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Επιπεφυκίτιδα Haemophilus influenzae Διάφορα άλλα μικρόβια Λόγω χρήσης μη αποστειρωμένων φακών επαφής Γονοκοκκική οφθαλμία στα νεογέννητα Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "Επιπεφυκίτιδα Haemophilus influenzae Διάφορα άλλα μικρόβια Λόγω χρήσης μη αποστειρωμένων φακών επαφής Γονοκοκκική οφθαλμία στα νεογέννητα Neisseria gonorrhoeae."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 Επιπεφυκίτιδα Haemophilus influenzae Διάφορα άλλα μικρόβια Λόγω χρήσης μη αποστειρωμένων φακών επαφής Γονοκοκκική οφθαλμία στα νεογέννητα Neisseria gonorrhoeae Μεταδίδεται κατά τη δίοδο του νεογεννήτου απ΄πο το γεννητικό σωλήνα Μικροβιακές οφθαλμικές λοιμώξεις

2 Chlamydia trachomatis Επιπεφυκίτιδα Μεταδίδεται κατά τη γέννηση Μετάδοση από νερά κολυμβητικών δεξαμενών Αντιβιοτικό εκλογής: Τετρακυκλίνες Τράχωμα (λοίμωξη κερατοειδούς) Υψηλότερη αιτία τύφλωσης παγκοσμίως Μόνιμες βλάβες στον κερατοειδή Μικροβιακές οφθαλμικές λοιμώξεις

3 Figure 21.20

4 Ερπητική κερατίτιδα Herpes simplex virus 1 (HHV-1) Προσβολή κερατοειδούς, μπορεί να οδηγήσει σε τύφλωση Θεραπεία με τριφλουριδίνη Acanthamoeba κερατίτιδα Μεταδίδεται από το νερό Φακοί επαφής Μικροβιακές οφθαλμικές λοιμώξεις

5 Figure 21.21

6 Λοιμώξεις ανώτερου αναπνευστικού Λαρυγγίτιδα-Φαρυγγίτιδα: S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, ιοί Αμυγδαλίτιδα: S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, ιοί Ιγμορίτιδες: Βακτήρια Επιγλωττίτιδα: H. influenzae

7 Από δυνητικά παθογόνα Λοιμώξεις ανώτερου αναπνευστικού Figure 24.1

8 Streptococcal pharyngitis (Strep throat) Figure 24.3 Streptococcus pyogenes Resistant to phagocytosis Streptokinases lyse clots Streptolysins are cytotoxic Diagnosis by indirect agglutination

9

10 Group A Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus

11 BETA HEMOLYSIS

12 Επιπλοκές φαργγίτιδας από Στρεπτόκοκκο Ομάδας Α Μέση ωτίτιδα Ιγμορίτιδες Περιαμυγδαλιδικό ή φαρυγγικό απόστημα Τραχηλική αδενίτιδαs

13 Streptococcal Cervical Adenitis

14 Streptococcus pyogenes Pharyngitis Erythrogenic toxin produced by lysogenized S. pyogenes Scarlet Fever (Οστρακιά) Figure 24.4

15 DISEASES Impetigo Erysipelas

16 DISEASES cont. Erysipelas Tonsillitis

17 DISEASES cont. Scarlet Fever Toxic Shock

18 Corynebacterium diphtheriae: Gram-positive rod Diphtheria membrane of fibrin, dead tissue, and bacteria Diphtheria toxin produced by lysogenized C. diphtheriae Prevented by DTaP and Td vaccine (Diphtheria toxoid) Cutaneous diphtheria: Infected skin wound leads to slow healing ulcer Diphtheria

19 I. Organism -G+, club shaped, pleomorphic, aerobic rod

20 I. Organism -G+, club shaped, pleomorphic, aerobic rod -metachromatic polyphosphate granules

21 I. Organism -G+, club shaped, pleomorphic, aerobic rod -metachromatic polyphosphate granules -reduce potassium tellurite to tellurium metal - black ppt. on tellurite blood agar

22 I. Organism -G+, club shaped, pleomorphic, aerobic rod -metachromatic polyphosphate granules -reduce potassium tellurite to tellurium metal - black ppt. on tellurite blood agar -subtypes gravis, intermedius, mitis: severity of infection differs depending on growth rate of subtype

23 II. Clinical -usually presents as throat infection w/ sore throat, fever, sometimes swollen lymph glands -”pseudomembrane” forms at back of throat - may obstruct airway (“la garottilla”)

24

25 Pseudomembrane in Diptheria

26

27 Anatomy of the Ear

28 1 Tympanic Membrane 2 Maleus Incus Stapes 3 Semicircular canals 4 Cochlea 5 Cochlear Nerve 6 Oval Window 7 Eustachian Tube 8 Orifice 9 Round Window10 Middle Ear Cavity

29 Ear infections Otitis externa Otitis media Exogenous organisms via external auditory canal Endogenous organisms via eustachian tube tympanic membrane

30 Otitis Media Epidemiology and Pathophysiology: age - almost all children have one or more episodes before age 6 about 10% of children develop OM by age 3 months peak incidence between ages 6 and 15 months

31 Otitis Media Etiology: abnormal function of the eustachian tube

32 Otitis Media Microbiology (AOM) Streptococcus pneumoniae 35% Haemophilus Influenzae 23% Moraxella catarrhalis 14% Alpha-hemolytic streptlococci 3% GAB-hemolytic streptococci 3% Staphylococcus aureus 1% Psuedomonas aeruginosa 1% Treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics Incidence of S. pneumoniae reduced by vaccine

33 Otits Media Microbiology(COM) Haemophilus influenzae 15% Moraxella catarrhalis 10% Streptococcus pneumoniae 7% Alpha-hemolytic streptococci 3% Staphylococcus aureus 3% Pseudomonas artuginosa 2% GAB hemolytic streptococci 1%

34 Otitis Media Inflamation of the middle ear Acute Otitis Media (AOM) - rapid onset of redness and bulging of the tympanic membrane, decreased mobility, pain, perforation with otorrhea

35 Otitis Media Figure 25.7

36 AOE: Mild to Moderate Stage Progressive infection Symptoms Pain Increased pruritus Signs Erythema Increasing edema Canal debris, discharge

37 AOE: Severe Stage Severe pain, worse with ear movement Signs Lumen obliteration Purulent otorrhea Involvement of periauricular soft tissue

38 Otitis Externa

39 COE: Signs Asteatosis Dry, flaky skin Hypertrophied skin Mucopurulent otorrhea (occasional)

40 Otomycosis: Signs Canal erythema Mild edema White, gray or black fungal debris

41 Otomycosis

42 Herpes Zoster Oticus: Symptoms Early: burning pain in one ear, headache, malaise and fever Late (3 to 7 days): vesicles, facial paralysis

43 Erysipelas Acute superficial cellulitis Group A, beta hemolytic streptococci Skin: bright red; well- demarcated, advancing margin Rapid treatment with oral or IV antibiotics if insufficient response

44 Otitis externa Organisms- Pseudomonas aeruginosa - Staphylococcus aureus - Aspergillus spp. Treatment- oral antibiotics – NO! - topical broad spectrum (thick drops or wicks) - cotricosteroids Prevention- avoid predisposing events. ( post swim drops, blue tack, ear “ NO GO” zone)

45 Sinusitis 32 million cases annually in U.S % of colds are complicated by sinusitis Most acute sinusitis occurs from viral and bacterial co-infection

46 Sinusitis

47

48 Major symptoms Facial Pain* Nasal Obstruction Nasal Discharge Postnasal Drainage Hyposmia Fever Minor Symptoms Headache Halitosis Fatigue Oral Pain Cough Ear pain, pressure, fullness *Location = diagnosis

49 Sinusitis Microbiology S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae cause 70% of sinusitis Anaerobes, S. aureus and M.catarrhalis cause most of remaining 30%

50 Rhinoviruses (50%) Coronaviruses (15-20%) Rhinoviruses attached to ICAN-1 on nasal mucosa Common cold

51 Bacteria, viruses, & fungi cause: Bronchitis Bronchiolitis Pneumonia Microbial Diseases of the Lower Respiratory System

52 Lower Respiratory System The ciliary escalator keeps the lower respiratory system sterile. Figure 24.2

53 Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Figure 24.8 Bordetella pertussis: Gram-negative coccobacillus Capsule Tracheal cytotoxin of cell wall damaged ciliated cells Pertussis toxin Prevented by DTaP vaccine (acellular Pertussis cell fragments)

54 Stage 1: Catarrhal stage, like common cold Stage 2: Paroxysmal stage: Violent coughing sieges Stage 3: Convalescence stage Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

55 Tuberculosis Figure 24.9 Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Acid-fast rod. Transmitted from human to human M. bovis: <1% U.S. cases, not transmitted from human to human M. avium-intracellulare complex infects people with late stage HIV infection

56 Tuberculosis Figure

57 Tuberculosis Figure

58 Tuberculosis Figure

59 Treatment of Tuberculosis: Prolonged treatment with multiple antibiotics Vaccines: BCG, live, avirulent M. bovis. Not widely used in U.S. Tuberculosis

60 Figure Diagnosis: Tuberculin skin test screening + = current or previous infection Followed by X-ray or CT, acid-fast staining of sputum, culturing bacteria

61 Pneumomoccal Pneumonia Figure Streptococcus pneumoniae: Gram-positive encapsulated diplococci Diagnosis by culturing bacteria Penicillin is drug of choice

62 Pneumomoccal Pneumonia

63 Gram-negative coccobacillus Alcoholism, poor nutrition, cancer, or diabetes are predisposing factors Second-generation cephalosporins Haemophilus influenzae Pneumonia

64 Mycoplasmal Pneumonia Figure Mycoplasma pneumoniae: pleomorphic, wall- less bacteria Also called primary atypical pneumonia and walking pneumonia Common in children and young adults Diagnosis by PCR or by IgM antibodies

65 Mycoplasmal Pneumonia Figure 11.19a, b

66 Legionella pneumophila: Gram-negative rod L. pneumophila is found in water Transmitted by inhaling aerosols, not transmitted from human to human Diagnosis: culturing bacteria Treatment: Erythromycin Legionellosis

67 Chlamydia psittaci: gram-negative intracellular bacterium Transmitted by elementary bodies from bird dropping to humans Reorganizes into reticulate body after being phagocytized Diagnosis: culturing bacteria in eggs or cell culture Treatment: Tetracycline Psittacosis (Ornithosis)

68 Chlamydia pneumoniae Transmitted from human to human Diagnosis by FA test Treatment: Tetracycline Chlamydial Pneumonia

69 Mycoplasmal pneumonia Mycoplasma pneumoniae: pleomorphic, wall-less bacteria Also called primary atypical pneumonia and walking pneumonia Common in children and young adults Diagnosis by PCR or by IgM antibodies

70 Q fever Figure 24.15

71 Viral pneumonia as a complication of influenza, measles, chickenpox Viral etiology suspected if no cause determined Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Common in infants; 4500 deaths annually Causes cell fusion (syncytium) in cell culture Symptoms: coughing Diagnosis by serologic test for viruses and antibodies Treatment: Ribavirin Viral Pneumonia

72 Chills, fever, headache, muscle aches (no intestinal symptoms) 1% mortality due to secondary bacterial infections Treatment: Amantadine Vaccine for high-risk individuals Influenza

73 Hemagglutinin (H) spikes used for attachment to host cells Neuraminidase (N) spikes used to release virus from cell Influenza

74 Figure 24.16

75 Antigenic shift Changes in H and N spikes Probably due to genetic recombination between different strains infecting the same cell Antigenic drift Mutations in genes encoding H or N spikes May involve only 1 amino acid Allows virus to avoid mucosal IgA antibodies Influenza

76 A: causes most epidemics, H 3 N 2, H 1 N 1, H 2 N 2 B: moderate, local outbreaks C: mild disease Influenza serotypes

77 Histoplasmosis Figure Histoplasma capsulatum, dimorphic fungus (a) 37˚(a) >35˚

78 Pneumocystis Pneumonia Figure Pneumocystis jiroveci (P. carinii) found in healthy human lungs Pneumonia occurs in newly infected infants & immunosuppressed individuals Treatment: Timethoprim- sulfamethoxazole

79 Blastomyces dermatitidis, dimorphic fungus Found in soil Can cause extensive tissue destruction Treatment: amphotericin B Blastomycosis

80 Aspergillus Rhizopus Mucor Opportunistic fungi involved in respiratory disease: Mucor rouxii Figure 12.2b, 12.4


Κατέβασμα ppt "Επιπεφυκίτιδα Haemophilus influenzae Διάφορα άλλα μικρόβια Λόγω χρήσης μη αποστειρωμένων φακών επαφής Γονοκοκκική οφθαλμία στα νεογέννητα Neisseria gonorrhoeae."

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