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Prometheus and Pandora in a nanoscience lab Alexei Grinbaum French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Saclay.

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "Prometheus and Pandora in a nanoscience lab Alexei Grinbaum French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Saclay."— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 Prometheus and Pandora in a nanoscience lab Alexei Grinbaum French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Saclay

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4 French debates in Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM

5 Technological trauma Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM

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7 France: debatpublic-nano.org Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM

8 Netherlands: Nanopodium.nl Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM

9 UK: nano and me Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM

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11 Nano: a threefold definition  Scientific and technological  Observe and understand  Construct and use  Economic, industrial and financial  Overall Rosnano investment over $3 bn  Investment in Russia in 2011: $1bn federal, $1.9bn private  Market in Russia ~ $350 mln in 2011 Source: Rosnano annual report for 2011  Societal  Hopes, worries, promises, risks… Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM

12 1 nanometer (nm) = m = 0, m Nanometer, a scale Cat 1 m Virus 70 nm Acari 200 µm Bacterium 1 µm Hair 50 µm 1 m 1 cm 1 mm1 pm1 µm1 nm NANOMONDE Tennis ball ≈ 5 cm Ant 1 cm DNA 2 nm Carbon atom (graphite) 0,1 nm Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM

13 What changes at the nanometer scale  Some properties of matter are size-dependent:  Chemical properties (catalysis)  Optical properties (color)  Electric properties (conductivity)  Magnetic properties  Mecanical properties (strength)  Thermic properties (fusion temperature) Gold and silver nanoparticles change color as a function of size and shape: Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM

14 Is nano new?  Nanoscale properties used since Antiquity  Example: Lycurgus cup (IV century BC) British Museum Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM Nanoscale properties studied for over 100 years: In biology: viruses, proteins… In chemistry: chemical reactions… In physics: atom models…

15 Getting access to the nanoscale  New tools for observation and action Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM

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17 Novelty causes fear “And he [Tobias] went out to wash his feet, and behold a monstrous fish came up to devour him. And Tobias being afraid of him, cried out with a loud voice, saying: Sir, he cometh upon me. And the angel said to him: Take him by the gill, and draw him to thee. And when he had done so, he drew him out upon the land, and he began to pant before his feet. Then the angel said to him: Take out the entrails of the fish, and lay up his heart, and his gall, and his liver for thee: for these are necessary for useful medicines.” Tobit 6, 2-5 Filippino Lippi, National Gallery, Washington Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM

18 Energy: example of batteries Pour 150 kg de batteries Années Autonomie (km) NiCd (45 km) Plomb (30 km) LiFePO 4 nano Nano Silicon NiMH (70 km) Li-ion 2010 (150 km) Li-ion 2015 (300 km)

19 Extrait par l’OMNT avec la permission de Small 6, 2336 (2010). Copyright 2010 Wiley-VCH. Nanomedicine

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21 Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM

22 Imaging and imagining the nanoscale F. BeronO. Cibois Electron scanning micrograph to record the overloading of a CoFeB magnetic array Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM

23 Electron scanning micrograph to record the overloading of a CoFeB magnetic array F. Beron Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM

24 Electron scanning micrograph to record the overloading of a CoFeB magnetic array O. Cibois Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM

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26 Nanoethics  Ethical questions do not have an objective yes/no answer.  Few questions are new. Most have already been asked about previous generations of emerging technologies.  A changing science & society situation. Imagination: Role of fiction and visions. Case-by-case decision-making: •Nanobioethics: blurring of the frontier between nature and artefact, human body and machine. •Ethics of ICT: personal rights and freedoms, surveillance. •Dual-use technology. Scientist’s responsibility: Individual vs. collective, moral responsibility vs. liability Governance: a need for ongoing assessment : •Not too soon, not too late. Academic questions: images of nano, narratives of nano Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM

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29 Toolkit for ethical reflection and communication 75 pages, can be downloaded from 1. Introduction 2. Classifying ethical and societal issues 3. Thinking with the help of ethical concepts 4. Responsible communication 5. Narratives of nanotech 6. Glossary Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM

30 I. Prometheus II. The Golem of Jeremiah III. Frankenstein IV. A positive Prometheus? V. Pandora’s box VI. Daedalus VII. The Matrix 5. Narratives of nanotech Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM

31 Софокл, «Антигона», пер. Шервинского Мысли его — они ветра быстрее; Речи своей научился он сам; Грады он строит и стрел избегает, Колких морозов и шумных дождей; Все он умеет; от всякой напасти Верное средство себе он нашел. Знает лекарства он против болезней, Но лишь почует он близость Аида, Как понапрасну на помощь зовет. Хитрость его и во сне не приснится; Это искусство толкает его То ко благим, то к позорным деяньям. Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM

32 I. Prometheus II. The Golem of Jeremiah III. Frankenstein IV. A positive Prometheus? V. Pandora’s box VI. Daedalus VII. The Matrix 5. Narratives of nanotech Paul Manship, Prometheus, Teacher in Every Art, 1934 (Rockefeller Centre) Jan Cossiers, Prometheus Carrying Fire, 1637 (Madrid) Prometheus becomes the hero of the American engineer Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM

33 I. Prometheus II. The Golem of Jeremiah III. Frankenstein IV. A positive Prometheus? V. Pandora’s box VI. Daedalus VII. The Matrix 5. Narratives of nanotech Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM

34 I. Prometheus II. The Golem of Jeremiah III. Frankenstein IV. A positive Prometheus? V. Pandora’s box VI. Daedalus VII. The Matrix 5. Narratives of nanotech Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM

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36 Platon, République, livre VII Так он сказал. И Кронида-владыки послушались боги. Зевсов приказ исполняя, подобие девы стыдливой Тотчас слепил из земли знаменитый Хромец обеногий. Пояс надела, оправив одежды, богиня Афина. Девы-Хариты с царицей Пейфо золотым ожерельем Нежную шею обвили. Прекрасноволосые Оры Пышные кудри цветами весенними ей увенчали. Все украшенья на теле оправила дева Афина. Аргоубийца ж, вожатай, вложил после этого в грудь ей Льстивые речи, обманы и лживую, хитрую душу. Женщину эту глашатай бессмертных Пандорою назвал, Ибо из вечных богов, населяющих домы Олимпа, Каждый свой дар приложил, хлебоядным мужам на погибель. Гесиод, Труды и дни, Перевод В. Вересаева. ὣ ς ἔ φατ ᾽ : ἐ κ δ ᾽ ἐ γέλασσε πατ ὴ ρ ἀ νδρ ῶ ν τε θε ῶ ν τε. Ἥ φαιστον δ ᾽ ἐ κέλευσε περικλυτ ὸ ν ὅ ττι τάχιστα γα ῖ αν ὕ δει φύρειν, ἐ ν δ ᾽ ἀ νθρώπου θέμεν α ὐ δ ὴ ν κα ὶ σθένος, ἀ θανάτ ῃ ς δ ὲ θε ῇ ς ε ἰ ς ὦ πα ἐ ίσκειν παρθενικ ῆ ς καλ ὸ ν ε ἶ δος ἐ πήρατον: α ὐ τ ὰ ρ Ἀ θήνην ἔ ργα διδασκ ῆ σαι, πολυδαίδαλον ἱ στ ὸ ν ὑ φαίνειν: κα ὶ χάριν ἀ μφιχέαι κεφαλ ῇ χρυσέην Ἀ φροδίτην κα ὶ πόθον ἀ ργαλέον κα ὶ γυιοβόρους μελεδώνας: ἐ ν δ ὲ θέμεν κύνεόν τε νόον κα ὶ ἐ πίκλοπον ἦ θος Ἑ ρμείην ἤ νωγε, διάκτορον Ἀ ργεϊφόντην. ὣ ς ἔ φαθ ᾽ : ο ἳ δ ᾽ ἐ πίθοντο Δι ὶ Κρονίωνι ἄ νακτι. α ὐ τίκα δ ᾽ ἐ κ γαίης πλάσσεν κλυτ ὸ ς Ἀ μφιγυήεις παρθέν ῳ α ἰ δοί ῃ ἴ κελον Κρονίδεω δι ὰ βουλάς: ζ ῶ σε δ ὲ κα ὶ κόσμησε θε ὰ γλαυκ ῶ πις Ἀ θήνη: ἀ μφ ὶ δέ ο ἱ Χάριτές τε θεα ὶ κα ὶ πότνια Πειθ ὼ ὅ ρμους χρυσείους ἔ θεσαν χροΐ: ἀ μφ ὶ δ ὲ τήν γε Ὧ ραι καλλίκομοι στέφον ἄ νθεσιν ε ἰ αρινο ῖ σιν: πάντα δέ ο ἱ χρο ῒ κόσμον ἐ φήρμοσε Παλλ ὰ ς Ἀ θήνη. ἐ ν δ ᾽ ἄ ρα ο ἱ στήθεσσι διάκτορος Ἀ ργεϊφόντης ψεύδεά θ ᾽ α ἱ μυλίους τε λόγους κα ὶ ἐ πίκλοπον ἦ θος τε ῦ ξε Δι ὸ ς βουλ ῇ σι βαρυκτύπου: ἐ ν δ ᾽ ἄ ρα φων ὴ ν θ ῆ κε θε ῶ ν κ ῆ ρυξ, ὀ νόμηνε δ ὲ τήνδε γυνα ῖ κα Πανδώρην, ὅ τι πάντες Ὀ λύμπια δώματ ᾽ ἔ χοντες δ ῶ ρον ἐ δώρησαν, π ῆ μ ᾽ ἀ νδράσιν ἀ λφηστ ῇ σιν. F.S. Church Alexei Grinbaum, CEA-Saclay/SPEC/LARSIM

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