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Γαλαξίες Το σύμπαν είναι γεμάτο από αυτά τα μεγαλειώδη συστήματα αστέρων που και αυτά συγκεντρώνονται σε γειτονιές με μεγαλύτερα συστήματα τα σμήνη γαλαξιών.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "Γαλαξίες Το σύμπαν είναι γεμάτο από αυτά τα μεγαλειώδη συστήματα αστέρων που και αυτά συγκεντρώνονται σε γειτονιές με μεγαλύτερα συστήματα τα σμήνη γαλαξιών."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 Γαλαξίες Το σύμπαν είναι γεμάτο από αυτά τα μεγαλειώδη συστήματα αστέρων που και αυτά συγκεντρώνονται σε γειτονιές με μεγαλύτερα συστήματα τα σμήνη γαλαξιών

2 Πως ανακαλύψαμε τους Γαλαξίες Στην αρχή του 20ού αιώνα, ότι καλούμε τώρα «σπειροειδείς γαλαξίες» τα ονόμαζαν «σπειροειδή νεφελώματα» και οι περισσότεροι αστρονόμοι τα θεωρούσαν σύννεφα αερίου και αστέρων που συνδέονταν με το δικό μας γαλαξία. Η σημαντική ανακάλυψη ήρθε το 1924 όταν ήταν σε θέση ο Edwin Hubble να μετρήσει την απόσταση του «μεγάλου νεφελώματος της Andromeda» (Μ 31, στην εικόνα δίπλα) και βρήκε ότι η απόστασή του ήταν πολύ μεγαλύτερη από τη διάμετρο του Milky Way. Αυτό σήμανε ότι το Μ 31, και κατ' επέκταση άλλα σπειροειδή νεφελώματα, ήταν γαλαξίες, συγκρίσιμοι ή ακόμα και μεγαλύτεροι από το δικό μας γαλαξία. Edwin P. Hubble ( ) (NOAO/AURA Photo)

3 Τύποι Γαλαξιών I. Σπειροειδείς Spiral galaxies are so-named because of the graceful shapes of arms emanating from a bright central nucleus. Spirals are classified according to how tightly or loosely wound the arms are, and it turns out that the brightness of the central nucleus is correlated to the tightness of the arm. The galaxies M 104 (below) and M 51 (right) respectively show tightly and loosely wounds. Notice the effects of dust in both galaxies. (NOAO/AURA Photos )

4 M31 - The Great Spiral Galaxy in Andromeda This nearby galaxy in the Local Group of galaxies, of which the Milky Way is a member, is 2.5 million light years away. (NOAO/AURA Photos)

5 Ο Πυρήνας του Μ31 (NOAO/AURA Photos) Young stars have formed along the foreground spiral arm. M31’s two satellite galaxies M32 and NGC 205, both dwarf elliptical galaxies, are in the bottom center and upper right.

6 The Outer Disk of M31 (NOAO/AURA Photos)

7 (Hubble Space Telescope Image) Central Region of the Spiral Galaxy M 51

8 Ραβδωτοί The spiral galaxies M 91 (left) and M 109 (right) have bars across their nuclei from which spiral arms unwind. In virtually all spirals (barred or not) the galaxies rotate such that the spiral arms trail behind in the rotation. The Milky Way is thought to be a barred spiral galaxy. (NOAO/AURA Photos)

9 Εκλλειπτικοί Elliptical galaxies lack spiral arms and dust and contain stars that are generally identified as being old. The elliptical galaxies M 32 (below) and M 110 (right) show varying degrees of ellipticity. (NOAO/AURA Photos)

10 «Ανώμαλοι» Irregular galaxies lack any specific form and contain stars, gas and dust generally associated with a youth. The irregular galaxy at right is the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite of the Milky Way located about 180,000 light years from the sun. The LMC is about 60,000 light years across. The bright reddish feature in the upper right is the “Tarantula Nebula” a region of star formation in the LMC. (NOAO/AURA Photo )

11 Dwarf Irregular Galaxy in Sagittarius Hubble Space Telescope Image

12 Properties of Galaxies Property Spirals Ellipticals Irregulars Mass/M of Sun 10 9 to 4x to to 3x10 10 Luminosity/L of Sun 10 8 to 2x x10 5 to to 3x10 9 Diameter (light years) 16x10 3 to 8x10 5 3x10 3 to 7x10 5 3x10 3 to 3x10 4 %-age of galaxies 77% 20% 3% National Optical Astronomy Observatory images From this table, you should take note of which galaxies are the most and least massive, most and least luminous, and largest and smallest in size.

13 Διαφορική περιστροφή– Το πρόβλημα της «χαμένης» μάζας Distance from galaxy center Orbital speed Observed Expected The Doppler Effect permits us to measure the speed of material orbiting around the center of a galaxy. Photographs of galaxies show that luminous material appears to be concentrated towards the center and drops off with increasing distance. If matter were really concentrated in this fashion, we would see “rotation curves” following the “expected” path in the diagram at right. What is invariably observed instead is that rotation curves tend to remain high as far out as they can be measured. This implies the existence of massive halos of dark matter in galaxies. The nature of the material comprising this dark matter is completely unknown at present, making this one of the greatest problems of contemporary astronomy.

14 Σμήνη Γαλαξιών Rather than occurring individually in space, galaxies are grouped in clusters ranging in size from a few dozens to thousands of galaxies. The Coma Cluster, shown at right, is 300 million light years from the Milky Way and contains more than 1,000 (and possibly as many as 10,000) galaxies. The Milky Way is a member of a small cluster called the Local Group which contains about 40 galaxies. The largest member of the Local Group is M 31, with the Milky Way coming in second in size. (NOAO/AURA Photo)

15 Βαρυτικοί φακοί στο Σμήνος Abell 2218 Hubble Space Telescope Image As predicted by Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity, a compact intervening object is bending and distorting light from individual members of this cluster so that we see a halo effect.

16 Συγκρούσεις Γαλαξιών In this close encounter between two spiral galaxies, their arms are dramatically warped and massive star formation is triggered when the hydrogen gas clouds in the two collide. It is believed the Milky Way may have “cannibalized” small galaxies in the past through collision. Hubble Space Telescope Image

17 The Disrupted Galaxy NGC 5128

18 Hubble Space Telescope Image Ενεργοί Γαλαξίες The galaxy NGC 7742 is an otherwise normal spiral galaxy except for its extraordinarily bright nucleus that outshines the rest of the galaxy. Such galaxies, i.e. spirals with extremely bright nuclei, form a class of active galaxies known as Seyfert galaxi es.

19 Σχετικιστικές ροές σε ενεργούς γαλαξίες. The elliptical galaxy M87, shown below in a wide-field ground-based image, has a very bright, point-like nucleus from which a jet of material emanates. The jet is seen in great detail from an HST image at right. Hubble Space Telescope Image

20 Ημιαστέρες (Quasars). This image shows the spiral galaxy NGC 4319 and the quasar Markarian 205. The distance to NGC is 80 million light years, which Mkn 205 is 14 times farther away at a distance of 1 billion light year. The very distant quasar is nearly as bright as the much closer galaxy. The extraordinary brightness of quasars, which is a blending of the term quasi-stellar radio source, indicates that some incredibly powerful mechanism must be producing enormous amounts of energy from a small volume of space. Hubble Space Telescope Image Mkn 205NGC 4139

21 Ημιααστέρες σαν βαρυτικοί φακοί National Optical Astronomy Observatories Image An intervening galaxy between us and this distant quasar is causing light from the quasar to be bent along curved paths that give rise to an Einstein cross, a phenomenon predicted by Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity.

22 torus scattering region Broad-line region (BLR) Narrow-line region (NLR) radio jet Supermassive black hole +accretion disk Seyfert 1 Seyfert 2 Ενεργοί γαλαξίες στα «μάτια» του θεωρητικού (Σκίτσο (Cartoon)) Diagram from Mike Crenshaw


Κατέβασμα ppt "Γαλαξίες Το σύμπαν είναι γεμάτο από αυτά τα μεγαλειώδη συστήματα αστέρων που και αυτά συγκεντρώνονται σε γειτονιές με μεγαλύτερα συστήματα τα σμήνη γαλαξιών."

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