Χρηματοδότηση Το παρόν εκπαιδευτικό υλικό έχει αναπτυχθεί στα πλαίσια του εκπαιδευτικού έργου του διδάσκοντα. Το έργο «Ανοικτά Ακαδημαϊκά Μαθήματα στο Οικονομικό Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών» έχει χρηματοδοτήσει μόνο τη αναδιαμόρφωση του εκπαιδευτικού υλικού. Το έργο υλοποιείται στο πλαίσιο του Επιχειρησιακού Προγράμματος «Εκπαίδευση και Δια Βίου Μάθηση» και συγχρηματοδοτείται από την Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση (Ευρωπαϊκό Κοινωνικό Ταμείο) και από εθνικούς πόρους. 2
Άδειες Χρήσης Το παρόν εκπαιδευτικό υλικό υπόκειται σε άδειες χρήσης Creative Commons. 3
What is a business process ? A business process is a collection of activities that takes one or more kinds of input and creates an output that is of value to the customer [Hammer and Champy, 1993] Processes represent the flow of work and information throughout the business [BusinessObjectsModelSpecialInterestsGroup, 1995] 4
What is a business process ? 5 Business Process is a set of steps and/or activities that are correlated and use people, information, and other resources to create value for an internal or external customer of an organization.
What is a model ? 7 A model is an idealization of an entity or condition, and is asystem of objects, attributes, and relationshipswhich are designed to simulate a given real-world system,under specific situations that are correlated. A model always emphasizes on some systemelements and abrogate or ignore the rest. A modeling tool is more than a drawing tool We use models (modeling tools) to… – Understand a process and – Improve a process
Modeling a business process 9 For modeling a business process we need a widely accepted method of modeling and a comprehensive and simple diagrammatictechnique, capable to represent a business process, eliminating the complexity and clarifying the important architectural features. Business Process Components : Events, Functions/Actions, Employees/Persons, Data, Products & Services Events trigger functions Functions generate events Data is processed in thefunctions Employees are responsible for functions Employees belong to organizational units Functions create and process products &services
Motivation for Modeling 10 Optimizing organizational changes Building up, saving and archiving business knowledge through reference models Using models for – Process documentation (e.g. ISO 9000 Quality Management) – Process reorganization – Process monitoring & controlling Time & Cost Estimation for given business process Continuous improvement Benchmarking : compare with best practices Workflow management Realization of data processing flows for – software selection (e.g. ERP) or/and – workflow systems adoption
Motivation for Modeling 11 An example: The management of Operational Risk – Operational Risk is the risk of (operational) losses resulting from the failure of people, processes, systems and from external factors. For a long time, operational risk was not even recognized. Lack of segregation of duties [SoD] Lack of supervision Poor control of procedures No senior management involvement System failures …. – Operational risk should be examined through the business processes, that is, the flows of business.
Main Benefits of modeling 12 Introduces rigor & method Provides a single, consistent record Integrates process, systems, organization, information & data Allows viewing and analysis of relations Provides multiple viewpoints Aids validation, walk-through & testing Provides an ideal medium for evaluating “what if?” scenarios Provides a platform for rapid process engineering
Modeling Phases 13 Modeling a business process is itself a business process Analyze - describe AS-IS, SHOULD-BE, TO-BE -requirements definition (καθορισμός απαιτήσεων) Plan & Design - identify & model - core business process components -design specifications (προδιαγραφές σχεδιασμού) Implement - Implement TO-BE - Implementation description (περιγραφή υλοποίησης)
Roles during modeling procedure 14 Business Process Owner and/or Manager – understands models – motivates & encourages his/her implementation team System Analyst – analyzes & creates models Field Expert – validates models
ARIS : a Framework & a Platform Tool 15 ARIS : ARchitecture of Integrated Information Systems developed by Professor August-Wilhelm Scheer, ΄90s creation & optimization of integrated Information Systems description of IS-objects & their relationships to fully describe a business process we need (and use) – components/objects : procedures (processes/functions), events, products/services, organizational units, human resources/employees, information technology resources, raw materials – their relationships & interrelationships
A generic overview of ARIS platform architecture 16 ARIS has a flexible architecture that can scale from a single user to hundreds of users geographical dispersed. The Webbased clients based on Java can be launched in the Web browser via a central link.
ARIS methodology: conceptual views 17 Data View: prerequisites and events, information for customers, persons, products and services Organizational View: structures and relationships between organizational units and persons Function View: functions, sub-functions and their (sequential) relationships Control/Process View : relationships between organization units, functions, data and their link with products and services
Key principles for ARIS-modeling 27 28 Key principles for ARIS-modeling Stick to the ARIS method Don’t model the universe Know when you have done enough Keep it simple – clever models often confuse Define standards and stick to them Don’t re-invent the wheel; re-use wherever you can If it looks sensible it probably is sensible – if it looks silly it definitely is silly
Benefits of using ARIS 28 29 benefits of using ARIS Event-driven Process Chain methodology Users’ work allocation Reliable tool High level functionality Customization HTML reports Supports – Hierarchical deconstruction of procedures – Simulation of procedures – Integration of models Provides an easy & descriptive way for Business Process Management