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ΕΝΟΤΗΤΑ 2: Ανθρωπιστικές Επιστήμες

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Παρουσίαση με θέμα: "ΕΝΟΤΗΤΑ 2: Ανθρωπιστικές Επιστήμες"— Μεταγράφημα παρουσίασης:

1 ΕΝΟΤΗΤΑ 2: Ανθρωπιστικές Επιστήμες
This part of the workshop builds on Module 1, the general Introduction on Open Access. It focuses briefly on some characteristics in scholarly communications and how this affects open access in the Humanities.

2 Χαρακτηριστικά στην επιστημονική επικοινωνία
Μεγάλη διάρκεια δημοσίευσης και χρήσης δημοσιεύσεων Κουλτούρα ‘μονογραφίας’, αλλά αυξανόμενη σημασία περιοδικών Κουλτούρα που βασίζεται περισσότερο στο έντυπο παρά στο ψηφιακό μέσο, αλλά αυξανόμενη σημασία ψηφιοποιημένου υλικού Υψηλός αριθμός αναφορών ανά δημοσίευση Εντατική χρήση πρωτογενών πηγών Επικρατεί μοναδικός συγγραφέας (Single authorship) Σημασία βιβλιοθήκης ως φυσικού χώρου και ως αφετηρία έρευνας Κόστος έκδοσης σημαντικό κόστος για την έρευνα συνολικά Στατιστικά στοιχεία και ετεροαναφορές δεν χρησιμοποιούνται συνήθως για την αποτίμηση της έρευνας This slide sums up some characteristics in Humanities' scholalry communication: Long publication lifecycle: long time to produce, long publication waiting-time, publications remain relevant for a long time (ie sometimes for decades) Monograph gives opportunity to really expound on ideas and is often a prerequisite for promotion in the Humanities Heavy reliance on print, could be related to the book culture.  Large amounts of digitized materials, primary sources and journals now available, scholars increasingly rely on them High number of citations per publication. Humanities scholars tend to cite a long and provide history of prior research etc. Use of large number of primary sources: e.g. literary sources, data (archaeology for example) Co-authorship less common than in other sciences, although increasingly important; single authorship most important Still heavy reliance on library as a physical space, and the library’s gateway as starting point for research Statistics and citation scores not commonly used in evaluations. Impact factor not often used in evaluating performance in the Humanities, not quite appropriate. Discussions undeway on other, more appropriate ways for evaluating research. Publication costs a substantial part of the research costs: publications in the Humanities quite expensive to produce, they are lengthy and very often contain images. The latter are costly in terms of fees for publication to copyright owners Resources: Familiarity with OA publishing: OAPEN Report, 2010, Digital Monographs in the Humanities and Social Sciences: Report on User Needs., [Online] Available at Ithaka 2009 Faculty survey (http://www.ithaka.org/ithaka-s-r/research/faculty-surveys /Faculty%20Study% pdf )

3 Τι δημοσιεύουν οι ανθρωπιστές και η σημασία της μονογραφίας
The left table illustrates bullet point 2 of previous slide; journals uptake and use of books (also book chapters). Note the increase of journals between 2003 to 2008 to the detriment of books. Book chapters apparently stay more or less the same. The right table illustrates the importance of books in Humanities, based on the statement “Monographs remain the single most important mode of dissemination”, as compared to other disciplines. RIN and JISC Report, (2009), Communicating Knowledge: How and why UK researchers publish and disseminate their finding,[Online] Available at:

4 Η Ανοικτή Πρόσβαση στις Ανθρωπιστικές Επιστήμες: η κατάσταση σήμερα
Συνεχώς αυξάνεται το ποσοστό αυτών που γνωρίζουν Δεν την ασκούν τόσο συχνά όσο οι θετικοί/ιατρικοί κλάδοι Γενική αντίληψη ότι η ΑΠ είναι ευεργετική για την έρευνα, το οποίο αποτελεί πρόοδο σε σχέση με αντιλήψεις του παρελθόντος Εμπόδια Όχι τόσο καλή σχέση με την τεχνολογία Φόβος ότι θα χαθεί το έντυπο βιβλίο Φόβος για την μακροχρόνια διαθεσιμότητα των ηλεκτρονικών δημοσιεύσεων/δεδομένων Αργός ρυθμός παραγωγής και μακρά χρήση των δημοσιεύσεων   Η ταχύτητα στη δημοσίευση όχι αναγκαστικά ζητούμενο Οι ηλεκτρονικές δημοσιεύσεις, οι ΑΠ δημοσιεύσεις δεν αποτελούν ακόμη τυπικά μέρος της διαδικασίας αξιολόγησης και επαγγελματικής ανέλιξης Ζητήματα με πνευματικά δικαιώματα Ιδιοκτησιακή συμπεριφορά σε ό,τι αφορά επιστημονικά δεδομένα, έλλειψη διάθεσης για κοινοποίησής τους (share) This slide exposes the status quo of Open Access in the Humanities. The situation is slightly different from the field of STM, since the publication culture is different. Growing awareness: differences in different countries (OAPEN survey) Slower uptake: 1/3 of all OA journals are in the SSH; ¼ of published OA articles in SSH (SOAP survey). Probably because journal culture in STM is stronger than in the Humanities. Repositories have achieved less traction in the SSH than in many science and engineering subjects. Only 25% asked thought they are important Humanities scholars, especially older scholars, are less technologically prone, some are indeed resistent  Fear that print book will become extinct: repeatedly suggested; also probably reflected in Ithaka 2010 faculty survey which shows unwillingness of library directors to move to e-only books in their libraries, in contrast to what happens with journals worry about long-term availability of electronic publications/data: the electronic medium has not proved long-term viability yet long lifecycle of publications: they take long time to produce and they remain relevent for a much longer time than in STM, thus unwilingness to let them out in the open  speed is not a defining aspect in publishing in the humanities, unlike for example medical sciences, where set in the open one's results is really crucial in advancing science, thus the speed argument does not work very well with humanities scholars as a benefit brought about by OA Copyright restrictions (e.g. images whose rights don’t permit open reproduction over the net, or too expensive to obtain permission for worldwide internet reproduction) Electronic publishing not part of professoinal advancement: this is important, because there really is not incentive for scholars to publishing electronically and indeed in OA, in fact, combined with the fear for the new medium and lack of clarity on whether OA is related or not to quality of publication it delays the transition to the online digital medium and to Open Access.  copyright issues Resources: 1) SOAP project, preliminary results: (http://project-soap.eu/ ) 2) RIN and JISC Report (2009), Communicating Knowledge: How and why UK researchers publish and disseminate their finding, at: 3) Ithaka S+R Library Survey 2010: Insights from U.S. Academic Library Directors,

5 Η ανοικτή πρόσβαση και αξίες στις δημοσιεύσεις
These two figures in combination are very important because they show that Humanities scholars believe that OA has a positive influence on values which they consider to be significant in their scholarly publishing activities, specifically on Accessibility and dissemination, on efficiency and effectivity (so, compare right: their values to left, what they believe OA influences). Additionally, it is significant because the left figure shows that they do not believe that OA affects quality, rather that it is irrelevent to it. Remember from Module one that the SOAP survey also shows that Humanities scholars clearly think that their reserch fields benefit from publishing in OA journals (question was specific about journal publishing). Resource: Familiarity with OA publishing: OAPEN Report, 2010, Digital Monographs in the Humanities and Social Sciences: Report on User Needs., [Online] Available at Digital Monographs in the Humanities and Social Sciences: Report on User Needs, Janneke Adema, Paul Rutten, OAPEN Project,

6 Μονογραφίες Ανοικτής Πρόσβασης
Η ‘κρίση’ στις μονογραφίες (The Monograph Crisis): Ουσιαστικά μία ευκαιρία ‘Ένα νέο μοντέλο: Μονογραφίες Ανοικτής Πρόσβασης Νέα πιλοτικά μοντέλα για τις μονογραφίες ανοικτής Πρόσβασης Χαρακτηριστικά: των Ανθρωπιστικών και τεχνολογικά Μοντέλα χρηματοδότησης και βιωσιμότητα The Monograph Crisis: In fact it is an opportunity! Decline in print sales; libraries pay most of their money in STM and thus mostly in journals; the acquire less monographs for their collection building which leads to publishers curtailing the publication of e-books and monographs, especially those that are very specialized; they also curtail print numbers at least to half. It is expected that more money in the libraries will be spent on digital medium in the future (Ithaka S+R Library Survey 2010: Insights from U.S. Academic Library Directors, so the crisis for printed monographs will most likely deepen. Thus the digital book – the Open Access Monograph - is clearly an opportunity! (E-books not as widely used to replace print in libraries as the digital versions of print journals. This also affects OA in books in the Humanities A new model: Open Access Monographs Experimentation is going on with initiatives (OAPEN) and library-press partnerships, as well as Open Access publishers who also do monographs. We can speak of a revive of the academic book since new initiatives also aim to establish academic requirements to Open Access Books. Characteristics: Disciplinary and Technological Same quality assurance as in print monographs (peer-review most significant; also in this case open peer review and webometrics are possible) Print on Demand services for those who want print, also as a form of income; or limited print runs; thus print book is available, and does not become extinct Funding models and sustainability Funding is a very significant issue when the content is open to all. There is a plurality of models and experimentation still goes on. A diversification of funding sources is necessary; SPARC Europe and OAPEN aim to create a collection of funding possibilities. Information for librarians: On the Monograph crisis: J. Willinsky, ‘Toward the Design of an Open Monograph Press’, in Journal of Electronic Publishing, 12, http://dx.doi.org/ / ; Steele, “Scholarly Monograph Publishing in the 21st Century: The Future More Than Ever Should Be an Open Book.” Journal of Electronic Publishing 11, no. 2, 2008 It is significant to state that these new models are in a preliminary pilot phase, and that studies are being carried out, and still need to be carried out in the future about the sustainability of the OA model It is also clear that in terms of funding for the OA model a strategy of diversifying incoming resources is necessary: some external funding, using shared resources, digitized production process, and a new range of revenue sources. Considering publishing as an integral part of the cost of the research process itself probably necessary to OA book publishing in HSS sustainable. (further reading on this, with examples of partnerships for OA monograph publishing: Overview of Open Access Models for eBooks in the Humanities and Social Sciences, report, OAPEN project can read pages 7-8/executive summary). Also on partnerships, look at Crow, R. ‘University-based Publishing Partnerships: A Guide to Critical Issues’, SPARC, January 2009, summary in στοAgainst the Grain, December 2008-January 2009, . Hahn, K.L. Research Library Publishing Services. New Options for University Publishing, Association of Research Libraries , March Important to emphasize that the quality characteristics are the same as with traditional publishing, ie peer-review. Quality assurance is most important

7 Ανοικτά Δεδομένα στις Ανθρωπιστικές Επιστήμες
Ωφέλη Διατήρηση δεδομένων Επιτρέπει την εντατική έρευνα σε δεδομένα (data-intensive research) με νέους τρόπους που δεν ήταν έως τώρα δυνατοί Επιτρέπει τη διασύνδεση δεδομένων (Linked data) Κινούμαστε αργά! Οι επιστήμονες στις ανθρωπιστικές διστάζουν Κίνητρα: Digging into the data challenge: Canada, US, UK, Holland. Funding for data-intensive research Open Access to data is a relative young area, though we find it worth to mention some aspects. Benefits Data preservation; many researchers store their data in a very personal way; data might get lost and when not structured following standards, it might be difficult to share. Enables data-intensive research in new ways: Large-scale data analysis affords new understandings and perspectives on existing material, not feasible with manual analysis; Offers check on data-based analysis; May save from re-funding similar research Enables linking: linking of different types of information with primary data intensifies and expedites research Slow uptake in the Humanities For all the reasons described above in the obstacles, as well as in the fact that data by itself is normally not considered a legitimate publication, as in the sciences, and this should probably change. In general it is hard to find specific articles on open data in the humanities. All the of the above benefits are as good for sciences. In terms of publishing, it is interesting that data publication is not common in the humanities, and data usually accompanies a paper or a monograph. This may need to change, and will probably be a good change that will instigate the release of more data in the open.

8 Μερικές πηγές για την Ανοικτή Πρόσβαση στις Ανθρωπιστικές Επιστήμες
Αποθετήρια Περιοδικά Ανοικτής Πρόσβασης Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) JURN: Βιβλία Ανοικτής Πρόσβασης OAPEN Re-press Open Humanities Press Δεδομένα Ανοικτής Πρόσβασης Open Context http://opencontext.org Archaeology Data Service: This slide contains resources with open access research in the humanities. Use this slide to direct your audience to look for resources (repositories, journals, books and data) that are of interest to them. These recourses can be brought to Module 3 as well. Repositories: it should be noted that  unlike the case in the Social Sciences and in the STM fields, there is a dearth of subject-based repositories in the humanities that have wide significance to attract deposits from all over the world in specific disciplines in terms of published papers. However, there is a number of efforts in a variety of disciplines within the humanities that reflect mostly institutional repositories of regional significance. Indicatively, most of them function as digital archives, in other words contain images and digitized collections, and even data, and not primarily research, such as published articles. Open access journals: look for them in DOAJ, which is a Open Access Journals directory and contains all disciplines, or JURN, which only contains journals in the humanities. Books: apart from OAPEN with a list of 800 books currently: the open monograph press (CHECK), re-press, Open Humanities Press, Open Book Publishers there are several other Open Access Book publishers publishing OA which not all can be listed here. Note that University Presses are exploring with Open Access more and more as well. Open access data: there is limited activity but it has started to pick up, especially in data-intensive archaeology. the two sites listed are the most significant.    Other interesting resources for Humanities to know: NINES (www.nines.org) Project Bamboo (http://projectbamboo.org/) AWOL - Ancient World Online (http://ancientworldonline.blogspot.com/ ) Humanities and Social Sciences online-H-net (http://www.h-net.org/)

9 Τι μπορείς να κάνεις για την Ανοικτή Πρόσβαση στη δουλειά σου?
Να καταθέτεις τα άρθρα ή/και τα δεδομένα σου σε ιδρυματικό ή θεματικό αποθετήριο Να διαπραγματεύεσαι το δικαίωμά σου να αρχειοθετείς τη δουλειά σου σε αποθετήριο με τον εκδότη σου Ρώτα τον εκδότη σου για δυνατότητες για Ανοικτή Πρόσβαση Δημοσίευσε σε περιοδικά Ανοικτής Πρόσβασης ή σε εκδότες Ανοικτής Πρόσβασης Συζήτησε τη δυνατότητα για Ανοικτή Πρόσβαση με το επιστημονικό συμβούλιο του περιοδικού σου Δήλωσε συμμετοχή σε επιστημονικό συμβούλιο περιοδικού Ανοικτής Πρόσβασης Ψηφιοποίησε έργα που έχουν εξαντληθεί σε ψηφιακά αντικείμενα και κατάθεσέ τα σε αποθετήριο Δήλωσε συμμετοχή σε έργα και πρωτοβουλίες Ανοικτής Πρόσβασης όταν σε καλεί η βιβλιοθήκη ή/και ο φορέας σου Όσοι έχετε χρηματοδότηση για ερευνητικά έργα: ελέγξατε τους κανονισμούς που θέτει ο χρηματοδότης γα τις δημοσιεύσεις All researchers can (and should when their funders require) take action and participate in the Open Access Movement.

10 Εξασκηθείτε! Μόνο δέκα λεπτάκια χρειάζονται για την αυτοαρχειοθέτηση!
This slide bridges the theoretical part with the practical part. Image from: Palepu –Giustini – BCLA Conference 2008


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