switzerland, and in the United Kingdom there are controversies The FDA classified electronic cigarettes as drug delivery devices and subject to regulation under the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA) before importation and sale in the USA. The classification was challenged in court, and overruled in January 2010 by Federal District Court Judge Richard J. Leon, citing that "the devices should be regulated as tobacco products rather than drug or medical products The FDA classified electronic cigarettes as drug delivery devices and subject to regulation under the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA) before importation and sale in the USA. The classification was challenged in court, and overruled in January 2010 by Federal District Court Judge Richard J. Leon, citing that "the devices should be regulated as tobacco products rather than drug or medical products

12 In Australia, the Federal Department of Health & Ageing classifies every form of nicotine, except for replacement therapies, as a form of poison in April 2014 Western Australia made it illegal In Australia, the Federal Department of Health & Ageing classifies every form of nicotine, except for replacement therapies, as a form of poison in April 2014 Western Australia made it illegal In Brazil, Mexico, Panama, Singapore, Turkey & United Arab Emirates is forbidden In Brazil, Mexico, Panama, Singapore, Turkey & United Arab Emirates is forbidden In Hong Kong the sale and possession of nicotine-based e- cigarettes, classified as a Type I Poison In Hong Kong the sale and possession of nicotine-based e- cigarettes, classified as a Type I Poison In South Korea, Nepal, Pakistan, Malaysia, Lebanon, Israel, India, Japan, Egypt have no clarified guidelines In South Korea, Nepal, Pakistan, Malaysia, Lebanon, Israel, India, Japan, Egypt have no clarified guidelines In China is legal In China is legal

13 On 19 December 2012 the European Commission adopted its proposal to revise the European Union Tobacco Products Directive 2001/37/EC which included proposals to introduce restrictions on the use and sales of e-cigarettes On 19 December 2012 the European Commission adopted its proposal to revise the European Union Tobacco Products Directive 2001/37/EC which included proposals to introduce restrictions on the use and sales of e-cigarettes On 8 October 2013 the European Parliament in Strasbourg voted down the Commission's proposal to introduce medical regulation for e-cigarettes, but proposed that cross-border marketing of e-cigarettes be regulated similarly to tobacco products, meaning that sales of e-cigarettes to under 18s would be prohibited in the European Union, along with most cross-border advertising On 8 October 2013 the European Parliament in Strasbourg voted down the Commission's proposal to introduce medical regulation for e-cigarettes, but proposed that cross-border marketing of e-cigarettes be regulated similarly to tobacco products, meaning that sales of e-cigarettes to under 18s would be prohibited in the European Union, along with most cross-border advertising Warning labels also would be required Warning labels also would be required

14 Regulation In February 2014 the EU Tobacco Products Directive was passed by the European Parliament. E-cigarettes containing up to 20 mg/ml come under the TPD. Above that level, or where medicinal claims are made they come under medicines regulation Once the TPD comes into force, which is expected to be in the mid 2016 Member States will have two years to transpose the new rules into national law Until then e-cigarettes not licenced as medicines will continue to be subject to general consumer protection Iaw and it is the responsibility of trading standards officers to rule on their safety

15 59 single-brand e-cig retail Web sites in 2012 Healthier 95% Healthier 95% Cheaper 93% Cheaper 93% Cleaner 95% Cleaner 95% Can be smoked anywhere 88% Can be smoked anywhere 88% Can be used to circumvent smoke-free policies 71% Can be used to circumvent smoke-free policies 71% Do not produce secondhand smoke 76% Do not produce secondhand smoke 76% Are modern 73% Are modern 73% Cessation-related claims were found in 64% Cessation-related claims were found in 64% Health claims made through text, pictorial, video representations, where doctors were present in 22% of sites Health claims made through text, pictorial, video representations, where doctors were present in 22% of sites Grana RA & Ling PM Am J Prev Med. 2014

16 Reasons for trying e-cigarettes among Montana adults (>5000 participants) Montana Adult Tobacco Survey, Nov 2013

17 Findings 1: Many surveyed e-cig companies are promoting their products through sponsorship of youth-oriented events, and some companies are offering free samples of e-cig 1: Many surveyed e-cig companies are promoting their products through sponsorship of youth-oriented events, and some companies are offering free samples of e-cig 2: Surveyed e-cig companies market them in flavors that appear to be designed to appeal to youth 3: E-cig are available for purchase in stores and online by children and teenagers 4: Many surveyed e-cig companies air television & radio advertisements, often with celebrity spokespeople, including during events & programs advertisements, often with celebrity spokespeople, including during events & programs 5: Surveyed e-cig companies extensively utilize social media & product websites to promote their products websites to promote their products 6: E-cig product warning labels lack uniformity and may confuse or mislead consumers mislead consumers

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21 CDC (Center for Disease Control & Prevention) The nr of high school students who use e-cig was doubled in 2012 (2011: 4,7% to 10%) The nr of high school students who use e-cig was doubled in 2012 (2011: 4,7% to 10%) The nr of middle school students >20% The nr of middle school students >20% About 1.78 million U.S. students had tried e-cig in 2012 About 1.78 million U.S. students had tried e-cig in billion $ from the sales of e-cig which are sold under 200 brand names in billion $ from the sales of e-cig which are sold under 200 brand names in 2013 “Wells Fargo has predicted that sales of e-cig could grow to 10 billion $ by 2017”!!! “Wells Fargo has predicted that sales of e-cig could grow to 10 billion $ by 2017”!!!

22 Ash.briefing action on smoking & health March million in 2015 (17%) 2.6 million in 2015 (17%)

23 Characteristics, Perceived Side Effects & Benefits of E-cig Use: A Worldwide Survey of More than 19,000 Consumers Results: Results: 19,414 participants were included (0.5% reported not being smokers at the time of E-cig use initiation) Complete substitution of smoking was reported by 81.0% of participants (former smokers) Current smokers had reduced smoking consumption from 20 to 4 cig./day (using ECs for a median of 10 months), initiated EC use with a median of 18 mg/mL nicotine-concentration liquids; 21.5% >20 mg/mL. Only 3.5% were using 0-nicotine liquids The most important reasons for initiating EC use for both subgroups was to reduce the harmassociated with smoking and to reduce exposure of family members to second-hand smoking. Most considered ECs as less harmful than tobacco cigarettes, while 11.0% considered them absolutely harmless Side effects were reported by more than half of the participants (59.8%), with the most common being sore/dry mouth and throat; side effects were mild and in most cases were subsequently resolved (partially or completely). Participants experienced significant benefits in physical status and improvements in pre-existing disease conditions (including respiratory disease such as asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease). Being former smoker was independently associated with positive effects in health and improvements in disease conditions Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 22 April 2014

24 Conclusions:  The results of this worldwide survey of dedicated users indicate that ECs are mostly used to avoid the harm associated with smoking  They can be effective even in highly-dependent smokers and are used as long-term substitutes for smoking  High levels of nicotine are used at initiation; subsequently, users try to reduce nicotine consumption, with only a small minority using non- nicotine liquids  Side effects are minor and health benefits are substantial, especially for those who completely substitute smoking with EC use  Further population and interventional studies are warranted Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 22 April 2014 Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center Greece, Biol & Chem. Tox.Research Inst. Italy

25 Pasquale Caponnetto et al PLoS ONE June 2013

26 Pasquale Caponnetto et al PLoS ONE June 2013

27 Pasquale Caponnetto et al PLoS ONE June % 8%

28 Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation: a randomised controlled trial Christopher Bullen, et al Auckland, New Zealand Lancet 6 September participants ≥ 18years 657 participants ≥ 18years 289 used e-cig (A)--295 patches (B)--73 placebo e-cig (C) 289 used e-cig (A)--295 patches (B)--73 placebo e-cig (C) Follow up for 6 months (September 2011-July 2013) Follow up for 6 months (September 2011-July 2013) Verified abstinence:7,3% in (A)--5,8% in (B)--4,1% in (C) Verified abstinence:7,3% in (A)--5,8% in (B)--4,1% in (C) Adverse events: 137 in (A) in (B)---36 in (C) Adverse events: 137 in (A) in (B)---36 in (C)

29 Christopher Bullen et al Lancet Sept. 2013

30 The statement of AACR and ASCO (American Association for Cancer Research--American Society of Clinical Oncology) "We are concerned that e-cigarettes may encourage nonsmokers, particularly children, to start smoking and develop nicotine addiction. While e-cigarettes may reduce smoking rates and attendant adverse health risks, we will not know for sure until these products are researched and regulated" "We are concerned that e-cigarettes may encourage nonsmokers, particularly children, to start smoking and develop nicotine addiction. While e-cigarettes may reduce smoking rates and attendant adverse health risks, we will not know for sure until these products are researched and regulated" "The FDA has signaled its willingness to regulate e-cigarettes and other electronic nicotine delivery systems, and we urge the agency to follow through on this intention" "The FDA has signaled its willingness to regulate e-cigarettes and other electronic nicotine delivery systems, and we urge the agency to follow through on this intention" Clinical Cancer Research Journal of Clinical Oncology Journal of Clinical Oncology. January 08, 2015

31 The FDA should regulate all ENDS that meet the statutory definition of tobacco products The FDA should regulate all ENDS that meet the statutory definition of tobacco products Manufacturers should be required to register with the FDA and report all product and ingredient listings, as well as the nicotine concentration in the ENDS solution Manufacturers should be required to register with the FDA and report all product and ingredient listings, as well as the nicotine concentration in the ENDS solution Packaging and advertising should be required to carry safety labels that include a warning about nicotine addiction Packaging and advertising should be required to carry safety labels that include a warning about nicotine addiction All ENDS advertising and marketing targeted at youth should be prohibited All ENDS advertising and marketing targeted at youth should be prohibited Internet and other mail-order sellers of ENDS should be required to check the age and identification of customers at the point of purchase and delivery. Internet and other mail-order sellers of ENDS should be required to check the age and identification of customers at the point of purchase and delivery. Childproof caps should be required for all e-liquid containers Childproof caps should be required for all e-liquid containers

32 ENDS and ENDS liquid–containing candy, along with other products aimed at youth, should be banned, unless evidence is produced that they do not encourage use by this population ENDS and ENDS liquid–containing candy, along with other products aimed at youth, should be banned, unless evidence is produced that they do not encourage use by this population Use should be prohibited in places where federal, state, or local law prohibit combustible tobacco products until the safety of secondhand aerosol exposure is established Use should be prohibited in places where federal, state, or local law prohibit combustible tobacco products until the safety of secondhand aerosol exposure is established Funding generated through tobacco product taxes, including any potential taxes levied on ENDS, should be used to help support research on ENDS and other tobacco products Funding generated through tobacco product taxes, including any potential taxes levied on ENDS, should be used to help support research on ENDS and other tobacco products All data related to ENDS composition, use, and health effects should be disclosed for dissemination and should inform policy decisions for ENDS product regulation All data related to ENDS composition, use, and health effects should be disclosed for dissemination and should inform policy decisions for ENDS product regulation State and local governments should implement ENDS regulations appropriate for public health safety State and local governments should implement ENDS regulations appropriate for public health safety

33 ΠΡΟΤΑΣΕΙΣ ΕΚΕ ΠΡΟΤΑΣΕΙΣ ΕΚΕ Απαιτούνται περαιτέρω ανεξάρτητες πολυκεντρικές τυχαιοποιημένες μελέτες Απαιτούνται περαιτέρω ανεξάρτητες πολυκεντρικές τυχαιοποιημένες μελέτες Δεδομένης της αβεβαιότητας στις κανονιστικές διατάξεις αν τα e-cig πρέπει να θεωρούνται προϊόντα καπνού εάν περιέχουν νικοτίνη ή ως συμπλήρωμα υγείας χρήσιμα για το μετριασμό ή τη διακοπή του καπνίσματος εφ’ όσον δεν περιέχουν προϊόντα καπνού και της ασφάλειας της χρήσης των, συνιστάται η διακοπή εισαγωγής, διανομής και πώλησης των προϊόντων αυτών Δεδομένης της αβεβαιότητας στις κανονιστικές διατάξεις αν τα e-cig πρέπει να θεωρούνται προϊόντα καπνού εάν περιέχουν νικοτίνη ή ως συμπλήρωμα υγείας χρήσιμα για το μετριασμό ή τη διακοπή του καπνίσματος εφ’ όσον δεν περιέχουν προϊόντα καπνού και της ασφάλειας της χρήσης των, συνιστάται η διακοπή εισαγωγής, διανομής και πώλησης των προϊόντων αυτών Έως ότου υπάρξει σαφής απόδειξη της ασφάλειας και της δραστικότητας των ηλεκτρονικών τσιγάρων, συνιστάται να σταματήσει κάθε δραστηριότητα διαφήμισης Έως ότου υπάρξει σαφής απόδειξη της ασφάλειας και της δραστικότητας των ηλεκτρονικών τσιγάρων, συνιστάται να σταματήσει κάθε δραστηριότητα διαφήμισης

34 Συνιστάται να σταματήσει η χρήση ηλεκτρονικών τσιγάρων σε περιοχές μη καπνιζόντων Συνιστάται να σταματήσει η χρήση ηλεκτρονικών τσιγάρων σε περιοχές μη καπνιζόντων Θα πρέπει να ξεκινήσουν καμπάνιες από το Υπουργείο Υγείας και Κοινωνικής Αλληλεγγύης, την ιατρική κοινότητα, μη κυβερνητικούς οργανισμούς προκειμένου να ενημερωθεί σωστά ο πληθυσμός σχετικά για τα e-cig Θα πρέπει να ξεκινήσουν καμπάνιες από το Υπουργείο Υγείας και Κοινωνικής Αλληλεγγύης, την ιατρική κοινότητα, μη κυβερνητικούς οργανισμούς προκειμένου να ενημερωθεί σωστά ο πληθυσμός σχετικά για τα e-cig Ιατροί, νοσηλευτές, προσωπικό ιατρείων ή κλινικών διακοπής του καπνίσματος, δάσκαλοι και άλλα άτομα, τα οποία έχουν την ευκαιρία επαφής με καπνιστές, που επιθυμούν να διακόψουν το κάπνισμα, να αποθαρρύνουν τη χρήση e-cig ως μεθόδου μετριασμού, διακοπής /πρόληψης της υποτροπής του καπνίσματος, έως ότου υπάρξουν σαφείς ερευνητικές και κλινικές αποδείξεις του ισχυρισμού αυτού Ιατροί, νοσηλευτές, προσωπικό ιατρείων ή κλινικών διακοπής του καπνίσματος, δάσκαλοι και άλλα άτομα, τα οποία έχουν την ευκαιρία επαφής με καπνιστές, που επιθυμούν να διακόψουν το κάπνισμα, να αποθαρρύνουν τη χρήση e-cig ως μεθόδου μετριασμού, διακοπής /πρόληψης της υποτροπής του καπνίσματος, έως ότου υπάρξουν σαφείς ερευνητικές και κλινικές αποδείξεις του ισχυρισμού αυτού Ιδιαίτερα θα πρέπει να αποθαρρύνεται η χρήση των ηλεκτρονικών τσιγάρων από τα νέα άτομα Ιδιαίτερα θα πρέπει να αποθαρρύνεται η χρήση των ηλεκτρονικών τσιγάρων από τα νέα άτομα

35 Συμπερασματικ ά Τα e-cig πιθανόν να είναι λιγότερο τοξικά από τα κοινά Τα e-cig πιθανόν να είναι λιγότερο τοξικά από τα κοινά Είναι προϊόντα που ακόμα δεν υπόκεινται σε κανονισμούς Είναι προϊόντα που ακόμα δεν υπόκεινται σε κανονισμούς Περιέχουν τοξικά χημικά Περιέχουν τοξικά χημικά Δεν έχει αποδειχθεί η ένδειξή τους για την διακοπή του καπνίσματος Δεν έχει αποδειχθεί η ένδειξή τους για την διακοπή του καπνίσματος Τα e-cig ενώ έχουν αρκετά χαμηλότερα επίπεδα από τις περισσότερες τοξικές ουσίες των τσιγάρων, έχει αποδειχθεί ότι απελευθερώνουν μεγαλύτερα ποσοστά μικροσωματιδίων Τα e-cig ενώ έχουν αρκετά χαμηλότερα επίπεδα από τις περισσότερες τοξικές ουσίες των τσιγάρων, έχει αποδειχθεί ότι απελευθερώνουν μεγαλύτερα ποσοστά μικροσωματιδίων

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Κατέβασμα ppt "ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΤΙΚΟ ΣΕΜΙΝΑΡΙΟ ΕΚΘΑ Αθήνα 4 Φεβρουαρίου 2016 4 Ο ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΤΙΚΟ ΣΕΜΙΝΑΡΙΟ ΕΚΘΑ Αθήνα 4 Φεβρουαρίου 2016 Βασιλική Ν. Γιαννακοπούλου MD, Βασιλική Ν."

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